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Full text of "1st to 9th Annual Reports of the State Forester of Massachusetts (1904-1912)"

534. "foe MS 
A 



MASSACHUSETTS; 
STATE FORESTER 



1st - 9th 

ANNUAL 
REPORT 
1904-12 



A 



REPORT OF THE STATE FORESTER. 



To the General Court. 

The first annual report of the State Forester covers a 
period of less than six months. The act which established 
the office did not go into effect until the first of last July. 
At the time of my appointment I was State Forester for 
Connecticut, and I could not get relieved from the duties of 
that position until the 12th of August, when I qualified for 
the position in Massachusetts ; so the report which follows 
covers only the time between the 12th of August and the 
31st of December, 1904. 

Course in Forestry at the Agricultural College. 

The act which establishes this office makes it the duty of 
the State Forester to give such a course of instruction to 
the students of the Massachusetts Agricultural College on the 
art and science of forestry as may be arranged for by the 
trustees of the college and the forester. I have arranged 
with the president of the college. Dr. Henry H. Goodell, 
pending the sanction of the Board of Trustees, for a course 
of twelve lectures and two field exercises. Several of these 
lectures will deal with forestry in general ; the others will 
be devoted to the forest problems of Massachusetts, par- 
ticularly those which arise in connection with farm wood 
lots, these being the most appropriate for the consideration 
of agricultural students. 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



This year ('Xl^OS:) jth^'jadftisej willtlje ^^^i'^^ February 
and March; bilt »fere^fler 41 'will protfafcl}*" be 'given in Jan- 
uary, in order that special slK(fefets taking the short winter 
course at the college may haVe 'an opportunity of getting 
some instruct^/^iTj 115 laE^'^tty* jTr^e^'eplfegfe /i^i^'-.^: small wood 
lot, for which' a* plan. fcfyitafi^^ prepared, with 

the assistance of the stucte'n^,^j • rBjhileJthJs.AyopdJiot is not a 
typical one, still, it presents sc)f)Ao-of the problefns that the 
students are lik-ely. tp. meet with*m»*the management of their 
own properties!* ;' ; *■?;*'.• I'l'^'/* • 

* • *•*•*'*«*• 

Practical Assistance to Owners of WbobLANDs. 
Section 2 of the act provides that the State Forester may, 
upon suitable request, give to any person owning or con- 
trolling forest lands aid or advice in the management thereof, 
the owner being liable to the forester for the necessary ex- 
penses for travelling and subsistence incurred by himself or 
his assistants. Up to the date of this report fourteen ap- 
plications for practical assistance have been received. These 
applications represent an area of approximately two thou- 
sand acres. Five of these tracts have been visited, and 
advice has been g^iven in reoard to their manao^ement. This 
included the marking of trees for removal, in improvement 
thinnings, in order to start the owner on the right track. 
The Avinter closed in before more work along this line could 
be accomplished. 

While the act gives the forester no authority on State 
lands, it does make his services available to the State as 
well as to private owners. Inquiries have been received 
relative to this matter from the commission in charge of the 
Mount Tom Reservation, and I hope that other reservations 
will follow suit ; for practical work of this kind on State 
lands should be the special duty of the State Forester. 

In order to make the offer of the State in this matter 
better known, a circular letter has been printed, setting 
forth the conditions under which the work may be done, 
and it is being distributed among those likely to be inter- 
ested. A copy of this circular is here given. It is hoped 
that in response to this circular the advice of the forester 
will be sought more frequently. 



1905.] 



HOUSE — No. 113. 



3 



In this connection a plan of co-operation between this 
office and the United States Bureau of Forestry has been 
arranged. Applications for practical assistance made to the 
United States Bureau of Forestry by owners of woodlands in 
Massachusetts will be referred to the State Forester, or such 
portions of them as he may be able to take care of. The 
United States Bureau of Forestry will assist him in the 
tabulation of data taken in the course of forest work, and he 
will furnish the Bureau with duplicate copies of such data as 
may be of value to it. This will mean a considerable saving 
to the State in the matter of clerk hire. This plan of co- 
operation was submitted to the Governor by Mr. Gilford 
Pinchot, chief of the United States Bureau of Forestry, and 
it received the hearty approval of His Excellency. This 
plan of co-operation Avill be of great benefit to both the State 
and the United States. 

[Copy of Circular No. 1.] 

Practical Assistance to Owkers of Woodlaj^ds, includ- 
ing Peospective Plantations. 
It is the desire of the State Forester to make the work of his 
office of as much practical value as possible to the owners of 
woodlands within the Commonwealth. To this end, as much 
of his time as other duties will permit is reserved for the owners 
of woodlands. 

Application for practical assistance should be accompanied 
by a short description of the tract, stating its size, kind of 
growth, and the distance from city, town or village. Such 
applications are grouped according to the parts of the Com- 
monwealth from which they come. In this way several wood 
lots may be examined on the same trip, and the travelling and 
subsistence expenses of the forester pro-rated among the several 
owners, making the expenses very light for the individual 
owner. 

As the forester is often in Amherst on official duties, appli- 
cants for advice on the management of lands situated in the 
counties of Berkshire, Franklin, Hampshire and Hampden, are 
charged travelling expenses from Amherst instead of from 
Boston, which arrangement makes the services of the forester 
as available to land owners in the western part of the Common- 
wealth as to those of the eastern. 

In most cases an examination can be quickly made, and 



4 



STATE FOKESTER. 



[Jan. 



advice given verbally; but if upon examination a written 
scheme of management is found to be advisable, the forester 
may, with the consent of the owner, prepare such scheme of 
management or Avorking plan, and he will consult with the 
owner as often as may be found necessary in carrying out the 
plan. The expenses connected with the preparation and carry- 
iag out of such a plan are to be borne by the OAvner, as set 
forth in the agreement between the State Forester and the 
owner, a copy of which will, upon application, be furnished to 
any person OAvning or controlling woodlands in the Common- 
Avealth. 

Unforested lands Avliich the owner desires to plant fall Avithin 
the meaning of the term Avoodlands, as used above. 

A Forest Map. 
The State Bureau of Statistics of Labor has been in con- 
sultation with the forester relative to the collection of forest 
statistics for the census of 1905, and I am assured that this 
census will contain more information about the forests of the 
Commonwealth than an}^ previous census. A map shoAving 
the forest area of the State is to be prepared in this con- 
nection. Those in charge of this Avork have shoAvn a com- 
mendable spirit in regard to the matter, and I look for some, 
tangible results from this disposition on the part of the 
Bureau of Statistics of Labor to help along the work of this 
office. 

The State Forest Nursery. 

It is specified in the act establishing the office that the 
State Forester may establish and maintain a nursery for 
the propagation of forest tree seedlings on such lands as the 
trustees of the Massachusetts Agricultural College may set 
aside for that purpose on the college grounds at Amherst. 
The stock raised in this nursery is to be furnished to the 
State reservations free of charge, and to private OAvners 
upon such terms as the forester may fix, subject to the 
approval of the Governor and Council. I have met a com- 
mittee of the trustees and have talked the matter over with 
them, and this committee has recommended to the trustees 
that a tract of three acres be set aside for the nurserj^ 

My policy in regard to the nursery is to make it a part 
of the course of instruction at college. It would be a mis- 



1905.] 



HOUSE— No. 113. 



5 



take for the State to go into the wholesale raising of seedlings 
for public distribution, if the nurserymen of this State can be 
induced to raise forest tree seedlings and sell them at reason- 
able rates. Heretofore the nurserymen of this State, and in 
fact most of the nurserymen of the entire country, have been 
engaged in raising ornamental and shade trees at prices 
which prohibit their use in forest plantations, and it is likely 
that the nurserymen of this State will not care to take up a 
diiBferent line of work ; in this event, the nursery will be ex- 
panded as circumstances may make it advisable. In regard 
to the collection and distribution of seeds, for which provi- 
sion is also made in the act, it has been decided to pursue 
the same policy as in regard to the nursery. Some seed has 
been collected for use in connection with the nursery, but, 
as said above relative to the nursery, it would be a mistake 
for the State to go into the business of collecting and dis- 
tributing seeds, if reliable men can be induced to undertake 
it and furnish seeds at reasonable lates. 

The State Forest Library. 
A library of 141 books and pamphlets has been collected, 
and they are being arranged and catalogued. Nearly all of 
these are government publications, and have been presented 
to this office, so that their collection represents almost no 
expenditure. It will be my policy to add to this collection 
from time to time, and to make it available not only for 
office use, but to all who may wish to use it. 

Education of the Public in Forestry. 
Section 2 of the act makes it the general duty of the State 
Forester to promote the perpetuation, extension and proper 
management of the forest lands of the Commonwealth, both 
public and private. Under the provisions here implied, 
twenty invitations, exclusive of the course at the Agricul- 
tural College, to talk or lecture on forestry and kindred 
subjects, have been accepted. It has been necessary to 
refuse a great many engagements of this sort, for lack of 
time, although the value of this kind of educational work is 
fully realized. Eight of these engagements have already 
been filled, and the others are for this winter and spring. 



6 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 
The presence in the Commonwealth of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths in laro^e and increasiner numbers is a 
serious forest problem. For this reason I have identified 
myself witli the fight against tliem tliat has been carried on 
in the infested districts this fall. I have spoken before a 
number of public meetings in regard to their suppression ; 
and I am serving the Massachusetts Association for the 
Suppression of the Grypsy and Brown-tail Moths in the 
capacity of secretarj^-treasurer. 

Recommendations . 

According to section 5 of the act, the State Forester 
may include such recommendations in his report as he may 
deem proper. In view of the rapid increase in number and 
the consequent increase in destructiveness of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths, I recommend to the General Court that, 
in the interest of the preservation of our forests, it take 
immediate action towwd the suppression of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths. 

It was my intention to have ready some recommendations - 
in regard to legislation looking toward a better protection 
of our woodlands from fire, and a reasonable relief from 
excessive taxation ; but both these matters need very care- 
ful investigation, in order to get the information necessary 
to frame effective legislation, as the history of legislation in 
other States along similar lines abundantly proves. At 
another time some recommendations along these lines will 
be made. In the mean time, the various phases of the fire 
and tax problems are being investigated. 

Receipts and Expenditures. 
Section 6 of the act appropriates a sum not exceeding 
$5,000, to be expended annually by the State Forester, with 
the approval of the Governor and Council, in carrying out the 
provisions of the act ; and requiring that a statement of the 
receipts and expenditures incident to the administration of 
his office be made in his annual report. Such a statement 
follows. 



1905.] 



HOUSE — No. 113. 



•7 



Receipts (^August to December, 1904). 
Cash to the amount of $8.63 has been returned to this 
oflSce for travelling and subsistence expenses of the forester, 
while engaged in practical work for owners of woodlands ; 
and this amount, together with an itemized statement, has 
been turned over to the Treasurer of the Commonwealth. 

Expenditures. 



Salaries of assistants, ...... $260 11 

Travelling expenses of forester, . . . . 66 43 

Forest nursery, ....... 67 10 

Instruments and drawing material, . . . 88 85 

Stationery and typewriter, . . . . . 151 28 

Postage, 31 50 

Library, . 13 05 

Printing, ........ 7 50 

Miscellaneous, ....... 6 54 



Total, $692 36 



Respectfully submitted, 



ALFRED AKERMAN, 

State Forester. 



STATE HOUSE. POSxnM 

JAN t 1908 



HOUSE m. 350. 



ComnTOtttyeaii!) ci itlasGacljuscttB. 



SBCOilX) A^fSpAL EEPOHT OF THE 
STATE FOKESTER. 



To the General Court. 

This office was established to promote the perpetuation, 
extension and proper management of forest lands within the 
Commonwealth, both public and private. Its activities for 
the year 1905 are briefly reviewed below, and some notes 
are included on work or conditions not directly under its 
supervision, but germane to the general duty of the office. 

Personnel of the State Forest Service. 
There have been two additions to the service during: the 
year. The present organization is as follows : — 

Alfred Akerman, M.F., . . State Forester, 

Ralph C. Hawley, M.F., . . Assistayit State Forester. 

Leverett Bradley, . . . Agent. 

Walter K. Fobes, . . . Clerk. 

Besides those named above who are regularly employed, 
an assistant in the woods, or office, is occasionally employed 
in case of emergency. 

Course in Forestry at the Agricultural College. 
The course of lectures provided for in the act creating the 
office of State Forester was given for the first time in Feb- 
ruary and March, 1905. Twenty-nine men elected the 
course. 



2 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



This course is designed to prepare prospective farmers for 
the management of their wood lots. It is not designed to fit 
men for the practice of the profession, which usually takes 
two or three years of close application after the under- 
graduate courses have been finished. The course at the 
Agricultural College would no more fit a man for the practice 
of the profession of ,fory3fcteiijgineerii^g; than a short course in 
home sanitation woald fit a man to ptactise medicine. At- 
tention is called to this matter at the present time, because 
a good many inquiries have been received as to the purpose 
and scope of the instr jioti^i| ;at the coUe^ 

Public Lectures and Addresses. 

Besides the lectures at the Agricultural College, 32 public 
lectures, talks and addresses on forestry have been given 
during the year, making a total of 43 since the oflSce was 
established. It is believed that these lectures afford an 
excellent means of awakening and sustaining public interest 
in forestry ; therefore, as many invitations as were consist- 
ent with the discharge of other duties have been accepted, 
but it has been impossible to meet all of the demands. At 
times dates have been booked over a year in advance. 

One of the encouraging features of this line of endeavor 
is that interests which are apparently widely divergent can 
find common ground in forestry. This is another illustra- 
tion of the truth expressed by President Roosevelt, that 
forestry "touches the republic on almost every side, — 
political, social, industrial, commercial." Among those 
applying have been granges, farmers' institutes, firemen's 
associations, women's clubs, church clubs, boards of trade, 
town improvement associations, forestry associations and 
manual training associations. 

Publications. 

Two bulletins and three leaflets have been published dur- 
ing the year. The first editions of all these, except one, 
have been exhausted, and they are being revised for second 
editions. The number of pieces published is 9,300. 



1906.] 



HOUSE — No. 350. 



3 



The State Forest Library. 

Numerous additions have been made to the library during 
the year. Nearly all of these have been gifts, and they 
represent very little expense. In selecting those works 
that it has been expedient to purchase, care has been exer- 
cised to avoid unnecessary duplication of books already in 
the State Library, or in the library of the State Board of 
Agriculture. The library has not only been of great value 
to the forest service, but many visitors have made use of it 
during the year. 

It is very pleasant to record in this connection the loan, 
by the Appalachian Mountain Club, of a set of United 
States Geological Reports, many of which deal with for- 
estry. 

The State Forest Nursery. 
By authority given in chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904, a 
forest nursery has been established on the grounds of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst. Through 
an inexplicable delay on the part of the trustees of the col- 
lege to act in the matter, work on the nursery did not begin 
last spring until all the good land available for the nursery 
had been assigned to other purposes. The only ground left 
was the worst for a forest nursery that there is on the 
college grounds. Rather than throw away the seeds that 
had been collected, the nursery was begun. In spite of the 
adverse conditions, the nursery will furnish a few thousand 
seedlings for distribution the coming spring, and some 
25,000 in the spring of 1907. The nursery will be ex- 
panded until an annual output of 125,000 seedlings has 
been reached. 

Practical Assistance to Owners of Woodlands. 
The offer of practical assistance which the Commonwealth 
makes to owners of woodlands has been responded to with 
alacrity. Forty-six applications have been received ; 34 of 
these, representing 6,545 acres, have been examined by the 
forester and his assistants, and advice in regard to their 
proper management has been given. 



4 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



This, as well as the other branches of the work, has been 
hindered considerably by the impossibility of the present 
force to make examination promptly upon application. The 
owner who is about to cut his timber and who Welshes to cut 
in such a way as to insure reproduction, or the owner who 
is about to plant and w^ants advice on the care of seedlings, 
species suited to his soil, and the like, ought not to be re- 
quired to wait until a man becomes available. This and 
other lines of work w^ould become much more effective if 
sufficient appropriations were made to allow an increase in 
the number of men employed. 

Grow^th Studies. 
Investigations into the rate of growth and yield of w^iite 
pine have been begun in collaboration with the United States 
Eorest Service and the Forestry DejDartment of Harvard 
University. Over 400 stem analyses have been taken, and 
the elaboration of this data has been begun. This inves- 
tigation will be of great practical value to this office in the 
construction of working plans ; it w^ill also be of value to 
lumbermen and owners of woodlands. 



Travel. 

During the year a record of travel on duty, such as mak- 
ing w^ood lot examinations, lecturing, investigating problems, 
etc., has been kept; it is quoted as an indication of the ex- 
tent of activity of the service : — 

Miles. 

State Forester, 7,058 

Assistant State Forester, 6,475 

Total 13,533 



A Forest Map. 
As stated in last year's report, the collection of data for a 
forest map has been undertaken in collaboration with the 
Bureau of Statistics of Labor. This work is under way. 
It will not be possible to make a definite report in regard to 
it until next year. 



1906.] 



HOUSE — No. 350. 



5 



Co-operation with the United States Forest Service. 

The plan of co-operation between this office and the United 
States Forest Service, which was outlined in last year's 
report, has continued in force. The plan has proved advan- 
tageous to both parties. 

Office Facilities. 

The drafting room of the service, 247a, has been useless 
since October. The temperature in this room has ranged 
between 50° and 60°, rarely reaching 60°. It is manifestly 
unreasonable to expect men to do physically inactive work 
under such conditions. The consequence is, that plans 
which should have been completed several months ago are 
still unfinished. 

The matter has been brought to the attention of the Ser- 
geant-at-Arms repeatedly, and once to the attention of the 
Council ; but at this writing nothing has been done to heat 
the room. This matter should be investigated at once, and 
if it be impossible to make the room comfortable, sufficient 
appropriation should be made to rent a room outside the 
State House. 

The Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 
The presence in the Commonwealth of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths in large numbers continues to be a menace 
to our forests. During the year the Commonwealth has 
made provision for work against the moths by appropriat- 
ing $330,000, and the appointment of a superintendent to 
administer the fund. Energetic work has been begun ; and, 
although the situation continues to be serious, those inter- 
ested in our forests view it with a decided sense of relief. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
As provided in section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts of 
1904, the State Forester may spend annually in carrying out 
the provisions of the act a sum not exceeding $5,000. The 
expenditures have been as follows : — 



6 STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Salaries of assistants, $1,918 05 

Travelling expenses (not included in co-operative funds), . 398 96 

Instruments, 658 53 

Stationery, oflSce supplies, 669 24 

Printing, 198 31 

Postage, 118 70 

Miscellaneous, 36 74 



P,998 53 

Balance on hand, 1 47 



14,000 00 

In addition to the above, bills to the amount of $388.91 
remain unpaid, as the appropriation for 1905 was only 
$4,000. 

Receipts from the United States for services rendered 
amount to $189.17, which amount has been turned over to 
the Treasurer and Receiver-General. 

As directed in section 5 of the act above cited, a statement 
is also made of the amounts received for travelling and sub- 
sistence expenses of the forester and his assistants, while 
eno^ao'ed in woods work for owners of woodlands, and lectur- 
ing, as follows : — 



Benjamin S. Blake, Auburndale, $0 21 ' 

N. I. Bowditch, Framingham, 3 37 

Overseers of the Poor, Palmer, 5 85 

L. N. Cushman, Hubbardston, 2 30 

F. S. Coolidge, Pittsfield, 6 34 

R. S. Goldsbury, Warwick, 1 00 

Wm. Franklin Hall, Winchendon, 7 01 

J. C. Hammond, Northampton, 2 25 

J. M, T. Legate, Charlemont, 4 20 

City of Marlborough, . 1 27 

Mattapoisett Improvement Association, 3 56 

Pomona Grange, No. 1, 1 25 

Pomona Grange, No. 16, 1 55 

Men's Union, Worcester, 2 10 

North Shore Horticultural Society, Manchester, . . . . 1 39 

Roland C. Nickerson, East Brewster, 23 10 

Frank K. Nash, Williamsburg 15 70 

North Reading Grange, No. 239, 61 

Jas. S. Russell, Milton, 35 

South Dartmouth Improvement Association, . . . . 2 75 

W. J. Stone, Worcester, 5 54 



1906.] HOUSE ^ No. 350. 7 

W. S. Spaiilding, Prides Crossing, $0 98 

Mrs. John Swann, Stockbridge, 44 74 

Turner Hill (estate), Ipswich, 160 

Tyngsborough Grange, No. 222, 2 75 

Vineyard Haven Improvement Association, . . . . 8 35 

Wachusett Mountain Commission, 5 07 

Wheelwright Paper Company, Wheelwright, . . . . 2 11 

Fiske Warren, Harvard, 2 09 

George A. York, New Bedford, 3 05 



Total, $167 34 

On deposit with the State Forester : — 

Francis B. Greene, Dartmouth, . . . . . . $10 00 

Carrie D. Hosmer, Orange, . 3 00 

Hampshire Pomona Grange, No. 8, 2 00 



Total, $16 00 



The Taxation of Woodlands. 
There is a great deal of dissatisfaction Avith the present 
method of assessing taxes on forest lands. This dissatis- 
faction is shown by the laws that the different States are 
enacting along these lines. Pennsylvania has a rebate sys- 
tem ; if a private owner will fulfill certain conditions, he 
receives a portion of his taxes back after they have been 
paid. Connecticut, Massachusetts and other States also 
have special laws in regard to the taxation of certain classes 
of woodlands. For the most part these laws are not oper- 
ative because they were not carefully thought out. They 
serve to show the feeling of discontent with the present sys- 
tem, but they do not furnish a satisfactory solution of the 
problem. 

The system, now generally in vogue, of assessing forest 
lands for the purposes of taxation, provides for the taxation 
not only of the land but of the growing crop as well. A 
farmer's wheat crop is not taxed while it is growing. An 
orchard or a vineyard yields returns in a very few years, 
but the wood lot is oftentimes taxed for years before any 
returns come in. Suppose, for example, a piece of land is 
planted to white pine, which is to be cut fifty years from now. 
As soon as that pine has reached a size at which it adds any 
value to the land, the property is assessed accordingly until 



8 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



it is cut, when it is again put back to the value of the land 
without the crop. In other words, the present system pro- 
vides for the taxation of a raw material not only once, but 
many times. When this raw material is so universally used 
in our manufactures, such heavy taxation is of doubtful ex- 
pediency, granting it to be fair, which it is not. It hinders 
the increase of wealth by taxing it at its source. 

So there is dissatisfaction for two reasons : first, the crop 
as well as the land is taxed, which is not the case with ordi- 
nary agricultural crops ; and, second, the crop is taxed while 
it is not bringing in anything, and therefore the owner is 
not in a condition to pay taxes on it. 

Governor Douglas in his inaugural address recommended 
to the General Court that laws be enacted providing for a 
fairer method of taxation of forest lands ; and a bill was 
also introduced by private parties. As the General Court 
did not feel that it had sufficient time to investigate the ques- 
tiont horoughly at the last session, a resolve was passed call- 
ing for an investigation of the laws of other States and foreign 
countries, and the conditions of this State. Pursuant to this 
resolve a committee was appointed, consisting of the Tax 
Commissioner, the chairman of the Harbor and Land Com- 
mission, the State Forester, three farmers, and a real estate 
expert. This committee has been hard at work during the 
summer and autumn. The laws of foreign countries have 
been collected, translated and carefully examined ; those of 
this State and other States have been gone over thoroughly. 
It is believed that such a thorough investigation of this prob- 
lem has never before been made in this country, and the 
findings of the committee are w^orthy of the most careful 
consideration. 

It is recommended that the General Court amend the pres- 
ent tax laws in such a way as to relieve the growing timber 
crop of the unfair burden under which it now labors. This 
relief must be given, before the average private owner will 
be disposed to allow his timber crop to stand long enough 
to reach its productive maturity. 

The need of reform along this line is emphasized by the 
fact that most of the woodlands of the Commonwealth are in 
the hands of private owners, and the private owner's actions 



1906.] 



HOUSE — No. 350. 



9 



are influenced largely by self-interest. Although the State 
may acquire certain lands for State forests, still, the great 
body of woodlands will always remain in the hands of private 
individuals. Now, it is to the communities' interest that 
private holdings should continue to produce, generation after 
generation, the greatest possible amount of useful material ; 
and the individual owner should be given every reasonable 
chance to harmonize his interests with those of the community. 
A reform in our tax laws as applied to woodlands would be 
a step towards bringing individual and public interest to- 
gether. 

State Forests. 

The Commonwealth ought to extend its policy of park 
reservation to include genuine State forests. The reserva- 
tions that have been made so far are distinctly for park 
purposes ; there are, however, considerable areas in these 
reservations that could be used for timber growing. Por- 
tions of the Middlesex Fells and the Blue Hills reservations 
might be so utilized w^ithout any reduction in their value as 
parks ; on the contrary, their park features would be en- 
hanced. The same might be said of Mount Wachusett, 
Mount Tom and Greylock reservations, the Province Lands 
on the Cape, and the land surrounding the Clinton reser- 
voir. The land about this reservoir is already being planted 
by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board. The for- 
est in the Mount Wachusett Reservation is also being 
improved by the commission which has that reservation in 
charge. It is to be hoped that all of the boards and com- 
missions having State lands under their charge will follow 
these good examples, and make the lands that the State 
owns as productive of forest supplies as is consistent with 
the purpose for which they were acquired. 

But the lands mentioned are small in area, and the State 
might well follow the precedent established by several other 
States, and acquire lands for the purpose of growing timber 
on them. New York has a forest reserve of 1,436,000 
acres, and Pennsylvania has acquired 572,000 acres for for- 
est purposes. -New Jersey, Connecticut and other States 
have also adopted reservation policies. 

Lands for forest reservations can very often be acquired 



10 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 1906. 



at a small cost. A few years ago Connecticut bought 900 
acres at an average cost of only $1.64 per acre; in Massa- 
chusetts they could be had for $5 and under. There are 
large areas of overgrown, stony, abandoned pastures, cut- 
over lands that have been burned repeatedly, scrub oak 
lands and the like, that are in such condition that an indi- 
vidual owner cannot afford to improve them. The State can 
afford to bring these lands into productivity for the common 
w^eal. When once w^ell stocked, the sale of mature timber 
should not only provide for the maintenance of such reser- 
vations, but should return a net revenue into the treasury 
of the State. Some of the European governments obtain as 
much as $4 net per annum from each acre in State forest. 

In addition to their use for timber production, such reser- 
vations furnish recreation grounds for the people. This use 
for recreative purposes under reasonable restrictions is not 
inconsistent with the production of timber. The arguments 
w^hich caused the Commonwealth to appropriate $6,380,000 
for the metropolitan parks and considerable sums for the 
other State park reservations, apply in part to the acquisi- 
tion of State forests. 

The educational effect of well-managed State forests is one 
of their chief advantages. They should, as far as is consist- 
ent with their economical management, be widely distrib- 
uted over the State, in order that they may serve as object 
lessons in practical forestry. 

It is therefore recommended : — 

1. That a fund for the purchase and maintenance of State 
forests be set aside. 

2. That revenues from the State forests be added to the 
fund. 

3. That the State Forester be charged with their pur- 
chase, care and management. 

4. That the State Forester be empowered to accept gifts 
of land and money for State forests, subject to the approval 
of the Governor and Council. 

Respectfully submitted, 

ALFRED AKERMAN, 

State Forester. 



STATE UBU^^rj/ ^/5!5i!CHnSFm 

STATE House. BOSTOM 

JAN t 1908 



HOUSE No. 200. 



(JlotntnoritDcaltlj of illa60ocl)usett0. 




THIKI) A?fNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER. 



PaKT I. COVERIXG THE TiME BETWEEN" JaX. 1 AXD SePT. 

15, 1906. 

To the General Court. 

This office has continued its activities, during the time 

covered by this report, along the lines pursued heretofore. 
The following pages contain a review of the work done, to- 
gether with some notes on forest conditions in this Common- 
wealth and recommendations for their betterment. 

Forestry Lectures at the Agricultural College. 

Fifty-one students attended the course in forestry at the 
Agricultural College this year past. The year before there 
were twenty-nine, making eighty in all who have taken the 
course. The course deals with the subject in its application 
to the farm wood lot. 

Interest in the sttidy of forestry has been stimulated by 
the offer of the J. D. W. French prize by the Bay State 
Agricultural Society, and two prizes for the best essays on 
the farm wood lot by a friend of the college. 

Public Lectures and Addresses. 
In addition to the lectures at the Agricultural College, 
nineteen public lectures on forestry were given during the 



2 STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

year, making a total of sixty-two since the office was estab- 
lished. As in the case of wood lot examinations, the appli- 
cants for lectures pay the actual travelling and subsistence 
expenses of the forester. 

The Inter-state ■Conference at Charlotte^ N. C. 
An inter-state forestry conference was held in Charlotte, 
C, on March 3. The State Forester was invited to at- 
tend and deliver -an, .address on the State forestry work in 
Massachusetts. . The invitation v/as accepted and the address 
delivered. 

The White Mountain and Southern Appalachiaii Reserves. 

In April the State Forester was appointed on a committee 
to urge the passage by Congress of the bill to create the 
White Mountain and Southern Appalachian Forest Reserves. 
An account of the proceedings at Washington is contained in 
the report of the Massachusetts delegation to the Governor, 
which report is here given : — 

His Excellency Curtis Guild^ Jr., Governor of Massachusetts. 

Sir : — We have the honor to report that the seven gentlemen 
commissioned by you to represent the Commonwealth of Massa- 
chusetts at the hearing in Washington, April 25, before the 
committee on agriculture of the House of Representatives, in 
behalf of the bill for the acquisition of lands suited to national 
forest reserve purposes in the Appalachian Mountains, within 
the States of Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee, and the White 
Mountains, in the State of New Hampshire, were all present at 
the place and time appointed for the hearing. These representa- 
tives were Mr. Theophilus Parsons, Mr. Harvey N. Shepard, Mr. 
Alfred Akerman, Mr. D. Blakely Hoar, Prof. J. Rayner Ed- 
mands. Dr. 0. G. Duhamel and Mr. Edwin A. Start. Mr. 
Shepard was also accredited as the representative of the Ap- 
palachian Mountain Culb, Mr. Hoar of textile manufactures 
representing a capital of about one hundred and fifty million 
dollars, and Mr. Start of the Massachusetts Forestry Associa- 
tion. 

The hearing was continued, at the wish of the committee on 
agriculture, on Thursday, the 26, when all of the Massachusetts 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



3 



delegation were present except Mr. Parsons and Dr. Duhamel, 
who were called home by pressing engagements. In addition to 
the personal presence of the delegation and the petition presented 
by Mr. Hoar on behalf of numerous manufacturers, letters pre- 
senting in the strongest manner the sentiment of the Common- 
wealth in favor of this measure were filed with the committee 
on agriculture from yourself, and from Mr. James Eichard 
Carter, Mr. Amory A. Lawrence and Mr. Charles A. Stone, who 
were unable to accept your request to be present in person as 
members of the delegation. 

Other States officially represented, through commissions ap- 
pointed by their governors, were Maine, New Hampshire, Ehode 
Island and Connecticut; North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Tennessee and 
Alabama. 

The American Forestry Association was likewise represented 
by prominent directors from Pennsylvania and the District of 
Columbia. The Governors of New Hampshire and North Caro- 
lina headed the delegation from their States, and Gov. E. B. 
Glenn of North Carolina acted as chairman of the united dele- 
gations, Mr. Start of Massachusetts serving as secretary. 

The speakers on behalf of the measure on Wednesday were 
Gov. John McLane of New Hampshire, Mr. Theophilus Parsons 
of Massachusetts, Maj, Augustine T. Smythe of South Carolina, 
Prof. L. C. Glenn of Vanderbilt University, Tennessee, Dr. E. A. 
Smith, State Geologist of Alabama, and Prof. J. H. Stewart, 
director of the Agricultural Experiment Station of West Vir- 
ginia. At the second session on Thursday the speakers were 
Dr. E. E. Hale, Mr. C. C. Goodrich of Connecticut, Mr. Watson, 
Commissioner of Agriculture of South Carolina, Mr. Shepard 
of Massachusetts, and Governor Glenn of North Carolina, who 
closed the case for the petitioners both north and south. 

The presentation was so arranged as to bring out through 
experts the varied interests involved : the manufacturers, who 
are dependent on the water power conserved by the mountains 
in which the proposed forest reserves lie; the transportation 
interests on the rivers, which are endangered by silting carried 
by the wash from denuded areas; the agricultural interests in 
the measure; its importance for the preservation of the most 
important health and recreation resorts east of the Mississippi; 
and the necessity of perpetuating the lumber supply in a region 
adapted by nature for that and no other production. The argu- 
ment was wholly from the practical and economic standpoint, 
except when Mr. Shepard presented, with a clearness and force 
that brought spontaneous applause, the real significance of the 
argument for health and for recreation, and the true meaning 



4 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



of the argument for sentiment along these lines. Governor 
Glenn^s closing argument was a powerful summing up along all 
the lines presented by the preceding speakers. 

The delegation was received Wednesday afternoon by President 
Eoosevelt, who pronounced himself heartily in favor of the pro- 
posed legislation. After the session on Thursday the delegates 
were pleasantly received by the Speaker of the House of Repre- 
sentatives. 

The general impression among members of Congress and others 
who are in close touch with the situation in Washington is that 
an excellent impression was made upon Congress by the delega- 
tion, and members of the committee have led us to anticipate a 
favorable report of the measure at an early day. The bill is 
already before the Senate, supported by a favorable report from 
the committee on forest reservations, whose chairman, Senator 
Brandegee of Connecticut, has it in charge in that body. We 
are assured that it is likely to pass the Senate without much 
opposition. A continuance of evidence of the urgent desire for 
the passage of the measure by the people of the eastern States 
seems likely to secure its passage. 

Respectfully submitted for the Massachusetts delegation, 

Theophilus Parsons, Chairman. 
Edwin A. Start, Secretary^ 

Publications, 

As rapidly as information about the forest problems of 
the Commonwealth is gotten together, it is published in' 
concise form for the use of woodland owners and such other 
citizens as may take an interest in forestry. 

These publications have not only been in demand in this 
State, but requests for them have come from other States 
and foreign countries. The publications to date are as 
follows : — 



" Forestry in Massachusetts," Bulletin No. 1 

" Forest Thinning," Bulletin No. 2 

" Report of the Committee of 1905 on the Taxation of 

Forest Lands," Bulletin No. 3 

" Practical Suggestions for the Massachusetts Tree 

Planter," . . Bulletin No. 4 

*' Forest Fires," Bulletin No. 5 

" Arbor Day," Leaflet No. 1 

" Shade Trees," Leaflet No. 2 

" Forestry and the Schools," Leaflet No. 3 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. ^ 5 



The number of copies published amounts to 35,000. 

The report on the taxation of forest lands was first printed 
as House Document No. 134. Kequests for copies were so 
numerous that the supply was soon exhausted. Later it was 
published as a bulletin of this office. 

C orrespondence. 
Numerous inquiries about forestal matters have been re- 
ceived through the mails. Every effort has been made to 
answer inquiries in bulletins and leaflets, in order to keep 
the correspondence from absorbing an undue amount of 
time. In spite of this, inquiries had to be answered by letter 
at the rate of 2,500 per annum. 

The State Forest Library. 
Gifts of books and pamphlets continue to come in. Callers 
who desire to consult these works are always welcomed and 
assisted in every way possible. 

Practical Assistance to Owners of Woodlands. 

Fifty-five applications have been received to date. Forty- 
seven of these, representing 9,357.53 acres, have been ex- 
amined, and advice as to treatment and management has 
been given. This advice is embodied in a written report to 
the owner. , In seven cases a forest map has been constructed 
to accompany the report. 

Wood lot examinations are made at the owners' expense, 
as provided for in chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904. This 
line of work is regarded as the most important undertaken, 
and as much time as can be spared from other duties is 
devoted to it. 

The State Forest Nursery. 
The State forest nursery is on the grounds of the Agri- 
cultural College, at Amherst. The site has been changed to 
one more favorably located than the one used last year. 
Seedlings from the nursery are distributed at cost prices to 
owners who are operating under a systematic planting plan. 



6 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The distribution is made in the order of application. This 
spring past the distribution was at the rate of $3 per thou- 
sand seedlings, as follows : — 



Fred. A. Smith, Ipswich, 2,450 chestnut, $7 35 

J. M. Tyler, Amherst, 2,n00 chestnut, 6 00 

George A. York, Marston's Mills, 100 red oak, ... 30 



$13 65 

The stock of seedlings on hand is as follows : — 

White ash, 90,000 

White pine, 1 year, 45,000 

White pine, 2 year, 650 

Red spruce, 15,000 

Beech, 1,200 

Yellow poplar, 130 

Oak, 100 

Hickory, 70 



Total, 152,150 



Volume Tables. 

The collection of data for the construction of volume 
tables for white pine was begun in the fall of 1905. 

Measurements of more than 1,300 white pine trees were 
taken, and these have been elaborated, with the assistance of 
the United States Forest Service. The result is a set of 
volume tables that are the most complete and accurate that 
have l)een prepared in this Commonwealth or in, this imme- 
diate section. 

Mr. Ralph C. Hawley, M.F., assistant in this office, had 
charge of the execution of this piece of work, and credit for 
its success is due to him. 

The purpose of this work is to devise an easy way to ascer- 
tain the quantity of lumber in standing white pine trees. It 
is easy to measure the amount of lumber in a felled tree, but 
to estimate standing timber requires more experience than 
is possessed by the average owner; this is particularly true 
in the case of the small owner. Volume tables, i.e., tables 
giving the contents of different-sized trees, afford a means of 
easily approximating the contents of standing trees and 
wood lots^. 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



7 



It is believed that such tables, applying directly to the 
white pine in Massachusetts, will be of great service to wood 
lot owners; for if the average owner knows the amount of 
wood in his lot, he will be led to take a greater interest in its 
care, and when the time for selling the timber arrives, he will 
be able to secure the real value of his product. At the present 
time the owners are often at a great disadvantage in arrang- 
ing a sale, because they do not know the amount of timber 
standing on their lots. 

In preparing the tables which follow, pains were taken to 
make them as accurate as the nature of tree growth will per- 
mit, and also as general in their application as possible. 
Where it was practicable to do so, the felled trees, after being 
measured, were followed through the mill, and the amount 
of lumber sawed out was ascertained. The data thus ob- 
tained furnished a means of reducing the work to a thor- 
oughly practical basis, and of checking any possible errors 
of calculation. 

The tables give the average volume of individual white 
pine trees of different diameters and heights. As various 
units prevail in different parts of the Commonwealth for 
measuring the contents of logs and trees, it has been neces- 
sary to make a table for each of the principal units employed. 

In Bristol and Plymouth counties, for example, %-inch 
boards are the standard unit among local lumbermen; and 
therefore one of the tables gives the volumes of standing trees 
in %-inch boards. Throughout the northern section of the 
Commonwealth the contents of trees and wood lots are usu- 
ally estimated in cords ; and Table II. is based on this unit. 
The regular board foot, hov/ever, is the unit most widely 
employed, and it was used in constructing Table III. Since 
the measurements of the same trees were used in preparing 
the tables, with uniform height of stump and cutting limit 
in the top, the figures in the different tables can be readily 
compared and the relations of the different units of measure- 
ment established. 

Tables IV. and Y. are of more scientific than practical 
value. They give the volumes, in cubic feet, both outside 
and inside the bark, of the merchantable portion of the trees. 



8 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Table I. — Volume Table, in Board Feet, for White Pine in Massa- 
chusetts. 

Volume in |-inch boards, surface measure, and when cut into logs 50 
inches long. Volume up to 4-inch top. Stumps taken at ^ foot. 



Total Height (Feet). 



HIGH (INCHES). 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 




Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


Bd. Ft. 


5 


10 














6 , . 


15 


20 


30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


30 


35 


50 


65 


80 


- 


- 


8, 


35 


50 


70 


85 


110 


- 


- 


9, 


45 


65 


90 


110 


140 


155 


- 


10, 


- 


85 


110 


140 


170 


195 


- 


11 


- 


105 


135 


170 


205 


240 


276 


12, 


- 


125 


165 


205 


245 


290 


300 


13 


- 


145 


190 


240 


290 


345 


390 


U, 


- 


- 


225 


280 


340 


400 


450 


15 .... . 






260 


320 


385 


460 


515 


16, 






295 


360 


440 


525 


590 


17 








405 


490 


585 


665 


18, 








445 


545 


655 


745 


19 








485 


600 


725 


816 


20 








525 


650 


795 


895 


21 










705 


865 


970 


22 










760 


930 


1,050 


23, 










815 


1,000 


1,130 


24 










870 


1,070 


1,205 


25 










925 


1,145 


1,285 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



9 



Table II. — Volume Table, in Cords, for White Pine in Massachusetts. 
Volume up to 4-inch top. Stumps taken at i foot. Caliper rule. 



Total Height (Feet). 



MlljrH (ir>LUJlioJ. 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


5, 


Cords. 
.03' 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


Cords. 


6, 


.03 


.04 


.05 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7, 


.04 


.05 


.07 


.09 


- 


- 


- 


8, . . . 


.05 


.07 


.09 


.11 


.13 


- 


- 


9 


.07 


.09 


.11 


.13 


.16 


- 


- 


10, 


- 


.11 


.13 


.16 


.19 


.22 


- 


11, 


- 


.13 


.16 


.19 


.23 


.26 


.30 


12 


- 


.15 


.19 


.22 


.27 


.31 


.35 


13. 


- 


.17 


.22 


.26 


.31 


.36 


.40 


w, 


- 


- 


.25 


.30 


.34 


.41 


.45 


15 


- 


- 


.28 


.34 


.40 


.46 


.51 


16 


- 


- 


.32 


.38 


.44 


.52 


.58 


17 


- 


- 


- 


.42 


.49 


.58 


.64 


18, 


- 


- 


- 


.47 


.55 


.64 


.71 


19 








.51 


.60 


.70 


.79 


20 








.55 


.66 


.77 


.87 


21 










.72 


.85 


.95 


22 










.78 


.92 


1.04 


23 










.84 


1.01 


1.13 


24, 










.90 . 


1.08 


1.22 


25 










.97 


1.16 


1.32 


26 














1.42 


27, 














1.51 





10 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Table III — Volume Table, in Board Feet, for White Pi7ie, in Massa- 
chusetts. 

Scaled by rule made from mill tallies. Volume up to 4-ineh top. 
Stumps taken at i foot. 



Total Height (Feet). 



HIGH (INCHES). 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 




Rrl Vt- 

tm. c t. 


x>\X. X L. 


DU. a I. 


r>u. X I. 


a>u. JO I. 


"RH TTf 
J3U. r I. 


"RH "Pf 
x)U. r t. 


5, 


10 














6 


15 


20 


30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


20 


30 


40 


50 


65 


- 


- 


8 


25 


35 


50 


65 


85 


- 


- 


9 


30 


45 


60 


80 


105 


115 


- 


10 


- 


55 


75 


95 


125 


145 


- 


11, 


- 


65 


90 


115 


145 


170 


200 


12 


- 


75 


105 


135 


165 


200 


230 


13 


- 


90 


120 


155 


190 


235 


260 


14 


- 


- 


135 


175 


215 


265 


300 


15 


- 


- 


155 


195 


245 


300 


340 


16, 


- 


- 


175 


215 


270 


335 


380 


17 








240 


300 


370 


420 


18 








260 


325 


405 


465 


19 








280 


355 


445 


510 


20 








305 


385 


485 


555 


21 










420 


525 


605 


22, 










450 


570 


650 


23 










480 


620 


700 


24 










515 


665 


750 


25 










550 


715 


800 


26 














855 


27 














905 



1907.] HOUSE — No. 200. 11 



Table IV. — Volume Table, in Cubic Feet, for While Pine in Massa- 

chusetts. 

Volume outside bark up to 4-inch top. Stumps taken at h foot. 



DIAMETER, BREAST 


Total Height (Feet). 


HIGH (INCHES). 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 - 


80 


90 


5, 


Cu Ft 

i.8' 


Cu Ft 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu Ft 






6, • 


2.6 


3.3 


4.3 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7, . 


3.4 


4.4 


6.1 


7.7 


- 


- 


- 


8, . 


4.5 


6.0 


7.8 


9.8 


12.0 


- 


- 


9 


5.9 


7.7 


10.0 


12.0 


15.0 


- 


- 


10, 


- 


9.6 


12.0 


15.0 


17.9 


20.9 


- 


11 


- 


11.6 


14.6 


17.9 


21.4 


24.9 


28.7 


12, . • . . . 


- 


13.9 


17.6 


21.1 


25.3 


29.8 


33.7 


13, ..... 




16.2 


20.4 


24.8 


29.2 


34.7 


38.7 


14 




- 


23.7 


28.7 


32.5 


39.6 , 


43.6 


15, ..... 






26.8 


32.6 


37.9 


44.5 


49.5 


16 


- 


- 


30.5 


36.5 


42.3 


49.8 


55.9 


17, ..... 


- 


- 


- 


40.3 


47-2 


56.7 


62.* 


18, ..... 








44.6 


52.6 


61.5 


69.1 


19, 








49.0 


.57.9 


67.8 


76.9 


20, 








52.9 


63.2 


74.7 


84.8 


21, 










69.1 


82.0 


92.6 


22, 

23, 










74.9 
81.3 


89.3 
98.1 


101.4 
110.8 


24 

25, 










87.1 
94.0 


104.9 
112.6 


119.0 
128.8 


26 














138.6 


27, 














147.3 





12 STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Table V. — Volume Table, in Cubic Feet, for White Pine in Massa- 
chusetts. 

Volume inside bark up to 4-inch top. Stumps taken at ^ foot. 



DIAMETER BREAST 


Total Height (Feet). 


HIGH (INCHES). 


30 


40 


50 


60 


70 


80 


90 


5, 


Cu. Ft. 
1.5 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


Cu. Ft. 


6, 


2.3 


3.0 


3.7 


- 


- 


- 


- 


7 


3.3 


4.1 


5.2 


6.3 


8.0 


- 


- 


8 


4.2 


5.5 


6.8 


8.5 


10.8 


- 


- 


9, .... . 


5.1 


7.0 


8.7 


10.7 


13.5 


15.0 


- 


10 


- 


8.7 


10.6 


13.4 


16.3 


18.5 


- 


11, 


- 


10.4 


12.9 


16.0 


19.3 


22.5 


25.5 


12, ..... 


- 


12.3 


15.3 


19.0 


22.7 


26.5 


30.0 


13, 




14.0 


18.0 


22.0 


26.5 


31.0 


34.5 





- 




•20.8 


25.5 


30.0 


35.5 


39.5 


15 




- 


24.0 


28.7 


34.0 


40.5 


44.5 


16 






27.3 


32.3 


38.5 


45.5 


50.5 


17, . . . . 








36.0 


43.0 


51.0 


56.5 


18, . . . 










47.5 


56.5 


63.0 


19 








43.2 


52.5 


62.0 


69.5 


20, 








47.0 


57.5 


68.0 


75.5 


21 










62.5 


74.5 


82.5 


22 

23 










67.5 
73.0 


81.0 
^8.0 


90.0 
97.0 


24, 

25, 










78.5 
84.0 


95.0 
102.0 


104.5 
112.0 





Travel. 

In order to keep the office in close touch with the men on 
duty in the woods or in lecture work, a system of card diaries 
has been employed. These show that the State Forester and 
his assistants travelled 10,293 miles on duty during the nine 
and a half months covered by this report. The record of 
travel is referred to as an indication of the activity of the 
service. 

A Forest Map. 
The collection of data for a forest map of the Common- 
wealth has been carried on in collaboration with the Bureau 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



13 



of Statistics of Labor. Skeleton maps of sections of the 
Commonwealth's area were obtained, and the extent of wood- 
lands has been sketched in on these, and at the same time 
notes have been made as to the age and character of the 
growth. When this work is completed the sections will be 
joined, to form a complete forest map of the Commonwealth. 
The work has not progressed far enough to warrant a definite 
report as to results. The indications are, however, that the 
map will furnish more satisfactory information about the 
extent and value of woodlands than we now possess. 

Co-operation with the United States Forest Service. 

The plan of co-operation between this office and the United 
States Forest Service, which was outlined in my first annual 
report, continued in force until September 10, when my re- 
quest for a transfer from the detailed list to the furloughed 
list of the United States Service was granted. The request 
was made because I was about to leave the service of the 
Commonwealth (as noted on page 19). 

It is important that this office should work in close touch 
with the United States Forest Service, for a failure to do so 
might easily lead to a great deal of duplication of work and 
unnecessary expense. I hope that co-operation may be con- 
tinued by my successor. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
As there was a deficiency last year, due to the failure of 
the General Court to appropriate the full amount specified 
in the law creating the office, a statement is given of the ex- 
penditures of 1905, as well as of 1906 ; $4,544.05, including 
the deficiency, was appropriated for 1905, which amount is 
accounted for as follows : — 



Salaries of assistants, $2,269 06 

Travelling expenses (not included in co-operative funds), . 496 23 

Instruments, 674 48 

Stationery and other office supplies, 707 77 

Printing 209 60 

Postage, . 129 30 

Miscellaneous, 56 14 

Balance unexpended, ........ 1 47 



$4,544 05 



14 STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

The appropriation for the eleven months constituting the 
fiscal year of 1906 was $4,583.33, which is accounted for 
as follows : — 

Salaries of assistants, $2,035 20 

Travelling expenses (not included in co-operative funds), . 400 46 

Instruments, 81 50 

Stationery and supplies, 449 42 

Printing, 420 58 

Postage, . . . 109 60 

Miscellaneous, 84 85 

Balance Sept. 15, 1306, 1,001 72 



$4,583 33 

Receipts from the United States for services rendered 
under the co-operative agreement (referred to on page 13) 
amounted to $208.33. Receipts for two farmer's institute 
lectures, under the auspices of the State Board of Agricul- 
ture, amounted to $20. There was realized $13.65 from 
sale of seedlings from the nursery (referred to on page 6). 
This makes a total of $241.98 received during the year, 
which amount has been turned over to the Treasurer and 
Receiver-General. 

Travelling and subsistence expenses incurred in examining 
wood lots (page 5) and in delivering lectures (page 2), which 
were borne by applicants : — 



John A. Baldwin, Marion 12 60 

Franklin B. Dexter, Fairhaven, 5 80 

East Medway Grange, Millis, 1 36 

Executive department, travelling expenses of delegate to 

Washington and return, ....... 37 45 

Fitchburg Woman's Club, Fitchburg, 2 53 

Francis B. Greene, New Bedford, 1 45 

Hampshire County, Pomona Grange, Eastharapton, . . 1 17 

Dwight B. Heard, Cherry Brook, 9 22 

W. R. Hannum, Easthampton, 30 

C. D. Hosmer, Orange, 2 06 

J. H. Ilutchings, Phillipston, 24 21 

C. A. Judd, South Hadley, 12 

State hoard of Agriculture, travelling expenses, lecture at 

Lancaster, 2 40 

Laurence Minot, Wareham, 5 75 

George P. Morse, West Wareham 2 45 

New England Box Company, Greenfield, ... 9 50 



1907.] HOUSE — No. 200. 15 

Old Colony, Pomona Grange, Stoughton, .... ^0 95 

Board of Prison Commissioners, West Rutland, ... 8 96 

F. A, Smith, Ipswich, 1 40 

Lewis A. Wright, Gardner, 3 03 

On deposit with the State Forester : — 

Dwight B. Heard, Cheriy Brook, 15 78 

W. O. Whitcomb, Egremont, 50 00 



The Taxation of Woodlands. 

As stated in last year's report, there is a great deal of 
dissatisfaction with the present method of assessing taxes on 
forest lands. This dissatisfaction is shown by the laws that 
the different States are enacting along these lines. Pennsyl- 
vania has a rebate system; if a private owner will fulfil 
certain conditions, he receives a portion of his taxes back 
after they have been paid. Connecticut, Massachusetts and 
other States also have special laws in regard to the taxation 
of certain classes of woodlands. For the most part these 
laws are not operative because they were not carefully 
thought out. They serve to show the feeling of discontent 
with the present system, but they do not furnish a satisfac- 
tory solution of the problem. 

The system, now generally in vogue, of assessing forest 
lands for the purpose of taxation, provides for the taxation 
not only of the land but of the growing crop as well. A 
farmer's wheat crop is not taxed while it is growing. An 
orchard or a vineyard yields returns in a very few years, 
but the wood lot is oftentimes taxed for years before any 
returns come in. Suppose, for example, a piece of land is 
planted to white pine, which is to be cut fifty years from 
now. As soon as that pine has reached a size at which it 
adds any value to the land, the property is assessed accord- 
ingly until it is cut, when it is again put back to the value of 
the land without the crop. In other words, the present s^^s- 
tem provides for the taxation of raw material, not only once, 
but many times. When this raw material is universally 
used in our manufactures, such heavy taxation is of doubtful 
expediency, granting it to be fair, which it is not. It hinders 
the increase of wealth by taxing it at its source. 

So there is dissatisfaction for two reasons: first, the crop 



16 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



as well as the land is taxed, which is not the case with ordi- 
nary agricnltural crops; and, second, the crop is taxed while 
it is not bringing in anything, and therefore the owner is not 
in a condition to pay taxes on it. 

The committee appointed in 1905 to investigate the taxa- 
tion of woodlands reported to the General Court of 1906. 
The report was printed as House Document, Iso. 134, which 
was referred to the General Court of 1907 for action. A 
further consideration of this report is recommended, as it is 
the result of the most thorough investigation of this question 
ever made in America. 

The need of reform along this line is emphasized by the 
fact that most of the woodlands of the Commonwealth are in 
the hands of private owners, and the private owner's actions 
are influenced largely by self-interest. Although the State 
may acquire certain lands for State forests, still, the great 
body of woodlands will always remain in the hands of indi- 
viduals, ^^ow, it is to the communities' interest that private 
holdings should continue to produce, generation after genera- 
tion, the greatest possible amount of useful material ; and the 
individual owner should be given every reasonable chance to 
harmonize his interests with those of the community. A 
reform in our tax laws as applied to woodlands would be a 
step towards bringing private and public interest together. 

State Forests. 

The Commonwealth ought to extend its policy of park 
reservation to include genuine State forests. The reserva- 
tions that have been made so far are distinctly for park pur- 
poses ; there are, however, considerable areas in these reserva- 
tions that could be used for timber growing. Portions of the 
Middlesex Eells and the Blue Hills reservations might be so 
utilized without any reduction in their value as parks ; on 
the contrary, their park features would be enhanced. The 
same might be said of Mount Wachusett, Mount Tom and 
Grey lock reservations, the Province Lands on the Cape, and 
the land surrounding the Clinton reservoir. The land about 
this reservoir is already being planted by the Metropolitan 
Water and Sewerage Board. The forest in the Mount Wa- 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



17 



chusett reservation is also being improved by the commis- 
sion which has that reservation in charge. It is to be hoped 
that all of the boards and commissions having State lands 
under their charge will follow these good examples, and make 
the lands that the State owns as productive of forest sup- 
plies as is consistent with the purposes for which they were 
acquired. 

But the lands mentioned are small in area, and the State 
might well follow the precedent established by several other 
States, and acquire lands for the purpose of growing timber 
on them. New York has a forest reserve of 1,436,000 acres, 
and Pennsylvania has acquired 572,000 acres for forest pur- 
poses. New Jersey, Connecticut and other States have also 
adopted reservation policies. 

Lands for forest reservations can very often be acquired 
at a small cost. A few years ago Connecticut bought 900 
acres, at an average cost of only $1.64 per acre; in Massachu- 
setts they could be had for $5 and under. There are large 
areas of overgrown, stony, abandoned pastures, cut-over lands 
that have been burned repeatedly, scrub oak lands and the 
like, that are in such conditions that an individual owner 
cannot afford to improve them. The State can afford to 
bring these lands into productivity for the common weal. 
When once well stocked, the sale of mature timber should 
not only provide for the maintenance of such reservations, 
but should return a net revenue into the treasury of the State. 
Some of the European governments obtain as much as $4 
net per annum from each acre in the State forest. 

In addition to their use for timber production, such res- 
ervations furnish recreation grounds for the people. This 
use for recreative purposes under reasonable restrictions is 
not inconsistent with the production of timber. The argu- 
ments which caused the Commonwealth to appropriate 
$6,380,000 for the metropolitan parks and considerable sums 
for the other State park reservations apply in no part to the 
acquisition of State forests. 

The educational effect of well-managed State forests is 
one of their chief advantages. They should, as far as is con- 
sistent with their economical management, be widely dis- 



18 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



tributed over the State, in order that they may serve as 
object lessons in practical forestry. 

Forest Fires. 

Forest fires continue to be a menace to the woodlands of 
the Commonwealth. Investigations into the cause, preva- 
lence, extinguishment and prevention of forest fires were 
begun as soon as this office was established. They were 
temporarily interrupted by the special investigation of taxa- 
tion of forest lands, ordered by the General Court of 1905, 
but they were resumed this year and carried to a conclusion. 
The results of this investigation are embodied in Bulletin 
No. 5 of this office. 

It is recommended that action be taken to improve the 
present forest fire service. 

Appropriations Insufficient. 
In view of the fact that the work has been hampered by 
the lack of funds to carry it on properly, it is recommended 
that section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904, which is, 
A sum not exceeding five thousand dollars may be expended 
annually by the state forester, with the approval of the 
governor and council, in carrying out the provisions of this 
act," be amended to read : " A sum not exceeding six thou- 
sand dollars may be expended annually by the state forester, 
with the approval of the governor and council, in carrying 
out the provisions of this act." 

Summary of Recommendations. 

1. That the laws relative to the assessment of woodlands 
for taxation be amended. 

2. That a fund for the purchase and maintenance of State 
forests be created. 

3. That steps be taken to improve the system of protection 
from forest fires. 

4. That appropriations for the State Forester's office bo 
increased from $5,000 to $6,000. 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



19 



Resignation of the State Forester. 

In April I was elected to the chair of Forest Engineering 
in the University of Georgia, of one branch of which (Frank- 
lin College) I am a graduate. My reasons for accepting the 
professorship were explained in a note to the Governor, as 
follows : I do not leave the service of the Commonwealth 
because of dissatisfaction with my work; on the contrary, I 
have enjoyed my service here as only one can who loves to 
fight for a good cause. Nor does the place in Georgia carry 
a larger salary; but I believe that it offers a better oppor- 
tunity to forward the cause for which we foresters are work- 
ing, and 1 feel it my duty to go." 

My resignation was accepted, to take effect on Sept. 15, 
1906. 

Respectfully submitted. 



ALFRED AKERMAN, 
State Forester, Aug. 12, 1904, to Sept. 15, 1906. 



20 



STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Part IL — Report of the State Forester from Sept. 
15, 1906, TO Dec. 31, 1906. 

To the General Court. 

Having been appointed State Forester, to succeed Mr. 
Alfred Akerman, I assumed supervision on September 15, 
and therefore the following report covers the time from that 
date until the end of the year. 

The policy has been to carry forward the work already in 
hand, and get thoroughly in touch with the purpose of the 
office. 

A letter was addressed and sent out quite generally, in 
ordel" to acquaint the public with the change of administra- 
tion. The letter follows : — 

To All Interested in the Forestry Problems of Massachusetts. 

Having been appointed to the position of State Forester, I 
take this opportunity to say that in assuming my official duties 
I sincerely wish your hearty co-operation in furthering all true 
and worthy interests relative to forestry problems within this 
Commonwealth . 

In accepting the position, I do so with the assurance and 
belief that all organizations and individuals interested in forestry 
will lend an assisting hand to further promote and develop this 
great and much-neglected economic industry. 

It is believed that the forest service work throughout the 
State can be made a great blessing, provided people who own 
lands acquaint themselves with the workings of the offices of the 
State Forester. 

I have been engaged in agricultural economics and education 
in New England for the past eleven years, and forestry instruc- 
tion at the New Hampshire College, together with its practical 
application generally, has received my earnest study and natural 
interest. 

The forest crop needs much skill and science in handling, for 
best results. There are thousands of acres at present practically 
idle through mismanagement, that should and eventually must 
be made a great resource to the Commonwealth. Let us check 
this unnecessary loss, and foster modern methods in rural affairs. 
Education and example are our tools to work with. 

In behalf of the position which I hold as State Forester, I 
therefore extend to you a cordial invitation to consult my office 
at any and all times on forestry matters, and let it be generally 



1907.] 



HOUSE — No. 200. 



21 



known that the office is established by the State to accomplish 
great good for the whole State in general and each individual in 
so far as practicable. 

(Signed) Yours very sincerely, 

F. W. Eane. 

Room 7, State House. 

Mr. Joseph J. Dearborn, a Harvard forestry student, was 
appointed assistant on October 1. 

In accordance with section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts of 
1904, the expenditures from September 15 to December 1 
were as follows : — 



Salaries of assistants, . $503 38 

Travelling expenses, 161 29 

Instruments, 72 20 

Stationery (oflQce supplies), 112 45 

Printing, 106 00 

Postage, 78 60 

Miscellaneous, 54 94 



$1,088 86 

In accordance with section 5 of the above-named act, the 
following receipts for travelling and subsistence were re- 
ceived : — 



Geo. W. Beals, Norfolk, $2 79 

E. A. Bowen, Lakeville, 2 50 

Geo. M. Whipple, Newburyport, 2 02 

W. F. Whitney, South Ashburnham, 5 70 

Dr. H. W. Nelson, Marshfield Hills, 1 85 

Dr. H. W. Nelson, Marshfield Hills, 3 15 

L. E. Ware, Norfolk (paid by owner). 

C. S. Davison, South Williamstown, 8 82 

J. T. Palfrey, Norfolk 96 

W. G. Nickerson (paid by owner). 

R. B. Corey, Scituate, 1 08 

Mrs. E. H. Woods, Acton, 1 00 

Oxford Agricultural Society and Grange, Dudley, ... 4 50 

Farmers' and Mechanics' Club, Holden, 3 25 



Total, $37 62 

On deposit with the State Forester : — 

R. B. Corey, Scituate, $8 92 

Dwight B. Heard, 13 62 



Total $22 54 



22 



STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 1907 



Besides the above, the office has been constantly made use 
of by people on all kinds of forestry problems, and the cor- 
respondence has been fairly large and interesting. 

It is the purpose of the office to make its usefulness felt 
in the most effective v^ay. Conferences have been asked for, 
and in most cases already held, v^ith the leading organiza- 
tions of the State, through v^hich channels immediate results 
can be had. Such organizations are represented by the 
grange. State Board of Agriculture, Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, other colleges, Board of Education, Federation 
of Women's Clubs, press. Board of Trade, normal schools, 
etc. The Massachusetts Forestry Association has co-operated 
in every way possible. 

Since accepting this position the forester has addressed 
the following organizations: the Society for the Promotion 
of Agricultural Science, the State Grange, the Boston Market 
Gardeners' Association, the Massachusetts Forestry Associa- 
tion, and has attended the annual meeting of the Massachu- 
setts State Board of Agriculture and the American Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science. 

Several trips were made during the fall into various sec- 
tions of the State, in order to get better acquainted with 
forestry conditions. 

After studying the forestry problems in so far as time 
would permit since accepting my present position, it would 
appear evident that there are several problems needing more 
careful attention, with a view to enacting some practical laws 
whereby better results can be obtained in systematizing mod- 
ern forestry in the State. Those I would call attention to 
particularly are : — 

1. Better forest fire protection. 

2. Regulation of forest taxation. 

3. A State forest reserve policy. 

4. A more definite general educational system for enlight- 
ening our people and coming generations of the great eco- 
nomic importance of the forest crop. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. WM. RAI^E, 

State Forester. 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER OF MASSACHUSETTS 
FOR THE YEAR 1907 ^ ^ ^ ^ 



FRANK WM. RANE 

STATE FORESTER 




Approved by the State Board of Publication 



BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS 
18 POST Office Square 
1908 



FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER. 



To the General Court. 

It is with a degree of pleasure that I offer this my first annual 
report, although the fourth since the establishment of the office of 
State Forester. 

The efficiency of the office during the past year has been 
greatly increased in every direction. All of the lines of work pre- 
viously begun by my predecessor have been carried forward, and 
many new features added. The work of making examinations 
and giving advice on forestry matters has been constantly grow- 
ing, until at present the head of the department finds it almost 
impossible to meet the demands with his present force of assis- 
tants. The correspondence alone, we are told by the post-office 
authorities, has increased fully two hundred per cent during the 
year. 

The hearty co-operation asked for upon my accepting the posi- 
tion of State Forester has been more than realized in the very 
hearty and cordial assistance rendered on every hand. 

After a careful study of our forestry conditions, and definitely 
deciding upon what legislation was needed most, we were fortu- 
nate in being able to present some bills before the last General 
Court, even after the usual time had expired, due to the recom- 
mendations in Governor Guild's inaugural. These bills met 
with approval and were enacted. 

At the forestry hearing before the committee on agriculture 
practically every organization in the State interested in forestry 



4 



was present. It would be impossible to have had a more repre- 
sentative hearing. 

The following organizations passed definite resolutions favor- 
ing the bills which afterwards were enacted : the Massachusetts 
State Grange, at their annual meeting at Faneuil Hall, in Boston ; 
the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, at their annual 
winter meeting; the Eastern Shook and Wooden Box Manufac- 
turers Association, at their annual meeting at Young's Hotel, 
Boston. The executive committee of the Massachusetts For- 
estry Association assisted in many ways, and to Mr. Henry 
James, Jr., the chairman, I desire to give the credit of shaping 
these bills in their present excellent form. The presidents of the 
railroads traversing our State also gave their personal support 
toward better forest fire regulations and laws. 

FoKEST Laws Publication. 
Upon the passage of the new forest laws the State Forester 
compiled the various enactments of the State forest laws, and 
had the same printed in a small booklet, 10,000 copies of which 
have been distributed quite generally throughout the State. 
This booklet is of convenient size for carrying in one's pocket, 
and also can be sent in an ordinary letter envelope, and hence is 
admirably adapted for dissemination and use. The double in- 
dex system of reference is carried out in the publication, the para- 
graphs being indicated by heavier type side headings. 

Forest Fire Posters. 
Following the instructions in the statutes, the State Forester 
had the abbreviated instruction of the forest fire laws printed on 
a large poster, 18 by 27 inches in size, and distributed generally 
throughout the Commonwealth. Paper posters were printed 
for use indoors, while similar cloth posters were distributed for 
out-of-door use. The main heading, "Forest Fire Laws," was 
printed in large letters of bright red, while the remainder was 
printed in green ink. In compliance with the law, the railroads 
have placed a poster in each of their depots, and similar notices 
are to be found in the various post-oflSces of the State. The 
others have been posted by the town authorities. 




THE STATE NURSERY AT AMHERST. 
White pine seedlings at the end of the first season. 



5 



The Forest Warden Law. 

Beginning with the coming spring elections in the towns, in 
accordance with the legislation of 1907, the new board of select- 
men is empowered to appoint a forest warden, who shall be given 
authority to look after the forest interests of the town. 

The particular channel of usefulness whereby the recent enact- 
ments of the Legislature have made it possible for the State For- 
ester to accomplish results is through this town forest warden 
system. 

The appointment of the town forest warden is subject to the 
approval of the State Forester. His compensation is met by the 
individual towns, and he has the power of appointing his depu- 
ties. 

The forest warden may also be called upon by the State For- 
ester for whatever information is desired from time to time : as 
the correcting of his town forest acreage; amount of reforesta- 
tion done during the year; number and kinds of forest fires; 
depredations from insect and fungous disease outbreaks, etc. 
For this work the warden is compensated by the State Treasurer 
through bills presented to and approved by the State Forester. 
For this work he is paid at the rate of not to exceed 35 cents an 
hour. 

The State Forester has the privilege of calling and making ar- 
rangements for conventions of forest wardens, and paying wholly 
or in part their travelling expenses, the only provision being that 
no money shall be expended in paying the travelling expenses of 
any one warden to or from more than one convention in any one 
year; that the total expense of said convention shall not exceed 
$2,000, and be held within the Commonwealth. This enact- 
ment ought to furnish to a certain extent the brief schooling each 
year in practical forestry to the men who most need it for accom- 
plishing economic results in the State. The law also, it will be 
seen, allows the State Forester the privilege of retaining valuable 
wardens in the various towns when they have proven their 
merit. 

Through this law we now have a thoroughly systematized plan 
of usefulness, a natural channel through which it is believed 
much good to our forest interests must result. When we once 



6 



get a thoroughly organized corps of competent forest wardens, 
one in each of our three hundred and twenty towns, who can in- 
teUigently handle forest fires and other forestry matters of vital 
concern, we shall have made great progress, both from the eco- 
nomic and aesthetic standpoints. The small booklet, "Brief 
Instructions to Massachusetts Forest Wardens," disgusses quite 
fully the duties of the forest warden. This is obtainable at the 
State Forester's office. 

Spark Arresters on Railroad Engines. 
In compliance with the law passed at the last session of the 
Legislature, the Railroad Commission had a conference with the 
various railroads of the State, and after going over the matter of 
establishing what was thought to be an efficient spark arrester 
for every engine on each road operating in the State, the com- 
mission sent out the following orders to the railroad authorities. 
(The following being an example of that sent to one road) : — 

Petition of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad Company, 
Lessee of the Boston & Albany Railroad, for Approval of Installation 
and Maintenance of a Spark Arrester. 
After consideration, it is — 

Ordered, That the approval of the Board, under the provisions of 
chapter 431 of the Acts of 1907, be hereby given to the installation and 
maintenance on engines of the Boston & Albany railroad of spark arres- 
ters of the type submitted with the petition, and shown upon plan filed 
therewith, entitled "New York central lines; smoke box; interior ar- 
rangement; locomotive," and dated Oct. 16, 1906. 

Attest: (Signed) Charles E. Mann, 

Clerk. 

The only thing yet to be established is that some definite 
methods of efficient inspection be arranged, and it is believed 
this is a matter that the railroads will regulate satisfactorily. 

Public Lectures and Addresses. 
The calls for lectures on forestry by the State Forester have 
been many. It has been made a policy to accept invitations to 
address public meetings whenever it can be shown that good 
results are likely to follow. In accepting invitations, the request 
is made that an audience of at least one hundred be guaranteed. 



7 



if possible. This request has invariably resulted in more activity 
on the part of the local organizations in getting out large num- 
bers, and in more efficient and far-reaching service on the part of 
the State Forester. An example of this might be cited. In asking 
for an address on forestry by an organization whose member- 
ship was thirty-six, the acceptance was on the condition that the 
meeting be made public, and under the usual requirements, re- 
sulting in an audience of over five hundred. The number of 
lectures delivered during the year was forty-five. 

Lectures at the Agricultural College. 

In accordance with arrangements made with the authorities 
representing the trustees of the college, a course of instructions 
on forestry, consisting of ten lectures and exercises, was given 
by the State Forester to the students of the college last spring. 
I am frank to say that it would be impossible to work with a more 
satisfactory and intelligent body of students than attended this 
course of lectures. 

A talk on forestry was also given by the State Forester before 
the Conference on Rural Progress, called by President Kenyon 
L. Butterfield in October at the Agricultural College. 

The National Irrigation and. Forestry Congress. 
The State Forester was invited to address the above congress 
at Sacramento, Cal., September 2 to 7, on "State Forestry Devel- 
opment," and present a paper upon " The Use of Artificial Fer- 
tilizers in Forestry." This trip was also made use of in visiting 
some large commercial nurseries in the middle west, as well as 
studying general forestry methods on the Pacific coast. The 
congress proved a great success, and was teeming with enthu- 
siasm and interest, peculiar to western hustle. Similar meetings 
in the east would be productive of great good. Massachusetts 
was the only New England State that was represented by a dele- 
gate, and even New York and Pennsylvania were not repre- 
sented. There are many features about our New England en- 
vironment and conditions that are of great advantage in forestry. 
One thing particularly, — we do not have the dry season to 
overcome; and in reforestation this one thing is greatly in our 
favor, to say nothing about better markets, etc. An easterner 



8 



does well to study the comparative conditions of the east and 
west. If we were to keep much of our capital at home, and 
employ it equally as lavishly toward modern forestry or even 
agriculture, I believe as good or even better results could be 
assured. 

Other Lectures Outside the State. 
The State Forester has been called upon to address various 
other organizations of a national or State nature outside this 
State, and was able to give addresses on forestry before the fol- 
lowing: the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 
held at Lansing, Mich., May 29; the National Horticultural 
Congress, held at Jamestown Exposition, September 23; and 
the New Hampshire State Board of Agriculture's annual winter 
meeting, at Whitfield, December 5. The meeting of the Ameri- 
can Association for the Advancement of Science, which con- 
vened in New York the first of the year, was also attended. 



Publications. 

The publications of the office for the year are as follows : — 





Pages. Copies. 


"The Commonwealth of Massachusetts Forest Laws," . 


50 


10,000 


"Brief Instructions to Massachusetts Forest Wardens," 


12 


5,000 


"How and when to collect White Pine Seed," 


16 


10,000 


" Forestry from the Commercial Standpoint," 


16 


5,000 


"The Commercial Forest Trees in Massachusetts, how you may 


68 


5,000 


know them" (in press). 






"Forestry in the Primary Schools ' (in press). 


50 


5,000 


" Forest Laws concerning Railroads," ..... 


8 


5,000 


Total 


220 


45,000 



The Forest Nursery at Amherst. 
Last spring the nursery work was reorganized and placed in 
the hands of R. S. Langdell of Lowell, a former student of the 
writer, who has greatly improved the nursery, although it has 
been carried on under very limited conditions. Instead of having 
the land allotted by the college in different places, as heretofore, 
it has been concentrated, and therefore more easily handled. A 
small, inexpensive tool and packing shed has been erected, 



THE STATE NURSERY AT AMHERST. 
Beds of white ash, ready for distribution. 



9 



where necessary implements for nursery work are housed and 
seedlings packed for shipment. 

(a) General Forest Seedlings distributed. 
In order to awaken interest and distribute seedlings through- 
out the State, notices were sent to all newspapers of the State, 
asking them to print the following offer from the State Fores- 
ter: — 

Seedling Forest Trees Available. — F. W. Rane, State Forester, State 
House, Boston, gives notice that he can distribute, to a limited number 
of those who apply, 150 white pine and 150 white ash, two-year-old 
trees, suitable for setting out for forest purposes. Send $1 with order. 
Express charges will be advanced. No orders received after April 30. 
One order only per person, as the object is to disseminate them quite 
generally. Should the supply become exhausted, the money will be 
returned. 

Set the plants where they are to grow, 6 by 6 feet apart, as soon as 
they are received. Do not allow the roots to get dry. 

It is hoped that this one-fourth-acre planting will create an interest 
in doing more planting later. It is understood that these seedlings are 
to be planted in Massachusetts. 



In response to this offer, one hundred and twenty and one- 
half orders were sent out, as indicated in the following table : — 



Name. 


Address. 


Name. 


Address. 


Azro A. Coburn, . 


Holyoke. 


Lewis Damon, 


Ashby. 


Arthur M. Robinson, . 


Pittsfield. 


James L. Miller, 


West Lynn. 


W. W. WiUard, . 


Springfield. 


W. L. Harris, . 


Deerfield. 


James H. Newton, 


Holyoke. 


Horace T. Fogg, . 


Norwell. 


Robert M. Woods, 




John W. Waters, 


Fitchburg. 


Mrs. Wm. L. Paddock, 


Dalton. 


Arthur P. Rugg, 


Sterhng. 


J. S. Hubbard, . 


Fiskdale. 


P. W. McCellan,* 


Haverhill. 


W. L. White, 


Phillipston . 


Eben S. Fuller, . 


Clinton. 


Pontoosuc Woolen 


J. W. Van Huyck, 


Lee. 


Manufacturing Com- 




A. J. Wellington, 


A.shburnham. 


pany, 


Pittsfield. 


E. F. Powers, . 


Leominster. 


James Griffin, 


South Hadley. 


Lester R. Maynard, 


South Berlin. 


Charles W. Power, 


Pittsfield. 


L. B. Ramsdell, . 


Gardner. 


Geo. H. Goodbeer, 


Fitchburg. 


W. A. Munson, . 


Huntington. 


Wm. B. Kimball, 


Enfield. 


Claude J. Mathieu, 


West Boylston 


John H. Holder, . 


Hudson. 


Joseph Smith, 


Unionvilie. 


H. G. ZiUiacus, . 


Fitchburg. 


David H. Tillson, 


Amherst. 


R;Oy L. Eaton, . 


Salisbury. 


Edward F. White,* . 


Holyoke. 


Silas W. Hutchinson, . 


Fitchburg. 


Charles L. Johnson, 


Southborough. 


Waldo C. York, . 


Marstons Mills. 


R. L. Bowman, . 


Middleborough . 


Thomas C. Esty, 


Amherst. 


J. M. Perkins, 


Hudson. 


C. H. Wavmouth, 


Fitchburg. 


Henry F. Whitney, 


Lowell. 


Albert F. AVhite, 


East Freetown. 


Myron A. Richardson, 


West Brookfield. 


Miss Helen Holmes, 


Kingston. 


Edwin Warren, . 


Spencer. 


Willis F. Austin, 


Amesbury. 


Thaxter Scott & Son, . 


Hawley. 


W. F. Whitney, . 


South Ashburn- 


Geo. E. Cogswell, 


Cushman. 


ham. 


J. F. Rice, 


Barre. 


Warren F. Bemis, 


Hubbardston. 


Walter F. Partridge, . 


West Upton. 


Priest Bros., 


Littleton. 


J. Henry Gleason, 


Marlborougn . 



* Two orders. 



10 



Name. 



Chas. M. Phelps, 
Marcus M. Multer, 
Thos. H. Sldnner, 
E. H. Alderman, 
Mrs. Adolph Miller, 
Mrs. Mary A. Butterick, 

G. L. Twitchell, . 

C. L. Fairbanks, 

E. W. Howe, 
Chas. F. Allen, . 
Frank Sprague, . 
P. C. Bronson, 

F. H. Holden, . 

D. S. Freeman, . 
John H. Daniels, 
C. H. Ball, . 

R. F. Walsh, 
Wm. Haskett, . 
F. W. Whitney, . 
O. E. Bradway, . 
Julia F. Darling, 
Wm. Hale, 

H. J. Franklin, . 
Henry M. Allen, 

Lot Phillips & Co.,* . 
J. W. Howes, 

E. C. Wright, . 
C. E. Norton, 

J. A. Monahan, . 
C. H. Johnson, . 
Edwin A. Start, 

F. H. Foster, 

H. Gertrude Hale, 



Address. 



Blandford. 
Marlborough. 
Princeton. 
Chester. 

West Springfield. 

Sterling. 

Brookfield. 

Southborough. 

Concord. 

Rowley. 

Still River. 

Ashfield. 

Plainfield. 

MilUngton. 

Fitchburg. 

East Windsor. 

Easthampton. 

South Athol. 

South Athol. 

Monson. 

Milford. 

Newburyport. 

Wareham. 

Chilmark. 

West Hanover. 

South Fall. 

Campello. 

Cambridge. 

Fiskdale. 

Easthampton. 

Billerica. 

Andover. 

Templeton. 



Name. 



Walter White, . 
C. R. Stewart, . 
Wm. B. Hale, . 
Seth P. N. Hall, 
A. B. Terry, 

A. S. Lodge, 

L. E. Parminter, 
L. W. Buffington, 
L. W. Morgan, . 

B. F. Collins, 

L. M. Thomas, . 
Benjamin D. Hyde, 
W. A. Graves, 
R. R. Ranney, . 
W. H. Carter, . 
Miss Sarah Fuller, 

Ella C. Jordan, . 

Geo. B. Haskell, 
Charles A. Stone,* 
Fred A. Hannaford, 
L. Cora Brown, . 
Thomas R. B. Dole, 
A. M. Bridgman, 

Arthur H. Wellman, 
A. P. White, 

C. H. Copeland, . 
Geo. W. Burroughs, 
L. L. Lewis, 

F. W. Peters, 



Address. 



Templeton. 

Tem.pleton. 

Templeton. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Williamsville. 

Templeton. 

North Amherst. 

Greenfield. 

Ashfield. 

Andover. 

Newton Lower 

Falls. 
Newton Lower 

Falls. 
Rochester. 
Plymouth. 
South Lancaster. 
Concord. 
Ayer. 

State House, 

Boston. 
Topsfield. 
Salem. 
Scituate. 
Acton. 
Ashland., 
Bolton. 



* Two orders. 

(6) Distribution of Forest Tree Seeds and Seedlings to Schools, 
Thinking our public schools might be interested in having 
some seeds and seedlings for educational purposes, the following 
letter was addressed to each superintendent in the State : — 

To School Superintendents. 

In connection with the State forest service we have a forest nursery, 
and it has occurred to me that there are schools that would derive a 
great deal of knowledge and economic benefit from having a small col- 
lection of forest tree seedlings growing in the school grounds or in the 
school gardens where they are already estabhshed. 

Forestry is a subject worthy of promotion, and the simple A B C of 
forestry can well be begun with our school children. Trees have much 
of interest in them at any time of the year, and hence can be studied at 
any season. There is wide interest at present in school gardening; if to 
it we add some forest nursery work, making it a year-round affair and a 
perennial rather than for a short season each year, I am sure it will be a 
happy improvement. 

Make it a plan to have the children collect tree seeds when they are 
ripe; then plant and care for the seedlings, ultimately transplanting 
them upon our many thousand acres of waste land in all sections of our 
Commonwealth. Some seeds, like the acorn and chestnut, may be 
planted directly where they are to grow. 



11 



In order to assist any schools in a beginning, I am going to offer to a 
limited extent, in so far as our seedlings hold out, and we can spare the 
time to do the work, — first come, first served, — a collection of .seed- 
lings and seed as follows: — 

12 white pine seedlings, two years old. | ounce of white pine seed (900 seed). 

24 white ash seedlings, two years old. 12 chestnut seed. 

12 red spruce seedlings, two years old. 25 acorn seed. 

5 beech seedlings. 50 white ash seed. 



Bulletin No. 4 of this office, giving instructions for handling and care 
of the nursery, will be sent with each order. 

The only expense to the school requesting this hst will be the esti- 
mated actual expense in digging, packing, etc., $1 for each collection. 
The express charges will be advanced. Only one collection is offered a 
school. The $1 should accompany the order. Should we be unable to 
send the collection, the money will be returned. No orders should^be 
sent in to reach the office later than May 1 . 

It is hoped that in this small beginning we may foster in the young, 
our coming generation, not only a fundamental economic recognition of 
forestry, but return to Massachusetts and New England the natural 
beauty we all so much would love to see. 

Yours very sincerely, F. W. Rane, 

State House, Boston, Mass. 

In response to this offer forty-seven orders were received, and 
sent out as indicated in the following table : — 



Name. 



C. H. Morse, . 
Mary L. Lincoln, 
H. E. Richardson, 
Amelia R. Amos, 

A. L. Hardy, . 
J. W. Waters, . 
Prof. C. M. Weed, . 
John G. Thompson, . 
W. S. Bagg, . 
S. D. Brooks, . 
C. S. Lyman, . 
Monatiquot school, . 
Penniman school, 
Noah Torrey school, 
W. L. Coggins, 
W. E. Gushee,. 
E. F. P. Perrin, 

L. M. Moody, . 

S. W. Ferguson, 
Miss R. O. Kendall, . 
Miss Adah L. Harvey, 



Address. 



Medford. 
Lancaster. 
Greenfield. 
North Attlebor- 

ough. 
Amherst (2 orders). 
Fitchburg. 
Lowell. 
Fitchburg. 
Springfield. 
Brighton. 
Hudson. 
Braintree. 
Braintree. 
South Braintree. 
Rockland(8 orders). 
Ludlow (3 orders). 
Grammar school, 

West Barnstable. 
High school, Hy- 

annis. 
Osterville. 
Pittsfield. 

Northfield grammar 
school. 



Name. 



Frank A. Andrews, . 

Mary L. Potter, 
Florence Marshall, . 
John I. Rackcliffe, . 
Edward Warren, 
Benj. D. May, . 
Jessie P. Leary, 
Jennie C. Foskett, 
Wm. H. Martin, 



Lincoln Owen, 
M. S. Donaldson, 
M. L. Brown, . 



F. A. Morse, 

Helen F. Batchelder, 
E. H. Russell, . 

Nellie L.Bailey, 



Address. 



Greendale school, 

Worcester. 
Lawrence. 
Tolland. 
Campello. 
Spencer. 
Nantucket. 
Salem. 
Charlton. 

Comins school, Rox- 
bury Crossing, 
Boston. 

Rice school, Boston. 

Brockton. 

Rhode Island Nor- 
mal School, Prov- 
idence, R. I. 

R. G. Shaw school, 
Boston. 

Bridgewater. 

State Normal 
School.Worcester. 

School Street 
school, Haverhill. 



Fifteen thousand two-year-old white pine seedlings were pur- 
chased from the New York State Forester and several thousand 



12 



from other sources, which were used in filling the above 
orders. 

Each person for whom a forest working plan or assistance in 
forestry has been given, in so far as there were records in the 
office, was consulted, that he might be assisted in procuring 
seedlings at reasonable rates. The office charged in each in- 
stance simply enough to cover the expense of first cost to the 
State. Where many small lots, as to schools and farmers, were 
sent, the expense of packing for shipment has been proportion- 
ally higher than were we shipping in larger quantities. 

(c) Other Seedlings distributed. 
Besides the above, the following seedlings were also distrib- 
uted from the nursery : — 



C. F. King, Taunton, 5,000 white ash, . . . . $15 00 

Mr. Paine, State House, 250 beech, 500 white ash, . . 2 25 

Mr. Paine, State House, 1 pound white pine seed, . . 4 00 

F. A. Smith, Taunton, 1,000 white ash, . . . . 3 00 

Theodore F. Borst, South Framingham, 6,000 white ash, . 18 00 

W. G. Nickerson, Dedham, 3,000 white ash, . . . 9 00 

Alfred S. Hayes, Ashland, 4,000 white ash, . . . 12 00 

Lyman E. Ware, Norfolk, 1,000 white ash and 50 white pine, 3 25 

Edward Sturgis, Andover, 500 white pine, . . . . 1 50 

C. N. Field, Foxborough, 100 white ash, .... 35 



Total, $68 35 

Nursery Stock on Hand, Fall, 1907. 

White ash transplants, . 40,000 

White pine, one year old, 200,000 

White pine, two years old, ...... 15,000 

Norway spruce, one year old, ...... 25,000 

Norway spruce, two years old, ...... 2,000 

Catalpa, one year old, ....... 3,500 

Chestnut, one year old, ....... 90 

Sycamore, ......... 200 

Maple, red, 2,000 

Maple, rock, ......... 100 

White pine, two years old, purchased from nurserymen, . 250,000 



Total, . ■ 538,790 




PORTION OF THE STATE NURSERY AT AMHERST. 
Showing the screen protection given evergreen seedlings. 



13 



Seed collected, 1907, 



White pine, . 
Chestnut, 
Box elder. 
Locust, 

Horse chestnut, 
Norway spruce, 
Pitch pine, 
Austrian pine, 
TuHp tree. 
Maple, 



65 pounds. 
1 bushel. 
1 bushel, 
small amount. 



Fifty pounds of white pine seed have also been purchased for 
spring distribution. 

The trustees of the Agricultural College have voted additional 
land for next spring's use in enlarging the present area. It is 
believed we can well afford to do even more in growing and dis- 
tributing various tree seedlings at cost. When the time comes 
that commercial growers are prepared to furnish them at lower 
rates, the States' policy will undoubtedly be to do less. 



Forestry Exhibits. 
Two forestry -exhibits have been made by the State Forester 
during the year, one at the Sportsmans' Show, held at the Me- 
chanics building in Boston last spring, and the other at the annual 
winter meeting of the State Board of Agriculture, held at Horti- 
cultural Hall, Boston, December 3, 4 and 5. The exhibit con- 
sisted in showing different kinds of forest seeds and seedlings of 
various ages. The seedlings and transplants were displayed in 
the ordinary seed-bed conditions, and also suspended in glass 
jars, so the whole root system could be shown. Photographs, 
forest maps, wood sections, forest implements, charts, forest fire 
posters and a full set of the publications of the office were also 
shown. A number of names of persons interested were secured, 
and much assistance given by way of explanation of the material 
at hand. After making the last exhibition the material was 
moved into a room adjoining this office in the State House, 
where it is being used for demonstration purposes. 



14 



Co-operation with the United States Forest Service. 

The State Forester wishes here to acknowledge the hearty 
co-operation that Mr. Gifford Pinchot and his able assistants 
have rendered whenever called upon. When requests have gone 
in to the United States Forest Service for assistance on examina- 
tions, lectures, etc., from Massachusetts, they have been referred 
to this office by the Forest Service, and we have gladly co-oper- 
ated in the work. 

• ' Examination of Woodlands and Practical Assistance 

GIVEN Owners. 

This work has been one of the strong features of the office from 
the first, and nothing has been left unturned to make the work 
effective and helpful to as many applicants as we were able to 
assist during the year. 

All the work heretofore done by my predecessor in office was 
carefully gone over, and in as many cases as possible the actual 
field examined. In every case of which there is a record in the 
office, the owner was either seen personally or addressed, in order 
to know just how effective the assistance has been. Not only was 
this system carried out with the examinations and assistance of- 
this office, but the United States Forest Service heartily co-oper- 
ated in sending a c'omplete set of the working plans and names of 
persons from Massachusetts who had been assisted not only 
before this office was established but up to the present. This, 
therefore, gives us the data at hand of practically all of the exami- 
nations and assistance given in the State, 

After completing the above list, each person receiving assist- 
ance was requested to furnish an up-to-date report of just what 
he had actually accomplished. The information thus received 
has been very valuable in guiding the work this year. Unfortu- 
nately, there were many instances where the assistance has re- 
sulted in nothing but an expense to the State, in that there seems 
to be little likelihood of its ever being made use of. This is par- 
ticularly true of some of the most elaborate and expensive work 
this office has done. After trying to renew an interest in carrying 
out the original plan of these earlier applicants, the attention of 
the office was turned to the assistance of new applicants. 

There were found to be 86 citizens on record as having had 



15 



woodland examinations. Of this number, 41 replies were re- 
ceived, 23 of which were carrying out the suggestions offered, 
and 8 wished further assistance. Upon studying the problem, it 
was found that to make the work effective something more than 
just a working plan and the giving of written advice are neces- 
sary to accomplish the success desired. 

Mr. J. J. Dearborn of the Harvard Forestry School, and a 
young man of much practical forestry experience, was put in 
charge of this work. We followed out the policy of first meeting 
the owner upon his property, and of going over the proposed 
woodland proposition and getting as near as possible his needs 
and purposes. We then interested him in so far as practicable to 
determine what should and could be done, provided further 
plans and assistance were given. We have made 37 new exami- 
nations during the past year. Of this number, 33 are following 
out or contemplating the advice given. By contemplating is 
meant that they have already placed orders for seedlings, or 
shown definite indications of doing something either this winter 
or next spring. 

Markings for thinnings have been made over different tracts, 
amounting in area to some 50 to 100 acres. In almost every case 
where a thinning was advised, enough was actually done to con- 
vey, as an example, the right idea to the owner. 

The actual superintendence of the thinning out of one tract 
has been performed by the office, in order to demonstrate its 
practicability and secure definite data which is to be used in illus- 
trating methods and results. 

The largest tract that the office has undertaken is one of 1,600 
acres, in the Berkshires. The field work and data have been 
secured for this tract, but the making of the map and report of 
office work end is still in progress. As a result of our assistance, 
the owner of this tract has employed as a permanent forester a 
graduate of the Harvard Forestry School of last year. The other 
tracts examined have been much smaller in area, although a 
number are of fair proportions, as Massachusetts woodlands 
run. 

We have now several new applications on hand for examina- 
tions, one application for a working plan, and some requests for 
markings for thinnings. 

In order to keep in touch with the cost of operations and 



16 



stumpage values, circular letters and schedules to be filled out 
have been sent to the lumbermen and dealers in different sections 
of the State. 

Technological Work. 

During the past summer measurements were made by this 
office looking towards the construction of a yield table for white 
pine. A yield table is one which shows the amount of wood per 
acre that one can expect to obtain from pure even-aged stands of 
pine at different ages and for different localities. It is especially 
valuable to predict the yield of planted stands, since such stands 
are most likely to fulfill the conditions of the table. To make 
such a table it is necessary to select a large number of sample 
plots, one-quarter or one-eighth acre in size, taking care that the 
plots represent a great variety of ages, and as broad a range of 
locality and growing conditions as one can expect to find in a 
State of the size of Massachusetts. All the trees on the sample 
plots are measured for diameter and height, and the amount of 
lumber in each obtained from volume tables. 

This work was in charge of Mr. H. O. Cook of this office, who 
had the assistance of Messrs. W. G. Howard and R. F. Weston 
of the Harvard Forest School, and Mr. R. C. Hall of the Yale 
Forest School. During two months, July and August, they 
measured one hundred and seventy-eight plots, in fifty-two 
towns. The accompanying map shows the towns and gives a 
clue to the number of plots measured in each. Other towns were 
visited, but as no plots were measured in them, no record of them 
was kept. 

The travelling was largely done on foot; wood-using factories 
were visited, fire wards interviewed, and in various ways a great 
deal of general but valuable information on the forest growth, 
lumber prices, and on other subjects of interest to foresters was 
picked up and made note of. 

The accompanying map is not alone useful in connection with 
the yield table work, but it gives some clue to the pine distribu- 
tion in the State. The sections visited were naturally the leading 
pine-growing regions, and within these regions the amounts in 
the different towns are roughly proportional to the number of 
sample plots measured in those towns. The region of greatest 
production is in the northern part of W^orcester County, together 



17 



with adjoining portions of Franklin and Middlesex counties. 
Petersham, where twenty-three sample plots were measured, is 
the banner town of this region and of the State. 

The growth of individual pine trees, as well as the growth of 
acre stands has been studied by making what are known to for- 
esters as stem analyses on more than two hundred and fifty trees. 
Where cutting is going on, trees are selected and the separate logs 
are measured for length, diameter and the growth for ten-year 
periods, as shown by the annual rings. The growth of the vari- 
ous logs together with the stump and the top when put together 
make up the growth of the entire tree. The individual trees are 
then assigned to certain types of growth, and tables constructed 
which will show the rate of growth of pine under varying condi- 
tions, and its rate of growth at different ages. 

The yield tables, the growth tables and other information con- 
cerning the white pine as it grows in this State will soon be pub- 
lished in bulletin form. 



Yield per Acre from thinning Pure, fully stocked White Pine. 





Trees Five Inches or 
IN Diameter. 


More 


All Trees. 


Age 
(Years). 


Board 
Feet. 


Stump- 
age at $6 
per M. 


Value 
at $16 
per M. 


Cubic 
Feet. 


Cords. 


Value 
at $5 per 
Cord. 


Stump- 
age at $4 
per Cord. 


Cubic 
Feet. 


25, 


1,400 


$8 40 


$22 40 


280 


11.0 


$55 00 


$44 00 


880 


30, 


3,700 


22 20 


59 20 


720 


12.0 


60 00 


48 00 


1,040 


35, 


4,950 


29 70 


79 20 


850 


12.3 


61 50 


49 20 


1,090 


40, 


6,000 


36 00 


96 00 


1,030 


12.8 


64 00 


51 20 


1,150 


45, 


6,800 


40 80 


108 80 


1,140 


13.0 


65 00 


52 00 


1,190 


50 


7,400 


44 40 


118 40 


1,240 


13.4 


67 00 


53 60 


1,240 


55 


7,900 


49 40 


126 40 


1,310 


14.0 


70 00 


56 00 


1,310 





The above table shows the yield to be obtained by thinning 
white pine stands of different ages in cases where the stand is 
pure, containing no other trees but white pine, and fully stocked, 
— that is, without pronounced holes or blanks. 

The table is divided into two parts, one for trees five inches or 
more in breast-high diameter, the volumes of which are indicated 
in broad measure. The corresponding money values are given, — • 
in the second column the stumpage value at $6 per thousand, and 



18 



in the third column the value of the lumber at $16 per thousand. 
The stumpage value is purposely put low, because in general the 
material taken out in thinnings is not of the highest quality, and 
is more expensive to get out than if the stand is cut clean. 

In the second part trees of all sizes are included, and their 
volume is given in cords. Stumpage is reckoned at the rate of 
$4 a cord. The value ($5) used in the second column is the price 
usually obtained by owners who cut and haul their own wood to 
the mill in small lots. If $1 is allowed for the labor of chopping 
and $1 for the hauling, it will be seen that by this method the 
farmer gets a stumpage rate of only $3, which is less than the 
common rate. This method of operating, however, has certain 
advantages in making thinnings: first, because any quantity of 
material, no matter how small, can be cut and sold; second, the 
cutting, when done by the owner, is sure to be done carefully, 
and this is important in making thinnings; third, if the work is 
done during the winter, when the farmer and his team have little 
to do, the entire $5 can be regarded as clear profit. 

Forest Map. 

Two years ago the State Forester started the construction of a 
forest map of the State, through the agency of the census depart- 
ment. Agents of this department were provided with maps of all 
the towns in the State, visited the assessors of each town, and 
from their collective knowledge had them sketch on the maps the 
forest area, with notes on the kind of growth thereon. This 
method is at best rather a crude form of map making, and the 
data inaccurate, even though many of the maps have been cor- 
rected by members of this office. Until a more costly and better 
map can be made, however, it provides our best means for getting 
at the forest growth of the State and its area. The forest area so 
taken has been measured by this office, and the results of these 
measurements are given in the adjoined list. 

The growth is divided into three main types : the pine type, — 
woodland containing over seventy-five per cent white pine; wood- 
land consisting wholly of hard woods; and a mixed type of hard 
woods, in which are scattering pines and perhaps other conifers, 
as spruce and hemlock. In the last column are placed some 



19 



miscellaneous growths, not of great importance in the aggregate, 
but prominent in the towns in which they are situated. 

Scrub means land covered with acorn brush, or a land cov- 
ered with young growth of no commercial value. 

Pitch pine, in Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket counties, is 
put in the pine type. 

The cedar referred to is the white cedar {Chamoecyparis 
thyoides) of the swamps, and not the red cedar. 

In drawing conclusions from these figures, it is to be noted that 
the larger the area used the more accurate will the results be; 
that is, the figures for a county are more accurate than those for a 
town, and those for the State more accurate than the figures for 
any county. The columns of per cent, which give the amount of 
forest land relative to the total area, or the amount of land in 
each type relative to the total forest area, offer a better means of 
comparing different towns or counties than the figures of acre- 
age. 

Thirty-seven per cent, of the acreage of the State is in forest 
land; but if Suffolk and Nantucket counties are omitted, the per- 
centage is raised to forty. We add to this an amount sufficient to 
make up for waste land that should be in forest, and we have 
about fifty per cent, of the total area of the State available for 
forest purposes. 



20 



Per 
Cent. 


29.0 
18.0 

8.0 
35 . 

5.0 
50.0 
10.0 

97.0 
36.0 
15.0 


18.0 


Miscella- 
neous Types. 


CO(N 1 lOOOOOOiO 1 1 1 1 00(N 

COOS COCOIMCDO 

I> CO "-I CO_^iO CO_00 (NO "5 

TjTco (N o »o 


29,113 


Per 
Cent. 


OOO O OOOOOOOOO 

i-i(NO >0 O lO O CO (N •> to IN lO 
t~-00O CO lOCDt^iCOsOl i-irti 


68.0 


Mixed 
Types. 


■*000>00 1 ooo-^cooooo 

■*O00'-i<N t^(MC^C005OC0(NQ0 
I>-^tJ<COt-h O5_i-hX_G0 00-*'-iCO(N 


95,207 


Per 
Cent. 


oooo 
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • ■ • • 1 1 1 

OCOOOCO 

i-H CO 


CO 


Hard-wood 
Types. 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 lOCOrfiO 1 1 1 
t^OiCOlO 


6,382 


Per 
Cent. 


- 

95.0 

25.0 
20.0 
9.0 

52.0 
40.0 


a> 


Pine 
Types. 


1 1 1 O 1 OiCOO 1 1 1 l^O 
(N (Nci tHCo' 


13,270 


Per 
Cent. 


ooooooooooooooo 

r-lt^COl^COOiOOT-tOt^t^t^OOOrH 

lOCOlO'-ITtH(NI>COX--l.-HO-*TtHlO 


53.0 


Forest 
Area 
(Acres). 


l><NOTl<c000'*Ot^l>OOOOO 

TfOSOOlOOSOO-^OrHrH^OlOCOCOO 

rfi Tt<_CO_C0_0q_Cq_iO_O5 00 M 00_^CO^ 
O t>-'Q0''-i CD"(N'.-h OO'co"'^' 00"»o'(N*O> 
(N,-l (N .-1 


140,135 


Area 
(Acres). 


I>Tt<COlNcCr-lOOl^'-lOCOiOCOOO 

COXOTt^rHTtHCO^^ttrHOOOCOININCO 

CO »0 i-H Tf< O CO IN to CD O CD O 00 MCO 

o co"co o'Tt^oJos TjJ'co'os u^oo'co'co'co 

(N 1-H >-i 1-H (NF-HtH (N'-l'-HrH 


263,273 


City or Town. 


Barnstable, 
Bourne, :,■«. 
Brewster, 
Chatham, 

Dennis 

Eastham, J 

Falmouth, . . ' . 
Harwich,. 

Mashpee, .... 
Orleans, .... 
Provincetown, . 
Sandwich, 

Truro, .... 

Wellfleet, 

Yarmouth, 

Totals, 



oo I I oo I OOO I o 

TfCO COOO ^Tt<-* M 













OOlO 


OOO 








CO C^lfH 




t^co 


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IN 






co" 





OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



OOC0t^0S05CDc0i-0iN00O(N00 
COTjHOOOOiOTtfi-OCOOOOCOCOt- 
05COkO(N05l>(N>-HCO<-< CD_^'0 O 

o'lOi-Too" l>(N"»-H"Tt''!NO0'"(N 



OOOOO 



qooo OOO 

(NCO^IN rjJ(N,^ 



OiNCO->#C<J I OOOOO-* I ^.-ICO 

0>l>i-HCOt^ I>.t^rt<t^ COiOCO 

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INCicO^f co" '-TTtT rJ^F-Trir 



(N'J<OlN 
COt^-'J'CO 
!N COOO 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



CD00'-l05'-HO5C005l>CDOiO<NO 
COOt^rHCOTt^OOOI^OcDOCOO 
°0 t> CO_^ C0__ C0_^ r-*, !N X_ OS 
00 of Os" O CO OO' O' -"S*" »o' oo" Os" 05 



OTt<CO'>*CO'*Tj<OOOOOCOCDCOO 
t^OOSOCOINiNOCDC^OSi-HiOCO 
OS.-H00C0OS00(N«'-H.-iCO00(NC0 




21 



oooo o I o I ooo I o I oo 

lO IM "-I "-tCO 



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oooooooooo ooooo 



(NCOCOCDOOJOSfCQOOO 
r-i kO 00 (35 M^--^ 0O_CO_ 



O5 5O00 00CO 
1^10 05 05 10 



OO ooooooo , ooooooo 



O CO 00 lO (N 05 
Tf< M CO 05 IM lO 

O^^r-^cO^-^iq^iO^O 

t>rT)rco'"^'"-<f t>.'io" 



oq o 

rJHCO CO 



o oooooooo oo 

05 IM CO rH r-l 05 CO lO (N rH (N 



CO<N I O 
0510 o 
cow 00 



00 CO <N CO O 00 CO IN 
(M CO 05 05 (N 00 Tt< 00 

Olt^rH rH(MCO<M 



OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 



CaC^KNOrHiOOr^fNTjHiO-^iMCOTtHCOI^OO 
r^CO(M050iOOOOOCOOOt^THiOCOCOiOI>rH 

CO rH 00 CO q-^^^os^^oo O5_^oo 00 ^^t^'-i.'* o 
05 CO CO CO co" (m' oo' t~-' lo' CO im" >o" oo" lo" 00 05" 



OOOOCOO(NTt<Tj<cDTf<cqoO-<*000000 rj< 
■*OC^5t^C005'*TtHr>OOiO-*-*OOOTt<COTt< o 

O CO 0> rH rH CO 05 t> 05 rH Tt^ rH 00 C^^ CO CO T)< 05 



3 

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T3 ' 



OX! o3 



M 



?S5 

I 

o 










qqoq q 


CO 
CO 




06 
(N 


codrJoo d 

COi-HCOlN rH 


CO 


1 


(M 
00 

eo" 


(NCOOCOtNCO 
05C0tJ<10C0C0 
t>._CO Tj<_CO 
rH rH 



00000000000000 



•<!}<O0000rHC0C0c0O5C0OTt<C005 
OOQ0005COC005iOC<J05000500 
rH(N-<**00»0 O-^XOOt-OirH 



o . ooooo 



I 00 I OOfNOC^-* 
(N iOO5Tt<iO00 

rH Tf rH 05 



-*ooo 

0(N CO 
t^OJt^ 



ooooo . oooooooo 



OOCOOOfMOSOSOcCCOMiMCO-* 
O5O5'*-*COCOCOC<>a500O5O5O5»O 
CO coco (MCOCO ^'-t rH 



00000000000000 



00'#00C0iCTt<t^(MrHOC<IC0C^05 
t^OTtiO>O05rHi005OC0'Oi0C0 

t>. 00_^t^ CO (M rH 10 rH l> O Tfl O 00 
(N CsT rH O' rH Ci rH IQ CO" OO' C^' l> I> 



rHTfCOOOCOlOTt^lMCOMOSIMt^CO 
Tt^t^OSt^O-^COt^t^rHCOlOrHCO 

Ot>-*iOC0 00 05C0rHOC0Tf<00iM 



<tj pQ Q p H fa iz; 5?; Ph 



22 



Per 
Cent. 




O 




ooo 1 o 1 o 


q 


00 <oio 


CO 




»/5(NiO d O 




Miscella- 
neous Types. 


1 o 1 1 00 c<i 

OS (Mr-I 


14,300 




- ^ 

O lO O 1 O 1 
OOtJ^OS CO CO 
OSCO tH i> 


3,310 


Per 
Cent. 


1 oo 1 oo 


o 




OO qoqq 


q 


(N(N l>CO 
OSOS t^CO 






wjod dddi^ 

t>. rjt t> OS 00 




03 
<V 0) 


225 
709 
640 

,008 
,304 


CO 
00 
lO 




ICO 1 O 00 o ^ 
OSI> CDOOC^ 
OS^^i-H OS TlH_0 00__ 


00 
lO 
CO 


X a 




<n' 




(N*eo .-Too'i-H 


oo" 


Per 
Cent. 


OO ooo 


o 




qqq o 


q 


doo dco-^ 

CO Oi-HfH 


d 

(N 




dio-^ d 

COt-C^I CO 




Hard-wood 
Types. 


2,250 
147 

1,011 
2,349 
1,325 


24,024 




1 t-OO 1 O 1 

OOSC^ 00 

•<*c^co 


4,297 


Per 
Cent. 


12.0 

1.0 
5.0 


o 


County. 


o o 

III -11 • 

OS CO 














Pine 
Types. 


o 1 1 1 oc^ 

Tj< CO>-l 
CO r-llO 


6,149 


Dukes 


' ' ' M ' ' S 


CO 
CO 
CO 


Per 
Cent. 


OOOOOO 


o 




ooooooo 


q 


C0COC0l>iOt> 
(Ni-lrH 


CO 




00 OS l> CO rj^ 
(NCO i-iC0-*Tt< 


CO 
CO 


Forest 
Area 
(Acres). 


I^COOi-HiOCO 

.-H lO CO t-H Tf< r-l 

.-H0qt>O-* CO 


CO 
OS 




lOOOOOOOOiO 
C<1 1> 1-H CD 00 »0 
0S05C0'*_^iCO'*_^ 


CO 

00 

t-. 




l> 




co"cd i-TrHCvft^-'" 


co" 

CO 


(D aj 


(Nt^cor^osos 

l> iC rt< 00 OS Tt< 
COOSiqiOO^CO 


CO 




i-H X C<l CO lO CO 

00 r-l CO 00 Tt< CO 

i-Ht-_qcsi^co_^oo_^o_^ 


CO 
00 

l> 


fcj 

^< 


COl-l rHCOCO 


367, 




^ 00 -^oo'-*"-^ 


?— 1 


Town. 












City or 


Rehoboth, 

Seekonk, 

Somerset, 

Swansea, 

Taunton, . 

Westport. 


Totals, 




Chilmark, 
Edgartown, 
Gay Head, 
Gosnold, . 
Oak Bluffs, 
Tisbury. . 
West Tisbury, 


Totals, 



OOOOOO 



OS T}< t-. CO CO 

(N OS l^rH C^ 1-t 
l-I'co'cO.-HCO'rH 



oo I OO o 

COOO CO 



>5 

I 

6q 



It^ I COOO I 1-1 
ICO ICOO Tj< 
ICO OCO CO 



ooooo 



05t)<000.-i 

t-iiococoeo 

»OOSC0 00i-t 



ooooooo 



1 i-H lO Tj* 00 rj< 

I CO CO CD CO CO 

I os_ioco_^cD_cqco__co_ 

i-rco"co"os''.-rco''-* 



,_(,_( ,H i-H T-l CO 
l> 00 1-< lO O OS 

oo''o''i>»coo'"osoo 



C C OJ O eS tc <B 



23 



ooooooooooooo 



(N00 00 «5O'-i00iCi.-lO5OO5t^ 
C0-<*l00O5<MI>O5lMO5CO(NCOt^ 

t^GqTj<cqiN 05^t^(M 1-H CO o 



oooooooo 



lO (N O 00 ^ CC 
OS CO 00 CO »0 00 --H (M 



oooooo . o 



Tt< .-H CO lO 00 rH I 0> 
iOCO»OC0<N^ 00 
.-I (M 05 (M O lO 



ooo oooooo , oo o , o 



WiO(N I 00>05>CI^CO I CD-* I rH 

•*OCO ^(MCOCOCOO 05^ o 

TtHCOiq^ (NTt^OCO^ rH lO CO 

C<fr)<' (m" CD Tin" r-T 



oooo 

.-H t^>-l 00 



ooo . ooooo 



oo 

COCO 



t^CO<N«0 I lO 

i>iocor- th 

(N lO- i-l 



I OOCOOi I (MCDOlMOO 
COlOCOiCO 
CO CO <Ni-lCO 



ooooooooooooo ooooooooooooo 



C0l0C0t^00Q000-*rH05COO00 
COCDt^OTt<0505'-H05CD^t^CO 

iOcococo">o"'--rc<rco'cf i-TiOCO" 



ooict^t^o»or^cO(M'*or-<(M 

CO00r^'-H^r-lt^Tt<rHCOlOTf<CO 

cocO(Mr-0'*o-*'-Hc» co^c<j_o 



OS-*Tt<OOOeOt^COO'-HOO(MCOOt^CD000050COiO(M'-iOO(N.-l 
^MO>a>'-^Tf^C0I>r-^Tt^C0t^lOlO00t-CTl'-^lC^^100CO(^^.-^00<^^lO00 
05 05 »O_00_^CO_^CO '-*_1> C5 00 t~- (NcOvOCDOOt^iOi-KMCO-* Oi <N IM CO 

lo" io'r-*o'"^''Mio'o"t^'' r-T 00* lo'oi 



.11 



liiii falilliliiilllllirill 




I 



OS IM 00 (M (M Tj< 

ooeooioort^ 

05 00_0S^O_TtH_C0_ 

«o'-<*'>o"oo'crio" 



5' ' '22 



oooooo 



too (M CO 00 
JOiOCOO 
C0__00__O5^O_00_l> 

O5'*'"io'oo"»o'o' 



00Tt<-*CDO00 
O-^fDOSOOfN 
r-l 00 00 <-! 



00 4) 3^ o O 

<i1pQfqooo 



24 



Per 
Cent. 


o o 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 ■ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 


o 






cella- 
Types. 


1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 O 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 

O 00 


2,787 


H 














ooooooooooooooooooo 


o 




iOOt^-*i-lC00500fOCO»Ct^COCO-*iOO>00?0 

ost^r-iooosoooooior-Tj^io-^osoiososoTt* 




73 CO 
Qj a; 


00 (M CO CD CO 05 (M <M CO CO OS 00 CO >0 Tf< CO 00 1 
00lO>Ot^i-H00lOiO'-li-O'-HCD(M(MCOe0-<*lOO5 


iC 

00 
CO 


X a 


dioi C^"oo"'*io'(NC^'co'T^Co'^'co'co"oo'rH tC(N 


128, 


Per 
Cent. 


ooooooooooooo o ooo 


o 


00-*COOSI>t^<M'*Tt<05050-<*< '^lOO 
(MlOrH rH CO (M CO Tj< O 


a> 

CO 


ard-wood 
Types. 


1 TfOOOOOOOOTt^COTt^COOSCOQO 1 05 1 lOIMCO 
Tt< CO CO Tt< O I> 00 r-i 05 <35 00 (M COO5O0 
000-<*^t»05'*(N'-H 1-H 00 lO O (N T}H lO^cq 


34,085 


W 






Per 
Cent. 


5.0 
2.0 
29.0 

4.0 

38.0 
4.0 
17.0 

6.0 
1.0 
1.0 
18.0 
9.0 


o 




COt^O 1 CO 1 1 1 O500CO 1 Tt^lOOOTt*-* 1 
(Nl^OO 000000 00^<M(Nt^ 

Tt< (M •^..<^9. CO i-H rH 00_^->iH 


CO 
CM 


.S a 


Co" rH r-T 


o* 


Per 
Cent. 


OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO© 

CN(MI>i-lI>»OiO(N(>5Tt<c005CO-*-*iOt^<Nr^^ 
Tt<'5t<i-lC^rJ<CO-^(MCO(M-<*<(M-*Tt<rt<iO'HTtH(Mr-i 


50.0 


Forest 
Area 
(Acres). 


r-(COCOT)<Tt<05CDCD1^^00000C0005(MO?Tt(co 

,_its.,_i(MoOT)<io»ooi'*rHioO'-i(Mr^t:^,-icooo 

lO 00 CO^ CO_^ 1-H U5 fO_ 05 C0_^ 00_^ O^ CO 00_^ t>._^ rJH^ --H CD_ CO_^ 


<ji 

00 


oTco rH (NoT lo'co co'tj^'t^Tos'o o'co'co'cT r-To'io r-T 


Tt^" 

CM 
CM 




00CDTt<O(MO^5O-rt<CDTt<Tt<Tt<Tt<T(<Tj<OC0(MO 
(NrH-^OrHOCOTfOiCCOOOOOC^lOfMCDCOt^CO 
lOMCOOOOOtMOIrH^C^I^COTjHi-H 0_05 C5 CO i-H 






(m' o> 05 cm" oi" co" Tfi" oo" t-' Ci o>" cm" co" lo" lo" r-" oo' co" o" cm 


441, 


Town. 






ao 






City 


Deerfield, 
Erving, . 
Gill, 

Greenfield, 
Hawley, . 
Heath, . 
Leverett, . 
Leyden, . 
Monroe, . 
Montague, 
New Salem, 
Northfield, 
Orange, . 
Rowe, 
Shelburne, 
Shutesbury, 
Sunderland, 
Warwick, 
Wendell, 
Whately, . 


Totals, 



i 



-0000 ooo 



OOXCM I --^COO 
OOlOCMt^ C0»0'# 
CMOOCOCO rHCMOO 



OOOOOOOO 



rH CO CM O CO 
COt^COf'lrHlOCDt^ 
CO C<1 lO rH rH lO rj< 
rHt>."c0"l>CM" 



ooo I oooo 

rHTjHCO TfOlrH,-! 



CMOS'* I Tt<COOC<I 
ICCMCM Xt^CO»0 

CO CI CM rH 



OOOOOOOO 



C^COOOCMCl Ort< 



OOOOOOOCDCMO 
OCMCMTt<TfI>05C0 
O 05 lO O Tt< iC 05 rH 



s 

^.5 ai.s M c3 5 



25 



oooooo oooooooo 



lO CO GO T)H (M 
<© OS OS (M Tj< CO 

COt^ OSrHO 



CO OS 00 th « o 

O O^W QO_(M 0_t> 



o . ooo . ooo . ooooo 



00 CD OS 



Tt<T}<(M00t^ 

(MTt<OSC^(N 



lO I (MOS»-l I 00 
CO 00 CO Tj< (M 
rH C<l,-( r-l 



ooooooooooooooo 



COtJ<OiOO(MCOCO(MCOOO(MCO(M--I 
fOOST-HCOOOCOOSCOiOOOSfOO'-HOS 
t>^t> CO OS I> O 0^04 lO TjH CO OS 00_^ 

coci rH osodo"o"cocoos(N CI c<r(>r 



O(N«00(MOOOTtH00<MTj<(NOO 
rt<iOCOTt<OSOOCOOOO:OC-1rHTH(M 

COt^r-HOlOCOOOrHt^COOCOt^OO 



005^0 O"^ 



•I in — ^ — < to 



<ur: 



I I I I I I 



0000000000000 . 0000 



OOSCOOCO'^OOO-^OSOC^C^ I (NI>t^O 
OS <M CO 00 t:- CO Tj^ 00 10 rH (MOSOIM 
OOOCO-^OSrHOiOOSCOiOOOrH 00O5»OI> 



OCOOiMlMCO' 



(CO-<l<CO COiOCOlM 



OOOOO 



000 I I OOOOO ^ 

COiMCO t-COeOOOO iN00d(NrH 
lO(NlN iOrHCOlMr-H CO CO O rH 



lOrHOOl |rHOSr^Tj<(N 

OOiMOO COOOIMOO 
■*O00 WiOt^t>C0 



OOOt^(NCO 

000 CO OS 

CSICO(M00 



OOlO 
IN CD 
(NCO 



000000000000000000 



CO»C'*COCOiOiOiOQOrHOO(NI^Tt<OOOSO 

COrHlMt^t^OOOSTt*05(NCDC5t^lOrHCO(N 

CO •*__iN OS OS O OS (N CO CO lO O (M CO CO CO 

(N co'oo'o' ofio'co'TtT co' rH co't^'os't^-'t-' co"'* cf 



OTf*C0(N(NO'<*<OO(M(N00Q0OTt<iM(MO 
OOCOCOOSiOOTtiOOOt^OQOtMCOiOrH-^ 
(N(Nt>-i0rH(N0SC00000O-*-*05O0St^00 




26 



Per 
Cent. 




q 


1 1 1 1 1 




Miscella- 
neous Types. 


1 1 1 1 1 


1,018 


Per 
Cent. 


0'98 

Off 
U UUL 


65.0 




COlO 1 ,-ItH 
0000 050i 
05_(N 0^05 


CO 

o 
t> 


X a 


Or-T CC»0 


co' 

OS 


Per 
Cent. 




o 


COOOOCO 
lOOiC-i 


CO 


o 

is 


1 05IMr-IC0 
r-l.-l050 

CD .-100 


00 
OS 
OS 


Typ^ 




co" 


Per 
Cent. 


oo 

lO 1—1 


q 




1 1 1 00 CO 


CO 


Pine 
Types, 


(M 
(N 




ooooo 

cOi-icovrjco 


38.0 






C0Tt<(NOC0 

OOOrHfOCR 

O5_O>l>t^_^00_ 


OS 




0(M'tH«"co' 


co" 




(NININOO 
t^iOOSlNO 
T}J_I>1>P?00__ 


,032 




t>odt^co"o 

,-1 .-1 T-l (M 


00 
CO 


Town. 






City or 


Southampton, 
Ware. . 
Westhampton, 
Williamsburg, 
Worthington, 


Totals, 



oooooo , ooo . ooooo . oooooo 



000(MOSf-(0 
CO CO OS CO 00 
t>. r-t 1-H ,-1 O O 0000-* 



TjH (M 00 00 

1 00 00 

i(NOO 



r-^cD CO t>- 00 

CO"(N"rH 



OOOOOOOOOO , ooooo OOOOOO 



CO 1-H O ■'l^ 00 rH lO I t^TlH(N00O I CO IN O CO 
i-H CO 00 O lO r-il^ CO (M 00(NiCCO(N OCOOStJ^CS-^ 

(N(Nicu3i>oo_^cot}h^osco_^ '^.'"iq^.'-l ■*'~i"l"3s_^'^.^ 

1-H (N">-H"r-rrH" (m" r^" t-TcO "^'cfr-T t-Tco'ci'lOCfi-H 



o I oooo I ooo I ooooo 



oooo 

■*CO(N00 



O I OCOOOO I 00rt<CO I 00.-i»0(N 
rt< COC^i-iOO COiMi-H cCCOCOCOlO 
CO CO (M"* lOlMrH .-lOS-^eO 



OOOOOOOOOO . oo . oo . oooooo 



COOSIMCOCO00Tt<(Nr-lrH 

OCOt~-(MOt^t^t^(NOO 

qco co__t^_^o_co_^co t^,o__oq_ 
(n" icir^n^ co"co"(n" 



r-IOOlCi-HO 

r^toofNco 
qt^_^i>o_o_ 

rfiOTjI'^rco" 



lO rH IN rt< O 
lO IN CO O 

rHt>(Nq^O_-<*J^ 

lo"io"^"t>-"co"(N 



OSt^(Nt-Ot-.-ll>OOCOO'*COlNi-HCOCDOOOOt^OOOSF-l 
0SI>.-HC000C000r-iTj<Ot>000SO5 CO OS OS O O "3 

OSlCOSOOSOOOSCOCOCOlOOOCOTfCOC^SCO-^tNOS-^lOCO 



r . 3 o M 



01 (O 



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r-s-s-s ^lla S 5 g'S^ g 2 3 ^ 2 2 o o 5 £ 



0.2.5 w G 
O 3 fl. 



27 



I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I • I i I I I I I I I 



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6 


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55.0 


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69,527 


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Cent. 


31.0 
68.0 
67.0 

■88.0 
77.0 

54.0 

10.0 

20.0 
54.0 
87.0 
98.0 

100.0 
19.0 

100.0 

18~0 
23.0 

50.0 
31.0 
100.0 

7.0 
46.0 


43.0 


Hard-wood 
Types. 


lOCOOO 1 T-ICD 1 CO 1 CD 1 1 Oi CO CD 05 CD CD | COCO 1 GO O CO 1 00 (M 
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48,247 


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6.0 
1.0 

5.0 

3.0 

24.0 
2.0 
1.0 
2.0 

10.0 
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5.0 


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41.0 


Forest 
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Braintree, 

Brookline, 

Canton 

Cohasset, 
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Dover, .... 

Foxborough, 

Franklin, 

Holbrook, 

Hyde Park, 

Medfield, 

Medway, 

Millis, .... 

Milton 

Needham, 

Norfolk 

Norwood, 
PlainviUe, 2 

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Randolph, 

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Stoughton, 

Walpole, 

Wellesley, 

Westwood, 

Weymouth, 

Wrentham, 

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33 



Pine Tree Blight. 
There has been much concern ove" ^ .condition of the pine 
tre -s during the past season. A small .t of the white pine 

trees in every section of the State h.^e been affected with a 
malady which has caused the tips of the needles to turn brown 
and die. Trees thus affected were very conspicuous, and during 
midseason, when it was very dry, they took on a very unhealthy 
appearance. Some trees were more pronounced than others, 
depending upon just how far down the needles from the tip the 
so-called "blight'' had spread. All trees, however, even though 
slightly affected, showed sickly characteristics, in that even the 
remaining live portions of the tree were lighter in color, and the 
current seasons growth was much impaired. Both large and 
small trees were equally troubled, but it was quite noticeable 
that almost invariably those trees showing the naturally weaker 
vitality in their struggles for existence were the ones affected. 
Trees that are badly affected are sure to die, as the evergreens 
cannot withstand defoliation, in this respect differing from de- 
ciduous trees. 

As soon as the fall rains came, these trees took on a better color, 
and the reddish tips, so characteristic during the summer, be- 
came inconspicuous or dropped off, so that at present the trouble 
is not so noticeable. Whether this blight will be as bad again 
next season is problematical. Trees that have been affected the 
past season will undoubtedly show the effects in retarded growth 
and vitality next; and, should the trouble reassert itself, it will 
probably be advisable to utilize them for timber or wood. In the 
case of small trees which occur here and there it would be advis- 
able to cut and burn them, as a precautionary method. 

The following interview, which appeared in the Boston "Tran- 
script," Aug. 20, 1907, gives a very clear statement of our study 
of the disease : — 

There is much speculation throughout the State as to how serious 
will be this blight. Land owners who see their trees dying are writing 
to the State Forester on the subject, asking for information and advice; 
and it is apparent that it is causing deep concern. In some instances it 
has attacked favorite trees which from important features of ornamen- 
tal schemes in parks and on private estates, and large sums of money 



34 



have been offered for treatment that shall save them and cure them. It 
has been the subject, also, of much scientific study, resulting in conclu- 
sions that are somewhat reassuring. 

Authorities do not quite agree on the question of time within which 
it made its appearance in Massachusetts. Some say they have noticed 
it here for about eight years, while others maintain that its first ap- 
pearance was three years ago ; but they are agreed in the verdict that 
it is more prevalent this year than in any previous season. Hence the 
question is raised. Is the disease contagious ? 

On that particular point State Forester Rane is strongly convinced 
by his own observations. He has toured certain sections of the State 
thoroughly in quest of information on that subject, and has studied the 
woodlands to see what relation one dying tree might have to another. 
One of his assistants also has made a study in the field, and it is believed 
that when all the data are pieced together Professor Rane will find it 
possible to send a reassuring communication on the subject to the land 
owners. 

From all that is at hand to-day, the most logical conclusion is that it 
is not contagious ; and Professor Rane, moreover, ventures to say that it 
is highly improbable that the disease will spread. It will not be as bad 
next year as it is now, he thinks. In the first place, he finds blighted 
pines. in the midst of a pine grove, with a few trees practically killed and 
the others not at all touched by it. A perfectly fresh seedling may be 
found side by side with a matured tree that is dying, and vice versa, 
showing that the disease does not spread from one tree to another, and 
has no preferences based on the age of a pine. 

If one tree is more susceptible to an attack than another, it is the 
naturally dry and unhealthy, consumptiye-looking pine, that shows 
every sign of being underfed; and from this the deduction is drawn 
that the strong tree withstands and the weak one yields, when exposed 
to soil and weather conditions that may be productive of the disease. 
While it is most common on the white pine, it sometimes attacks the 
pitch pine also, but it is not as common as many persons may have been 
led to believe. The State Forester, after his investigation, ventured the 
estimate that the number of affected pines in the State constitute only 
a fraction of one per cent of the pine stand, but as yet there are no fig- 
ures available to qualify this estimate. There is enough of it to give rise 
to apprehension for the pine forest interest, which is one of growing 
importance in Massachusetts. 

State Forester Rane assigned one of his assistants, B. C. Noyes, the 
other day to go to Winchendon, whence came many inquiries about the 
disease, to study the condition in that vicinity, and Mr. Noyes makes 
this report on the subject: ''The blight is found on the pines of all ages. 
Beginning at the tip of the needle, it works downward and gradually 
spreads over the whole tree. Trees of weak vitality are most liable to be 
affected. The blight is undoubtedly due to the unusually cold spring, 



35 



followed by excessively hot weather and a period of drought. It has 
been noticed for several years, but much more so at the present 
time." 

Mr. Charles Bosworth of Winchendon says: "I have noticed the 
blight for six or eight years, and do not think it serious. This year I 
noticed it first on one or two trees in the grove in front of my house. 
These trees are now recovered, while others are affected. In three or 
four weeks' time I think it will be entirely gone.'' 

Mr. White of Winchendon says: "I have noticed the blight for a long 
time. One old pine has been in nearly this same condition every year 
for the past ten years. I do not think it is serious." 

Mr. W. H. Brown of Winchendon says: "About two years ago we 
purchased a tract of growing pine of about six or seven acres. The 
trees, about a foot high, were at the time pretty generally attacked 
with the blight, and we hesitated in buying it, on that account. We 
bought it, however, and to-day it is a thrifty growth, only a few pines 
being attacked." 

Mr. J. G. Folsom, tree warden, says: " I first noticed the blight about 
six years ago. Just above the village there were several trees affected on 
both sides of the road. I watched it for two years, and did not notice 
any increase. The timber on one side was then cut off, but now I cannot 
find any trace on the trees on the opposite side." 

One suggestion as to the cause of it is that some insect has attacked 
the trees ; but in the investigation thus far made nothing has been dis- 
covered to substantiate that proposition. There is no sign of animal life 
on the dead needles, nor have the needles been stung before wither- 
ing. 

Early in the season Professor Rane communicated with Dr. G. E. 
Stone, at the Hatch Experiment Station, and in a reply to one of the 
State Forester's letters Dr. Stone writes on the subject as follows: 
"This trouble has been common since the cold winter of three years ago. 
I had opportunities to investigate it at that time, and the next year it 
commenced to show very badly on trees in the form of sun scald, and in 
the winter in the form of fungi. There were half a dozen fungi found 
on the pine, but in my estimation all of these were merely the result of 
the weakened condition of the trees, owing to the severe winter. Dr. 
Hermann von Schenck and others agree with me. 

"My diagnosis of the trouble is as follows: During that cold winter 
an enormous number of trees were injured, both above and below the 
ground. I have seen acres of trees, like birches, alders, apple, cherry and 
a whole host of others, injured at the same time. The pine was injured 
below as well as above the ground, and I have dug up their roots year 
after year and found the small ones dead. . . . There was quite a large 
percentage of the small roots which died, and the dry summer was too 
hard for them ; consequently, the trees suffered from sun scald, and as a 
result of this and the dying of the tips of the leaves fungi came in after- 



36 



ward. ... I have had trees under observation since that winter, and 
know of a great many which have recovered entirely. I gathered speci- 
mens of certain trees for my laboratory which are absolutely recovered. 
This has occurred in all cases where the tips of the leaves were burned 
back only slightly, but when the needles were killed outright there was 
no recovery of course. 

"I had a great many opportunities to observe this in trees planted in 
rows and growing in forests, and there was absolutely no indication of 
any contagion, showing that the fungus was a purely secondary matter. 
In the Middlesex Fells I found about a dozen of these trees two years 
ago, and made a careful examination of them, but they were isolated 
from one another in all cases. 

"I have been in consultation with some of the authorities in Wash- 
ington in regard to this trouble, since I have had a large number of speci- 
mens to examine, and do not think there is any difference in our diag- 
nosis. This trouble is also found in other portions of New England, 
Connecticut and Vermont, and I believe it has been reported in New 
Hampshire.'' 

Some spraying for this disease has been done in Massachusetts, 
though it is not now believed that such treatment is of any great value. 
The trees may be saved, however, says State Forester Rane, if treated 
in time with the right kind of fertihzer. In case most of the needles on 
the tree are destroyed, the tree cannot be saved by any kind of treat- 
ment; and the forester's advice to the owners of such tree is that they 
cut it down before it dies if there is lumber in it worth saving. If it is 
only slightly touched, it may possibly be revived. Three pounds of 
nitrate of soda to a good-sized tree, spread over the ground as far as the 
branches reach, will give it vigor enough to get out of the effects of the 
disease attack. 

This remedy has been practised by H. L. Frost & Co., tree 
specialists of Boston, with good success for several years. 

Equipment. 

During the past year the State Forester has found it necessary 
to have some additional equipment for carrying on his work. 
The principal additions are: two field hand cameras; one sur- 
veyor's level; two hypsometers; two aneroid barometers; two 
right angle finders; a pedometer; a set of book cases and files; 
and other smaller field implements and drafting room supplies. 

Changes in Assistants. 
The State Forester has been very fortunate in having a corps of 
efficient assistants throughout the year. The only deplorable 



37 



fact is that, as is the usual case, as soon as one^s assistants dem- 
onstrate their value they are sought after. 

Mr. J. J. Dearborn, who has been an assistant in demonstrat- 
ing practical forestry methods over the State, has done his work 
so well that the Diamond Match Company has engaged him as 
their forestry expert. Mr. Dearborn's resignation takes effect 
February 1. 

While the State Forester will miss the valuable service of Mr, 
Dearborn, he nevertheless will be located with headquarters at 
Athol in this State and continue in a way to serve the State, 
although through a private enterprise. The success of Mr. 
Dearborn can be construed in no other way than a compliment to 
the effective work of this office during the past year. 

Mr. B. C. Noyes, who was also connected with the service 
until recently, has resigned to accept a position with the firm of 
H. L. Frost & Co. of Boston. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
In accordance with section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904, 
as amended by the Acts of 1907, chapter 473, section 2, the fol- 
lowing statement is given of the expenditures for the year ending 
November 30 : — 

Salaries of assistants, ....... $3,189 63 

Travelling expenses (not included in co-operative funds), . 935 60 



Instruments, . . . . . . . . 196 46 

Stationery and other office supplies, .... 293 08 

Printing, 875 67 

Postage, 283 30 

Miscellaneous, . . . . . . . . 154 55 

Nursery, 1,081 96 



Total, . $7,010 25 



There was realized from the sale of seedlings already referred 
to $235 . 50, which amount has been turned over to the Treasurer 
and Receiver-General. 

In accordance with section 5 of the above-named chapter, the 
following statement is given of the receipts for travelling and 
subsistence : — 



38 



/. For Lectures. 

Everett Grange, Everett, $2 50 

West Newbury Grange, West Newbury, . . . . 1 87 

State Board of Agriculture, Springfield, . . . . 4 75 

Public Lecture, Sterling, ...... 3 00 

Civic Club, Gleasondale, ...... 1 00 

Oakham Farmer's Club, Oakham, ..... 3 00 

Grange, Petersham, . . . . . . . 3 17 

Weymouth High School, Weymouth, . . . . 1 00 

Pomona Grange, Lowell, ...... 2 00 

Amesbury Board of Agriculture, Amesbury, . . . 3 86 

Pomona Grange, Methuen, ...... 2 30 

Hardwick Grange, Hardwick, ..... 3 00 

Middlesex North Agricultural Society, Westford, . . 2 56 

Melrose Woman's Club, ...... 3 15 

Massachusetts Horticultural Society, Boston, . . . 1 00 

Walpole Grange, Walpole, ...... 98 

East Sandwich Grange, East Sandwich, . . . . 3 00 

Middlesex Worcester Pomona Grange, Groton, . . 2 50 

Worcester Horticultural Society, Worcester, . . . 4 50 

Field and Forest Club, Dorchester, .... 96 

Whitman Board of Trade, Whitman, . . . . 2 95 

North Dana Grange, North Dana, ... 3 92 

Natural History Club, Bolton, .... 1 15 

Springfield Botanical Society, Springfield, . . . 6 50 

New England Woman's Club, Boston, .... 1 00 

Sloyd Manual Training School, Boston, .... 50 

Newbury Grange, Newbury, ...... 2 15 

State Board of Agriculture, Worcester, . . . . 4 50 



A list of the visits made, the area of woodland involved and the 
receipts for expenses are as follows : — - 



//. For Examinations of Woodlands. 



Owner of Woodland. 


Town. 


Area 
of Woodland 
(Acres). 


Expense. 


J. R. Ayer, ..... 


Richmond, 


100 




L. L. Baker, ..... 


East Templeton, 


70 


$2 90 


N. D. Bill 


Springfield, 


400 


20 00 


Brockton & Plymouth Street Railroad, 


Pembroke, 


13 


1 20 


Miss C. Codman, .... 


Dedham, 


18 


80 


F. G. Crane 


Dalton, 


1,600-2,000 


19 70 


M. H. Foskett, .... 


Wilmington, 


35 


50 


A. M. Goldsbury, .... 


Warwick, 


50 


10 30 


Rev. John Graham, 


Warwick, 


80 


_ 1 



1 No expense. 



39 



//. For Examinations of Woodlands — Concluded. 







Area 




Owner of Woodland. 


Town. 


of Woodland 


Expense. 






(Acres). 


b iske & r lelcl, .... 


Weston, . 


1 nn 


cn 


A. b. Jtlayes, ..... 


Hoplcinton, 


1 "in 


1 ^ft 


Mrs. S. L. Hammond, 


Carlisle, 


oZ 


ou 


Rev. N. S. Hoagland, 


Warwick, 


oU 


_ 1 


Dr. R. Hogner, . 


iVlansnela, 


66 


i UU 


Rev. C. L. Hutchins, 


Concord, . 


zUU— oUU 




Graham D. Johnson, 


Andover, 


10 


97 




Duxbury, 


30 


1 cn 


Mass. State Hospital for Epileptics, . 


Palmer, 


zUU— oUU 


Q on 
o oU 


Miss A. McKim, .... 


Warwick, 


30 




Dr. H. W. Nelson, .... 


Marshriela, 


108 


1 20 


Pontoosuc Woolen Company, 


ir^ittsriela. 


143 


8 70 


Rev. p. s±. rtuaa, .... 


Richmond, 


30—40 


Kn 
oil 


Salem Fraternity, .... 


Rowley, . 


15 


1 20 




Salisbury, 






J. F. Spanlding, .... 
Rev. E. Sturo'is 


Tewksbury, 


25 


50 


Andover 


28 


1 80 


R. B. Symington, .... 


Chiltonville, 


3,000 


3 20 


F. W. Wise, 


Wellfieet, . 


1,200 


14 65 


Ellis G. Wood 


Sandwich, 


100 


_ 2 


Geo. M. Whipple, .... 


Newburvport, . 


50 


_ 2 


Ormstead Bros., .... 


The Fells, 




_ 2 


Frost & Co., 


Arlington and Maiden, 


100 


_2 


School for the Feeble-minded, . 


Waltham, 


40 


_2 


Morris Gray, ..... 


Cambridge, 


10 


_ 2 


Brockton Water Commission, . 


Brockton, 


30 


1 65 


Miss Booth, ..... 


Springfield, 


10 




Ames estate, ..... 


North Easton, . 


100 


_ 2 



1 No expense. ^ Paid by owner. 



What the General Court is asked to consider at 

Present. 

I. Exemption from Taxation on Forest Land. 
At present we have a law in our statutes (Revised Laws, chap- 
ter 12, section 6) that is ineffective, as it requires that 2,000 trees 
must be set on an acre of land to exempt it from taxation, while 
as a matter of fact 1,210 trees are all that are at present recom- 
mended for such purposes. The species of trees for planting are 
also too small, and the time for exemption I believe could well be 
extended to twenty years. In Wisconsin similar planting is ex- 
empt for thirty years. This law should be amended and modern- 
ized to meet our needs. 

II. Forest Reserves. 
It is time that some State forest reserve policy should be estab- 
lished in Massachusetts. The national government is doing 
much in this direction, and various States have State forest 
reserves. I would not recommend that this State go into an 



40 



elaborate system of reserves, but if the State Forester could be 
allowed an appropriation for purchasing cheap lands, and be 
permitted to replant them for demonstrative purposes, the object 
lesson would be valuable, and the State could not help profiting 
thereby financially. It is even possible that some towns or indi- 
viduals would be willing to give lands to the State, provided they 
could be accepted and planted by the State Forester. One such 
offer was made during the year, and it is believed offers of land at 
low cost can be easily secured. 

HI. We must stop Forest Fires. 
After traversing the State and studying conditions carefully, 
I feel that it will take some drastic mandatory laws in order to 
cope with the situation. Our people have been so indifferent 
toward forestry and the protection of forest property that we are 
absolutely wasting thousands upon thousands of dollars, not 
only for the present but the future, through sheer negligence. 
Even much of our so-called scrub growth would yield cord wood, 
if not lumber, were it not for fires which periodically run over 
these lands. 

With the newly appointed forest warden system better results 
are expected; but why not clothe this officer with the power to 
arrest without a warrant any person or persons found in the act 
of unlawfully setting a fire or trespassing on forest property. 
This right is given the fish and game wardens ; why not the forest 
wardens and their deputies ? 

We have a law in our statutes at present (Revised Laws, chap- 
ter 32, section 24) which reads as follows : — 

In a town which accepts the provisions of this section or has accepted 
the corresponding provisions of earlier laws, no fire shall be set in the 
open air between the first day of April and the first day of October, 
unless by written permission of a forest warden. The forest warden 
shall cause public notice to be given of the provisions of this section, 
and shall enforce the same. Whoever violates the provisions of this 
section shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars, 
to be divided equally between the complainant and the town, or by im- 
prisonment for not more than one month, or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. 

This law, it is believed, should not be left to the discretion of 
the towns, but should be enacted as a State law. 



41 



IV, The Forest Nursery should be enlarged. 

If we had one million white pine seedlings at the State nursery 
to distribute at cost, I believe they would all be purchased and 
set out in Massachusetts this coming year. As a matter of fact, 
we shall not begin to be able to supply the demand, and already 
I have placed orders for spring delivery for two hundred and 
fifty thousand white pine seedlings for Massachusetts people. 
These seedlings can be raised for less than one-half our people 
are compelled to pay at the present time. As State Forester, I 
am very anxious to get just as many trees set on our waste and 
unproductive lands as possible; and, while nurserymen are ad- 
justing their business to meet the growing demands for young 
trees, and are unable to supply them even at present high prices, 
it is well that we encourage our forestry interests by growing 
seedhngs at cost. Were it not for the import duty, transplants 
(seedlings once transplanted) could be imported from Europe, 
and all charges paid, cheaper than we can purchase the seedlings 
themselves in this country. 

It takes at least two years to grow white pine seedlings before 
they are ready to be set out permanently, and three or four years 
for transplants; hence, if we enlarge our nursery work now, it 
will be some time before the plants are ready for distribution. 

Besides white pine, there are many other species of forest 
trees that should be propagated for dissemination. 

I would recommend that the nursery work be increased to at 
least four times its present capacity. While the first cost would 
seem large, nevertheless, in from two to four years the money 
would be returned to the State from the sale of seedlings. 

V. Increased Appropriation needed. 
While the State Forester deplores the necessity for asking for 
increased appropriations for his work, he nevertheless feels 
that it is his duty to do so. While, as has already been shown, 
the money for both increased nursery work and forest reserves 
will be returned to the State ultimately, nevertheless, such appro- 
priation must be made to begin with. Five thousand dollars 
could be used to advantage in enlarging the nursery, and for a 
system of forest reserves for which the first cost would be rela- 
tively large, it is recommended that an appropriation be made. 



42 



The regular appropriation for running expenses for the past 
year was at the rate of $10,000 a year. This amount is asked for 
the present year. 

Beginning with the spring town elections, according to the 
law passed last year, the new town forest warden law goes into 
effect. In order to establish the work as it should be, and en- 
courage each town to do more thorough and definite work, a 
State appropriation of $10,000 is recommended. Of this amount, 
$2,000 is to be used for holding a convention as stated in the law, 
and the remainder used in paying forest wardens in various 
towns for actual service rendered in their respective towns in 
securing data and rendering services when called upon by the 
State Forester. 

This recommendation applies equally to all towns of the State, 
as, if it were left to the towns themselves, many would very likely 
be indifferent; therefore, it is believed it becomes a matter for 
State legislation. All bills of forest wardens for services rendered 
at the request of the State Forester must be approved by that 
office; hence there is good assurance that the money will be 
strictly used for bettering forestry conditions everywhere in the 
State. The State Forester even hopes for example, to so educate 
his wardens that they may be on the lookout and report upon 
such insects as the gypsy moths should they invade new terri- 
tory. 

Only through forethought and system can we expect to accom- 
plish in forestry what all our citizens would like to see. 

Summary of Recommendations. 

1. That the law relative to the exemption from taxation of 
lands set to forest trees be amended. 

2. That a system of forest reserves for the State be established, 
and funds for their purchase and maintenance be created. 

3. That the State Forester and his authorized employees and 
the forest wardens and their authorized deputies be given the 
same power of arresting persons found in the act of unlawfully 
setting a fire that the fish and game deputies now have. 

4. That the law relative to permission to set fires in the open 
be amended, and made mandatory to the whole State. 

5. That the appropriation for the State Forester's office be the 
same as last year, $10,000, but that an additional $15,000 be 



43 



made for the purpose of increasing the State nursery work, hold- 
ing the convention of forest wardens, and recompensing these 
men for their assistance in the broader State forestry work as 
required under direction of the State Forester. 

6. That the State Forester's annual report be made a public 
document. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RANK, 

State Forester. 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
STATE FORESTER OF MASSACHUSETTS 
FOR THE YEAR 1908 ^ ^ ^ 



FRANK WM. RANE 

STATE FORESTER 




Approved by the State Board of Publication 



BOSTON 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING COMPANY, STATE PRINTERS 
18 POST Office Square 

1909 



c 



CONTENTS. 



New Legislation: — Page 
I. Reforestation Act, ........ 2 

II. Forest Fire Protection Act, ....... 7 

III. Revised Laws on Exemption of Reforested Lands from Taxation, 8 

IV. A Resolve authorizing the Sale of Certain Publications, . . 9 
Examinations of Woodlands, and Practical Assistance given Owners, . 11 
Forest Nursery, . . . . . . . . . . .15 

Municipal Forests, .......... 19 

Public Lectures and Addresses, . . . " . . . . .20 

Lectures before Business Men's Organizations, . . . . .21 

Lectures outside the State, . . . . . . . .21 

The National and State Conservation Commissions, . . . .21 

The National Irrigation and Forestry Congress, . . . . .22 

Meeting with the State Firemen's Associations, . . . . .22 

Pine Tree Blight, 23 

Forest Fires, ........... 24 

Forest Fire Posters, .......... 27 

Forest Mensuration of Wliite Pine, . . . . . . .28 

Good Roads a Benefit to Modern Forestry, . . . . . .28 

Tenth Anniversary of the Biltmore Forestry School, . . . .29 

Co-operation with the L^nited States Forest Ser\'ice and Forestry Officials 

of Other States, 30 

Forestry Information to the Press, ....... 30 

Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board Planting Data, . . .35 

Assistants, ........... 39 

Expenditures and Receipts, ........ 39 

What the General Court is asked to consider at Present, . . .43 

Summary of Recommendations, ........ 46 



€ommonrocaltj) of illa00act)U0ett0 



FIFTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
FORESTER. 



To the General Court. 

It is with continued pleasure that I submit this, the fifth* 
annual report of the State Forester of this Commonwealth. 

The office has increased in usefulness, and the work along 
all lines has been greatly enlarged. With forest products in 
constantly increasing demand, and thus all kinds of woods 
quickly finding a ready market, our people realize that right 
here in Massachusetts much of our cheap lands can be made 
more productive, and hence valuable in proportion to how 
well we care for them. 

The forest warden act first went into effect last spring, 
and, although we have had but one season to test its efficiency, 
there can be no doubt but that this one natural channel of 
definite authority and usefulness will work wonders in estab- 
lishing a successful State forest policy. These 343 forest 
wardens, one in each town and city with forested area, have 
already done valiant service, and when they are more ex- 
perienced and are given public-spirited encouragement by 
our people throughout the State, they are bound to become 
great factors for good everywhere. With such an army of 
men enlisted to do service not only for their respective com- 
munities but in the aggregate for the State as a whole, re- 
sults must come. 

The work of making examinations and giving advice on 
forestry matters has grown even beyond our expectations. 
The correspondence has been very much larger, but more 



2 



readily handled, due to the available literature published last 
year and this. 

The continued hearty co-operation and cordial assistance 
heretofore rendered to the State Forester have not been want- 
ing this year. After due consideration and study of our 
forestry needs, some bills were presented before the ^last 
General Court which met with approval and were enacted. 
As on similar occasions heretofore, the forestry interests at 
the hearings before the Legislature were represented by all 
our forestry and agricultural organizations, and by public- 
spirited citizens. In fact, I do not believe I am over-stating 
conditions when I say that Massachusetts citizens generally 
are in accord in requesting you, the General Court, to enact 
as many laws as are necessary to regulate and establish a 
sane and practical system of forest management throughout 
this Commonwealth. 

E'ew Legislation^. 
The new legislation enacted by the last General Court 
on forestry matters was as follows : — 

I. Reforestation act. 

II. Forest fire protection act. 

III. Revised Law on exemption of reforested lands from 
taxation. 

TV. A resolve authorizing the sale of certain publications 
of the State Forester. 

I. Reforestation Act. 
The enactment of the bill on reforestation, introduced by 
Senator Treadway, marks the beginning of a practical demon- 
stration of forest planting throughout the State. This work, 
it is believed, will prove not only of great economic impor- 
tance, but be a great factor in practically demonstrating what 
can be actually accomplished. There is very little excuse 
henceforth for those of us who own run-out or cheap lands not 
to make use of them, as the State is ready to meet us more 
than half way. 



The First Ganu to begin Planting. — They are working uuder tl»e reforesta- 
tion Jaw of Massachusetts, November, 1908, at South Ashburnham. Several 
hundred acres will be set next spring. 



3 



The bill is as follows : — 

Acts of 1908, Chapter 478. 

Ax Act to provide for the Purchase of Forest Land and for 

Reforestation. 
Be it enacted^ etc., as follows: 

Section 1. For the purpose of experiment and illustration in 
forest management and for the purposes specified in section seven of 
this act, the sum of five thousand dollars may be expended in the year 
nineteen hundred and eight, and the sum of ten thousand dollars 
annually thereafter, by the state forester, with the advice and consent 
of the governor and council, in purchasing lands situated within the 
commonwealth and adapted to forest production. The price of such 
land shall not exceed in any instance five dollars per acre, nor shall 
more than forty acres be acquired in any one tract in any one year, 
except that a greater area may so be acquired if the land purchased 
directly affects a source or tributary of water supply in any city 
or town of the commonwealth. All lands acquired under the pro- 
visions of this act shall be conveyed to the commonwealth, and no 
lands shall be paid for nor shall any moneys be expended in im- 
provements thereon until all instruments of conveyance and the 
title to be transferred thereby have been approved by the attorney- 
general and until such instruments have been executed and recorded. 

Section 2. The owners of land purchased under this act, or their 
heirs and assigns, may repurchase the land from the commonwealth 
at any time within ten years after the purchase by the commonwealth, 
upon paying the price originally paid by the commonwealth, to- 
gether with the amount expended in improvements and maintenance, 
with interest at the rate of four per cent per annum on the purchase 
price. The state forester, with the approval of the governor and 
council, may execute in behalf of the commonwealth such deeds of 
reconveyance as may be necessary under this section : provided, hoiv- 
ever, that there shall be included in such deeds a restriction requiring 
that trees cut from such property shall not be less than eight inches 
in diameter at the butt. 

Section 3. The state forester may in his discretion, but subject 
to the approval of the deed and title by the attorney-general as pro- 
vided in section one, accept on behalf of the commonwealth gifts of 
land to be held and managed for the purpose hereinbefore expressed. 
A donor of such land may reserve the right to buy back the land in 
accordance with the provisions of section two, but in the absence of 
a provision to that effect in his deed of gift he shall not have such 
right. 



4 



Section 4. Land acquired under the provisions of this act shall be 
under the control and management of the state forester, who may, 
subject to the approval of the governor and council, cut and sell 
trees, wood and other produce therefrom. 

Section 5. All moneys received by or payable to the common- 
wealth or any one acting on its behalf under the provisions of this 
act shall be paid into the treasury of the commonwealth. 

Section 6. Land acquired under the provisions of this act and 
subsequently reconveyed under the provisions of sections two or three 
shall not be exempt from taxation on account of any plantation of 
trees set out or planted while it was held by the commonwealth. 

Section 7. For the purpose of assisting in reforestation a por- 
tion, not exceeding twenty per cent of the money authorized by this 
act to be expended may be used by the state forester for the distribu- 
tion at not less than cost of seeds and seedlings to land owners who 
are citizens of the commonwealth, under such conditions and restric- 
tions as the state forester, subject to the approval of the governor 
and council, may deem advisable. 

Section 8. The state forester shall replant or otherwise manage 
all land acquired by the commonwealth and held by it under the 
provisions of this act, in such manner as will, in his judgment, pro- 
duce the best forest growth both as to practical forestry results and 
protection of water supplies. 

Section 9. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Section 10. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Ap- 
proved May 1, 1908. 

As above indicated, this bill was approved May 1, 1908, 
and, as the planting season begins as soon as the frost leaves 
the ground in the spring, we were unable to make nse of the 
appropriation until later in the year. 

In order to bring the enactment to the attention of our 
people, and to make the first year's appropriation go as far 
as possible, the following general letter was sent out to all 
the chairmen of the boards of selectmen of our towns, news- 
papers, agricultural organizations, women's clubs, etc. : — 

Dear Sir : — The recent General Court enacted a law authorizing 
the State Forester, subject to the approval of the Governor and 
Council, to establish a system of forest reserves for promoting the 
forestry interests of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts (chapter 
478, Acts of 1908). 

The amount appropriated for this year is $5,000, and succeeding 
years, $10,000 annually. 



5 



In order to make the appropriation as useful as possible, I am 
addressing the chairman of the board of selectmen in each town, also 
all organizations and persons likely to be interested, asking if they 
have any lands they desire to turn over to the State for forest demon- 
stration purposes. As many acres have already been offered to the 
State, provided the State Forester will accept and reforest them, and 
as it is believed that there are many more that would do likewise, I 
take this opportunity to bring the matter to your attention, and 
through you to your board, town and public interests. 

Should your town authorities neglect to take advantage of this 
o:ffer, you undoubtedly have some live, enthusiastic organizations, 
such as the grange, village improvement societies, farmers' and 
mechanics' clubs, etc., or even one or more public-spirited citizens, 
who would gladly donate cheap lands for the purpose. The donations 
for consideration are to be in the following classes: (1) land offered 
to the State free without restrictions; (2) land offered to the State 
free with restrictions. 

As the work of reforestation thus done is to serve as an object 
lesson educationally, the State Forester desires in so far as possible 
to ultimately have these demonstrative forestry experiments in 
various representative sections of the State, locating them on fre- 
quently travelled roads, where they may do the most good. 

Should you find an interest in your town to take this matter up, 
please advise me. It is desired that this work be gotten well in hand, 
so that all plans may be matured and the definite an^angements made 
where this work is to go forward. 

Only a limited appropriation is available, and if you care to have 
your town do something, please take the matter up at an early date 
and confer with me. 

It is believed much good is to come from this work, in promoting 
a better utilization of our waste and neglected lands, that should and 
will produce valuable forest products when properly husbanded. 

When your application is received, it will be filed, and as soon 
as a date can be arranged, the State Forester or his authorized agent 
will meet w^ith you or your committee and go over the land to com- 
plete arrangements for accepting and planting the same. First 
come, first served! 

Very sincerely yours, F. W. Rane, 

State Forester. 

State House, Boston, Mass. 

The outcome of this agitation has resulted in the State's 
taking over by the end of the fiscal year, l^o\. 30, 1908, 882 
acres of land and purchasing about a million and a half of 
seedlings and transplants. We also planted about 25 acres 
to white pine at South Ashburnham this last fall. 



6 



The above work exhausted our first appropriation, and we 
are now prepared to begin the work of reforestation in ear- 
nest, as soon as the frost leaves the ground in the spring. 

During this winter we are planning our next year's cam- 
paign, and already have many tracts of land in view in 
various sections. In order to take these lands over, besides 
an examination as to their suitability for reforesting, much 
time is necessary to make the necessary survey and transfer 
of the title to the State. 

Of the 1,000 acres turned over to the State thus far, only 
160 acres have been purchased, the remainder simply being 
deeded to the State at no expense. In nearly every instance 
the owners have inserted the repurchasing clause, so as to 
regain the property within ten years. 



Lands acquired hy the State. 
Up to the present the State Forester has deeds in his 
possession from the following towns : — 



Town. 


Acres. 


Town. 


Acres. 


Andover, .... 


40 


Oxford, 


20 


Ballardvale, .... 


60 


Rowley, ..... 


100 


Barre, ..... 


50 


Sandwich, .... 


40 


Belchertown, .... 


10 


South Ashburnham, . 


100 


Carv^er, ..... 


5 


Spencer, ..... 


75 


Dunstable, .... 


20 


Templeton, .... 


107 


Erving, ..... 


40 


Westford, .... 


40 


Gardner, ..... 


64 


Westminster, .... 


120 


Hubbardston, .... 


54 


Winchendon, .... 


50 


Montague, .... 


26 




932 



In this work of reforestation it is my plan to utilize the 
local forest wardens whenever practicable, of course under 
proper State supervision, and thus in time the State will have 
a corps of reforesting experts. 

One hundred thousand Scotch pines have been shipped 
to Sandwich and heeled in this fall, for use in planting on the 
Cape next spring. 



An Abaxdoxeo MAssAOHLSETrs Field. — Nature is trying to reforest; mau c;tn 
assist, and quick results will follow. 



7 



Of course this work is but in its infancy, but it is believed 
that our people generally will appreciate this forward move- 
ment, and as soon as they realize the generous offer on behalf 
of the State they will be quick to accept the assistance offered. 

With our depleted, neglected and waste lands reharnessed 
and made a live factor throughout Massachusetts, one of our 
natural resources will be headed in the right direction. In 
one town a prominent business man said that the agitation * 
and taking over of lands by the State for reforestation have 
increased valuations of farming property fully 15 per cent 
already. If this is true, it must follow that when actual 
results are shown, the benefits are bound to be still greater. 

II. roREST Fire Protection. 

This act is bound to accomplish good results. One of the 
greatest drawbacks to a stalwart progressive movement in 
forestry is the destruction and wanton waste caused by fires. 

The time has come when the towns throughout the State 
must give a reasonable degree of assurance to their citizens 
that they are to be protected against losses by fire, if they 
expect people to invest time and money in reforestation and 
to build up a proper forest policy. 

The following law was enacted in order to regulate and 
lessen forest fires everywhere. Here is an opportunity for 
the towns to clothe their forest wardens with power to ac- 
complish results. If all our public-spirited people will give 
this law proper consideration, and accept the permit clause 
at the spring annual town elections this year, forest fires are 
bound to decrease. It is not the purpose of the law to take 
away personal liberties, but to conform the regulations for 
the benefit of the common good. Our towns throughout this 
State will be in the future what we make them. The fol- 
lowing is the act : — 

Acts of 1908, Chapter 209. 

An Act to provide for the Protection of Forest or Sprout 

Lands from Fire. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. In a town which accepts the provisions of this act or 
has accepted a corresponding provision of earlier laws no fires shall 



8 



be set in the open air between the first day of April and the first day 
of December, except by the written permission of the forest warden : 
provided, that debris from fields, gardens and orchards, or leaves and 
brush from yards may be burned on ploughed fields by the owners 
thereof, their agents or lessees, but in every case such fire shall be at 
least two hundred feet distant from any forest or sprout lands, and 
shall be properly attended until it is extinguished. The forest Warden 
shall cause public notice to be given of the provisions of this section, 
and shall enforce the same. Whoever violates the provisions of this 
section shall be punished by a fine of not more than one hundred 
dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one month, or by both 
such fine and imprisonment. 

Section 2. The provisions of the preceding section shall not apply 
to fires which may be set in accordance with regulations and methods 
approved by the superintendent for suppressing the gypsy and brown 
tail moths. 

Section 3. The state forester shall notify every town in the com- 
monwealth of the passage of this act by sending at least three 
printed copies thereof to the town clerk, who shall post the same in 
conspicuous places. 

Section 4. The state forester and forest warden may arrest with- 
out a warrant any persons found in the act of setting a fire in viola- 
tion of any provision of this act. 

Section 5. The selectmen of every town shall cause this act to be 
submitted to the voters for their acceptance at the next annual meet- 
ing of the town after the passage of this act. The vote shall be 
taken by separate ballot, and shall be " Yes or " No " in answer 
to the following question printed upon the ballot : " Shall an act 
passed by the general court in the year nineteen hundred and eight, 
entitled * An Act to provide for the protection of forest or sprout 
lands from fire ' be accepted by this town? " A majority vote of the 
legal voters present and voting at such meeting shall be required for 
the acceptance of this act; and upon such acceptance the provisions 
of section twenty-four of chapter thirty-two of the Revised Laws 
shall cease to apply to any town which has previously accepted that 
■section. \^Approved March 14, 1908. 

III. The Revised Laws on Exemption of Reforested 
Lands from Taxation. 
The old law (R. L., c. 12, § 6) required that in order to 
get planted lands exempt from taxation at least 2,000 trees 
must be set to the acre. As 1,200 trees is the number com- 
monly recommended, or 6 by 6 feet, this revision was neces- 
sary. The new revision also allows the filling out of natu- 
rally stocked lands, so that they may receive similar exemp- 



9 



tion. This ought to encourage some renewed efforts in that 
direction. The following is the act : — 

Acts of 1908, Chapter 120. 

An Act relative to the Taxation of Plantations of Certain 

Varieties of Trees, 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Chapter twelve of the Revised Laws is hereby amended by striking 
out section six and inserting in place thereof the following : — 
Section 6. Land upon which pines, chestnuts, larches, spruces, hem- 
locks, walnuts, hickories, American and large-toothed poplars, yellow 
and paper birches, beeches, maples, basswoods, or ash timber trees, 
or others when approved by the state forester, have been set out or 
planted to the number of not less than six hundred per acre, and 
which by such setting out or planting has become evenly stocked with 
such trees to the number of not less than twelve hundred per acre, 
including in such number the trees growing naturally upon said land, 
shall be exempt from taxation for a period of ten years after the 
said trees have grown in height two feet on the average, upon satis- 
factory jDroof by the owners to the assessors of the foregoing facts : 
provided, that at the time when the trees are planted or set out the 
said land is not woodland or sproutland, or land containing more 
than six hundred standing trees to the acre, and does not exceed in 
value ten dollars per acre; and provided, further, that such exemption 
shall not extend beyond the time during which said land is devoted 
exclusively to the growth of said trees. [Approved February 
25, 1908. 

IV. Authorization for the Sale of Certain Publi- 
cations OF THE State Forester. 
Certain publications of this officer were so much in demand 
that to meet the same would be a financial burden, and as 
many of those desiring the publications expressed a willing- 
ness to pay for them if it were possible, the following resolve 
has been passed, enabling the State Forester to sell certain 
publications at cost, when sanctioned by the Governor and 
Council. The following is the resolve : — 

Acts of 1908, Chapter 121. 

Resolve to authorize the Sale of Certain Publications of the 
State Forester. 
Besolved, That such publications of the state forester as shall be 
designated by the governor and council may be sold by the state 



10 



forester at a price not less than the cost thereof; and additional 
copies may be printed for sale at the discretion of the governor and 
council, the expense thereof to be paid from the receipts from such 
sales. Any amounts received from such sales shall be paid into the 
treasury of the commonwealth. [Approved June 1, 1908. 

Many of the publications have been sent to other States 
since this resolve was passed. Upon its passage the follow- 
ing letter was sent to all applicants, and new editions have 
been printed : — 

Dear Sir or Madam : — Your application for either or both of the 
following forestry publications has been received : — 

(1) "The Commercial Forest Trees of Massachusetts: how you 
may know Them. A Pocket Manual." For general use. 

(2) " The Study of Trees in Our Primary Schools." For teachers, 
mothers, and all interested in teaching children to love trees and 
nature. 

Under the Resolves of 1908 (chapter 121), the Governor and 
Council have designated that these publications be sold by the State 
Forester at a price not less than the cost thereof; and additional 
copies may be printed, the expense thereof to be paid from the 
receipt of such sales. 

I am empowered to offer the above-named publications to you at 
the following prices : — 

(1.) The Pocket Manual, " The Commercial Forest Trees of 
Massachusetts : how you may know Them," for 5 cents a copy at this 
office, or by mail for 2 cents extra. 

(2) " The Study of Trees in Our Primary Schools," for 12 cents, 
or by mail 8 cents extra. 

In case a large number are wanted, as for schools, etc., they can be 
forwarded by express. 

These publications are neatly gotten up, and, as they are in great 
demand (the first edition of 5,000 being exhausted in ten days), 
charging for them at cost is the only feasible method of dissemi- 
nation. 

I am sorry to have kept you waiting, but pleased to say I am able 
to supply you or your friends with as many as you may care for, as 
the new edition has just been received. 

Very truly yours, F. W. Raxe, 

State Forester. 

State House, Boston, Mass. 




Massachusetts Forest Land. — Reduced to desert conditions by repeated nres ; 
remedy, stop possibilities of fires and replant. 



11 



EXAMII^ATION OF WOODLAJ^DS^ AND PRACTICAL ASSISTANCE 

GIVEN Owners. 

The policy of this office in giving assistance to owners of 
woodland in this State has been continued during the past 
year, with very satisfactory results. This assistance con- 
sists in an examination and report to the owner on the con- 
dition of his woodland or potential woodland, and advice 
looking to the treatment of the same. This advice, other than 
travelling expenses, is given free to the land owner. 

The examinations made in 1908 number 64, outstripping 
the record of all previous years. The highest previous mark 
was 47 in 1906, while last year they numbered 37, — an 
increase of 67 per cent. The acreage is 15,842, — an in- 
crease of 86 per cent over that of last year. 

Four of these examinations were what are called working 
plans ; that is, the land was surveyed, and a forest map accom- 
panied the report. The written outline included an estimate 
of the amount of standing timber, its value, the improvement 
work advised, its cost and the probable results. Two of these 
were made for private parties, one on a tract of 250 acres 
and one on a tract of 400 acres. The chef-d'oeuvre of the 
year was a forest working plan for the city of Fall River, 
which covered the watershed of I^orth Watuppa Pond, the 
city's water supply, — an area of more than 5,000 acres. 
The city owns 3,000 acres of this land. The fourth working 
plan is for the town of Westfield, and covers the watershed 
of their supply in Granville, some 6 square miles. Only 
the field work of this plan has so far been completed. 

These working plans made on the watersheds are not alone 
useful to the communities for which they are made, showing 
them how they can handle the lands in their possession to 
the best advantage, but offer a basis for the study of the 
effect of forests on water flow. The working plan gives the 
character of the watershed, its area and the amount of 
forested and nonforested land. The controlling boards are 
usually in possession of figures which give the yield of the 
ponds and streams which constitute the supply. After a 



12 



number of watersheds of different character have been 
studied, some useful comparisons can be made from the ac- 
cumulated data, and perhaps light thrown on a subject which 
has not been studied to the extent that one of such importance 
should be in this country. 

A certain amount of booming " was given to this phase 
of the work by sending out circular letters to the various 
State institutions, 15 in all; 5 of these took advantage of 
the offer and sought advice in regard to their woodland. 
Circular letters were also sent to the water supply authori- 
ties in the various cities and towns, and 5 have asked for ex- 
aminations ; other boards have asked for assistance. 

Results of Assistance for 1907. 
Blanks were sent to 25 people who received examinations 
last year, the object of which was to find out how far the 
recommendations made were carried out. Concerning the 
other 12 of the 37 the office was in possession of information 
which made the sending of blanks unnecessary. It was hoped 
also that this sign of interest in the work of last year would 
stir up those that have done nothing. 

A summary of the results of this investigation is as fol-' 
lows: out of 37 examinations, 17 were recommended to thin, 
20 to plant, 3 to do nothing, and 4 have no cards on file. Of 
those recommended to thin, 3 did all the w^ork and 6 did part 
of it; this leaves 8 who have done nothing, or have not re- 
ported, which we imagine is much the same thing. On the 
planting side, 2 carried out all the work as advised, and 10 
did something; the remaining 8 did nothing, or have not 
. reported. 

From the results of the work as reported for previous years, 
and from experience gained during the past year, we come 
to the following conclusions : — 

1. That planting excites more interest and is more readily 
taken up than thinning. 

2. That thinnings are increasingly important, as the 
work of fighting the gypsy moth becomes more widespread. 

3. That thinning work is much more likely to be carried 



13 



out if the trees to be cut or left are marked by the visiting 
forester. 

4. That elaborate working plans and maps, when made 
for private parties, result in nothing more being done than 
would come from an ordinary examination and report, and 
so should be abolished except in certain cases, when they 
should be made at the expense of the owner. 

5. That, if this co-operative work increases during the 
present year at a rate approaching that of the last, it will 
be impossible for one man to accomplish it, so that another 
technical forester to help in this and other work will be a 
necessity in the office. 

The New Application Blanh for Examinations. 
In order to simplify matters, and thereby get a larger 
number of our people owning woodlands acquainted with the 
willingness on the part of the State to assist them, the follow- 
ing new blank was printed and distributed very gener- 
ously : — 

No Received 

Application for an Examination of Forest Lands to the Massa- 
chusetts State Forester, State House, Boston. 
The State Forester stands ready at all times to promote the per- 
petuation, extension and proper management of the forest lands of 
the Commonwealth, both public and private (1904, chapter 409, sec- 
tion 2). 

If you have such lands, and desire an examination of them and 
advice as to their management, fill out the followmg blank form and 
send it to the above address of State Forester. 

Upon receipt, this request will be placed on file, and you will be 
informed, in order of application, approximately when the examina- 
tion can be made, and a mutual date can then be decided upon. 

The only expense the applicant promises to pay is that of travel 
and subsistence of the State Forester or his assistants, incurred in 
making the examination. 

It is always more satisfactory to personally meet on the property 
the owner or party most interested, at least when the preliminary 
examination is made. In this way a definite understanding can be 
had as to future undertakings, and whether working plans are neces- 
sary. Often a preliminary visit to gain knowledge of the problem 
and give advice on the grounds are all the services needed. 



14 



When sending this application in, a brief description of the land 
will assist us. 

With the above understanding, I desire to have an examination 

made of a tract of land of approximately acres, located 

in the town of , county of , State 

of Massachusetts. 

Signed 

Address 

Date ,19 . 

In order to emphasize the willingness on the part of the 
State Forester to co-operate with all State institutions 
in doing forestry work on any land that might belong to them, 
the following letter was addressed to the superintendents or 
officials, as the case might be, and a copy of the application 
enclosed : — 

My Dear Sir : — I desire to call your attention to one of the duties 
of the State Forester, that is, the examination of lands belonging 
to any citizen or institution in the State, and the giving of profes- 
sional advice in regard to its treatment for forestry purposes. There 
is no charge to the recipient of this advice except the necessary ex- 
pense of travel and subsistence. This offer applies equally to land 
now under tree growth or unimproved land that should be. 

A great many citizens have availed themselves of this offer, but 
very few institutions have made any applications for assistance under 
this law. It is more than probable that you know nothing of this 
opportunity, and it is for the purpose of acquainting you with it 
that this letter is sent. 

Public institutions which have theoretically at least a jDcrmanent 
existence, are in a better position than private persons to cany on 
work which requires several years to show results. The State has 
established this office to bring about improvement of the present 
wooded area and the reforestation of unproductive land. It should 
lead the way by carrying out work on its own property. 

If your institution has under its charge any wooded or unimproved 
land, I hope that you will make application to this office for a pre- 
liminary examination, after which, if the area is large and the work 
complex, a complete working plan can be made. 

We are very busy at the present time, and cannot take up this 
work immediately, but if we have it in mind, will be in a position to 
take it up as rapidly as possible. 

Very truly yours, F. W. Raxe, 

State Forester. 



The 8a\vi)l:st I'ile tells the Storv. — This land should be immediately 
planted to white pine. 



15 



Forest Xueseky. 
The State forest nursery at Amherst on the farm of the 
Agricultural College was somewhat enlarged last spring, and, 
althotigh it has been a very dry season and we had no facili- 
ties for watering the beds, they have come through in good 
shape. We have a stand of white pine, one-year-old seed- 
lings, that is estimated will give over a million trees for 
futtire use. Smaller stands of other species of evergreens 
and deciduous trees are also growing here. This work is 
self-supporting, and in no instance have trees or seeds been 
given away. 

As in the case of last year, particular pains were again 
taken this year to assist all persons having had planting ex- 
aminations made, so that practical results would follow. In 
this way many plantations were made that otherwise would 
have remained unplanted. 

It is believed that the State can well afford to do even 
more in nursery work. Commercial nurseries are asking 
higher prices, and as the demands are constantly increasing 
and we shall need larger supplies in the future, there can 
be no mistake in our growing enough to partly supply this 
demand. When commercial forest nurseries have been in 
existence long enough, so that we can depend upon getting 
stock at practical planting prices, we shall not need to do 
as much. There is a great difference in being able to save 
from $1 to $3 an acre in the first cost of planting, when 
seedlings are used. When transplants are used, the price 
is relatively higher. 

The following orders were sent out last spring from 
Amherst : — 



16 



Name. 


Address. 


Quantity 
of White 
Pine. 


Quantity 
of Ash. 


Amount. 


Prof. J. Tyler, . 


Amherst, 


1,000 




S4 00 


John A. Cox, . 


East Brewster, 


1,000 




4 00 


Wm. W. Colt on, 


Dalton, . 


2,000 




8 00 


Overseers of the poor, 


Palmer, . 


1,000 




4 00 


N.D.Bill, 


Springfield, 




10,000 


45 00 


C.H.Thayer, . 


Hadley, 


1,000 




4 00 


Paul C. Rockwood, . 


Ashburnham, . 


2,000 




S 00 


G. P. Morse, . 


West W^areham, 


1,000 




4 00 


G. W. Wheelwright, . 


Wheelwright, . 


5,000 




20 00 


C. L. Hutchins, 


Concord," 


5,000 




20 00 


C. A. Codman, 


Dedham, 


10,000 




40 00 


Mrs. L. P. Howe, 


Boston, . 


1,000 




4 00 


Lawrence Minot, 


Wareham, 


4,000 


_ 


16 00 


G.W.Cook, . 


Barre, . 


3,000 




12 00 


G. D. Johnson, 


Andover, 


1,500 




6 00 


E. A. Bowen, . 


Lakeville, 


5,000 


_ 


20 00 


Dr. J. E. Briggs, 


Segregansett, . 


2,000 




8 00 


R. E. Allen, . 


Shrewsbury, . 


1,000 




4 00 


Kennan Damon, 


Concord, 


7,000 




28 00 


H. S. Cheney, . 


Southbridge, . 


5,000 




20 00 


A. G. Brockwalter, . 


North Wilmington, . 


1,000 


250 


5 00 . 


H. M. Killam, . 


Georgetown, . 


1,000 




4 00 


E. C. Parker & Co., . 


West Acton, . 


5,000 




20 00 


L. C. Patterson, 


Webster, 


5,000 




20 00 


F. S. Clark, 


Pittsfield, 


200 


200 


1 65 


A. F. White, . 


East Freetown, 


1,000 




4 00 


S. I. Bailey, . 


Hanover, 


1,000 




4 00 


B. S. Blake, . 


Aubumdale, . 


2,000 




8 00 


Taunton Water Works, 


Taunton, 


4,000 




16 00 


P. R. Bradbury, 


Norwell, 


2,000 




8 00 


E. A. Hall, 


Cambridge, 


2,000 




8 00 


W. P. Bailey, . 


Wareham, 


5,000 




20 00 


G. F. Kenney, . 


Brimfield, 


1,000 


500 


6 25 


E. P. Sherburne, 


Roxbury, 






1 00 


A. C. Spafford, 


Bradford, 


1,000 




4 00 


Lawrence Park, 


Groton, . 


1,000 




4 00 


Sanborn G. Tenney, 


Williamstown, 


1,000 




4 00 


E. P. Williams, 


Buckland, 


1,000 




4 00 



1 School order. 



17 



Name 


A rl rl rf»Qci 


Quantity 

of Whitp 

Pine. 


Quantity 
of Ash. 




Baker Box Company, 


Worcester, 


1,000 




$4 00 


TTt XT' T7^ 1 

Jli. Hi. Jliarl, 


West Boxford, 


1,000 




4 00 


D. JU. Unarles, . 


Brooks, . 


2,000 




8 00 


111. H. Blanchard, 


Lindenwood, . 


1,000 


333 


6 00 


Jii. (jt. Onilds, 


Bondsville, 


3,000 


1,000 


16 50 


P. F. Leland, . 


HoUiston, 


2,000 




8 00 


H. T. Brockway, 


South Hadley, 


500 




2 50 


b. Jli. White, 


Winchendon, . 


1,000 




4 00 


Wm. A. Gaston, 


Barre, 


3,000 


- 


12 00 


TT T T?„„_4. 

n, Li. r rost, 


Arlington, 




3,000 


13 50 


A. R. Sharp, 


Taunton, 




3,000 


13 50 


T T T T' , J 

±1. -L. r rost. 


Beverly, 




2,000 


9 00 


Park Hill Manufacturing 

Company. 
A. L. Hyde, 


Fitchburg, 
Southbridge, . 


5,000 
800 


2,000 
200 


29 00 
4 50 


C. R. Stacey, . 


Taunton, 






1 00 


Jr. K. Allen, 


Walpole, 




500 


2 25 


E. A. Smith, . 


Lowell, . 


1,000 




4 00 


H. L. Frost & Co., . 


Walpole, 




700 


3 15 


E. W. Breed, . 


Clinton, 




2,500 


11 25 


B.S.Blake, . 


Auburndale, . 


1,000 2 




1 50 


Total, 




115,000 


26,183 


$578 553 



1 School order. * Wild seedlings. 

3 This amount was turned (Jver to the State Treasurer. 



The following larger orders, for purchasers for whom ex- 
aminations and recommendations for planting were made, 
were shipped direct from commercial nurseries : — 



18 



Name. 


Address. 


Quantity. 


Mt. Hermon School, .... 


Mt. Hermon, .... 


85,000 


Nathan D. Bill 


Springfield, .... 


20,000 


Wm. G. Nickerson, .... 


Dedham, .... 


20,000 


A. R. Sharp 


Taunton, .... 


50,000 


Everett Flood, ..... 


Palmer, .... 


10,000 


Brockton Water Works, 


Brockton, .... 


30,000 


N. I. Bowditch 


South Framinghadi, 


10,000 


P. M. Low 


Baldwinville, .... 


10,000 


Total 




235,000 





White Pine Seed. 



Name. 


Address. 


Quantity 
(Pounds). 


Amount. 


G. W. Wiggin, .... 

N. D. Bill 

C. H. Bonney 

0. C. Cook 

F. S. Clark 

G. C. Tanski 

0. L. Howlett 

F. C. Hartwell, 

E. S. Magoon, .... 

F. M. West Company, 

H. E. Hildreth, 

0. H. Skinner 

G. E. Stone 


Boston, .... 
Springfield, 

Boston, .... 

Milford, 

Fitchburg, 

West Brookfield, . 

Southbridge, . 

Littleton, 

Barre Plains, . 

Springfield, 

Harvard, 

Harvard, 

Amherst, 


1 

25 
3 

i 

1 

n 

1 

1 

2 
2 

1 


$2 00 
43 75 
6 00 
3 00 
50 

2 00 

3 00 
2 00 

2 00 

4 00 

3 50 
1 00 
1 75 


Total, .... 




40i 


$74 501 



I This amount was turned over to the State Treasurer. 



As stated in last year's report, it has been our purpose 
to see that all persons for whom examinations are made 
should be assisted directly in getting practical results. One 
way in which we served to accomplish this last spring was 
to furnish the seedlings at cost, and what we were unable to 
furnish from the State nursery were purchased and sent to 
them. 



19 



Nursery Stock on Hand in Fall of 1908. 



Variety. 


Age (Years). 


Quantity. 


White pine seedlings, ...... 




150,000 


White pine seedlings, ...... 




"1 or\r\ f\r\f\ 


Pitch pine seedlings, ...... 




4U,UUU 


Norway pine seedlings, ...... 




25,000 


White ash seedlings, ...... 




20,000 


Chestnut seedlings, ...... 


1 


5,000 


Black locust seedlings, ...... 


1 


10,000 


Honey locust seedlings, ...... 


1 


12,000 


Boxelder seedlings, ...... 


1 


30,000 


Horse chestnut seedlings, ..... 


1 


100 






1,492,100 


White pine transplants, ...... 


3 


40,000 


White ash transplants, ...... 


3 


500 


Catalpa speciosa transplants, ..... 


2 


1,000 


Maple transplants, ....... 


2 ' 


1,000 




2 


500 


Total, 




1,535,100 



Seed on Hand in Fall of 1908. 





Pounds. 




Pounds. 


White pine, ' . 


175 


Balsam fir, . 


2 


Pitch pine, .... 


5 


White oak, .... 


101 


Red pine, .... 


2 


Chestnut, .... 


251 


Hemlock, .... 


2 


White ash, .... 


10 


Red spruce, .... 


2 


Black ash, .... 


10 


Norway spruce, 


2 


Rock maple, .... 


30 





1 Bushels. 



Municipal Forests. 
One of the interesting features of the year was the spon- 
taneous development of an important field of endeavor in 
forestry undertakings that has come in for a large share of 
the time of the State Forester's office. 



20 



J list at a time when we were planning and hoping for the 
establishment of more permanent forest reserves, Mayor 
Coughlin of Fall River, together with his water commis- 
sioner and city engineer, called at the office in an official 
capacity to determine if the State could assist them in con- 
verting their water basin about Watuppa Pond into a forest, 
the suggestion having come to the water commissioner when 
reading an article which appeared in one of the Boston Sun- 
day papers, on the State Forester's work. The results of 
this meeting were that the State Forester and his assistant 
spent a day with the Fall Kiver city officials, made a pre- 
liminary report, which was accepted, and then a working 
plan of the whole watershed, which covers an area of over 
3,000 acres, exclusive of the reservoir itself. This work will 
appear as a publication from this office later in the year. 

Upon learning of the work at Fall River the town of 
Westfield applied for a similar examination and plans for 
its watershed. This report is in progress at the present time. 

Seeing that the work would be of equal interest to many 
other cities and towns, the State Forester wrote all such, with 
the result that at the present time we have applications on 
hand for several more, and this department of the office can 
see plenty of work ahead of it for some time. It may be 
said that the cities in each instance have been ready to turn 
over to the State, for its assistance, the help of its engineers 
and assistants, so that the expense to the State remains rela- 
tively low for this work. 

The beauty of this work is that, from whatever standpoint 
one cares to look at it, it is found to be a great benefit. Prac- 
tically or economically, aesthetically or from the sanitation 
standpoint, the city is bound to derive great future benefit. 

Public Lectures and Addresses. 
The State Forester has done all this kind of work he pos- 
sibly could, and keep up with the routine work necessary 
under the present organization. During the winter months 
one's whole time could be utilized largely in lecture work on 
forestry, the demands are so great. As heretofore, the policy 
has been to accept invitations to address public meetings 




State Forest \urserv at A mherst. — Over 1,000,000 wliite pine seedlings at 
end of fii'st year. 



<9 



21 



whenever it can be shown that good results are likely to fol- 
low. In accepting invitations, the request is made that an 
audience of at least 100 be guaranteed, if possible. 

Lectuees before Business Men^s Organizations. 
One of the pleasing features of the year was the great in- 
terest manifested in forestry by our various boards of trade, 
merchants' associations, lumbermen's organizations, etc. The 
State Forester delivered talks on forestry before such organi- 
zations in the cities and towns of Fitchburg, Pittsfield, Xorth 
Adams, Springfield, Winchendon, Bridgewater, Upton, Clin- 
ton, and several in Boston, as the Massachusetts Reform and 
Economic clubs. Lumbermen's and Market Gardeners' asso- 
ciations. Results of these meetings have been very apparent 
in the great amount of inquiries and requests that have come 
to the office from this source. It takes business men to do 
things, and to these organizations the State Forester looks for 
very much assistance in the future. 

Lectures outside the State. 
The State Forester has been called upon to address various 
organizations during the year outside the State, some of which 
were: the Society for the Protection of ITew Hampshire 
Forests, at Intervale, ^N". H. ; the Citizens of St. Johnsbury, 
Yt. ; the Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, 
at Washington, D. C. ; the American Forestry Association, 
Washington, D. C. ; and the University of Maine, at Orono, 
Me. 

The National and State Conservation Commissions. 

The State Forester was chairman of the State delegation 
appointed by Governor Guild to attend the Conference of 
Governors, called together by President Roosevelt last May. 
Later the same committee of three was appointed as the State 
Conservation Comn^ission, to assist the ITational Conserva- 
tion Commission in getting together data relative to the natu- 
ral resources of the nation. Of course the office of the Mas- 
sachusetts commission was in collecting Massachusetts data 
only. This same State commission, headed by Governor 



22 



Guild, attended the second meeting of the IvTational Conserva- 
tion Commission in Washington, D. C, during the week of 
December 8. 

The ^sTational Irrigation and Forestry Congress. 

The State Forester was invited to address the above con- 
gress at Albuquerque, M., September 29 to October 4, on 
" Municipal Corporation and Private Ownership Forestry 
Development." 

This congress was as usual a very representative occasion, 
and offered a splendid opportunity to meet men who are doing 
things. To the acquaintances made at this meeting and that 
of last year at Sacramento, Cal., are due the interest and 
courteous treatment given us by western men at the recent 
hearing before the agricultural committee of Congress at 
Washington, D. C, the fore part of this month, at which 
Governor Guild presided. Governor Chamberlain of Ore- 
gon, Ex-Governor Pardee of California and President-elect 
Barstow of the I^ational Irrigation and Forestry Congress, 
who were in attendance at the Conference on the Conserva- 
tion of IvTatural Resources at the time, all prominent in said 
Irrigation and Forestry Congress, gladly appeared and en- 
dorsed our movement for the White Mountain and Southern 
Appalachian forest reserves. 

As alluded to last year, the more one sees of the more arid 
sections of the west, the better satisfied he is with the future 
possibilities of I^ew England forestry. 

Meeting with the State Firemen^s Associations. 

One of the pleasing occurrences of the year was the oppor- 
tunity offered through an invitation of the State Firemen's 
Association to address that body on " Forest Fires and their 
Prevention," at their annual meeting which convened at N^an- 
tucket on September 9 and 10. l^ot only was the State For- 
ester well received and given an exceptional opportunity to 
get acquainted with the men who have in charge the great 
responsibilities of protecting our homes in our cities and 
towns, but he was able to discuss with these men the impor- 



23 



tance of also systematizing and working out similar methods 
for handling forest fires. 

Since attending this meeting and making the acquaintance 
of so many good men, a great many valuable suggestions and 
assistance have come to the office; and there is little doubt 
but that as time goes on very valuable assistance is bound to 
come from the chiefs of fire departments in regulating and 
organizing forest-fire fighting methods for effective results. 

Our forest wardens and the chiefs of fire departments and 
their deputies should by all means work together in harmony. 
Already in many instances both offices are held by one man. 
Where the offices are separate, a definite understanding and 
methods of co-operation should be entered into. Both are 
public servants, and should be public spirited and work to- 
gether for the benefit of all. 

Pine Teee Blight. 

There probably have been few subjects that have caused 
more alarm than the so-called pine tree blight, which was so 
prevalent last year, and is still in evidence, although to a 
far less degree, this season. As was predicted in last year's 
report, the trouble was not as prevalent this year, especially 
in sections where it was very bad last year, as at Winchen- 
don. However, at Greenfield it was worse, if anything. On 
the whole, for the State, while trees affected last year still 
showed the effects, and an experienced person could pick 
them out at a distance, nevertheless they have improved in 
condition, and many will undoubtedly outgrow this malady. 

In order to keep in close touch with the pine tree blight, 
so that, should it develop still further this season, we might 
possibly obtain further information for combating it, besides 
having the assistants and others on the alert for developments, 
a young man, Mr. Thomas Jones, a recent graduate of the 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, who had specialized in 
mycology, was employed for a month. Nothing particularly 
new was found, other than was reported in the annual report 
last year. 

Early in the season most of the tip growth of the new 
shoots seemed to be affected, and it was thought that some 



24 



young plantations of trees from three to six feet high at 
Winchendon were more troubled than last year ; but a month 
later it was found that the browning or dying did not ex- 
tend beyond the first stage, and when the needles were fully 
out the general appearance was little else than normal. 

Undoubtedly more or less white pine trees will be affected 
from year to year with this trouble; but it is believed that 
we need to pay little attention to it, other than when a tree 
is badly affected and is going to die, it should be cut and 
utilized. The greatest loss comes where pine trees are valued 
from the aesthetic or landscape-gardening standpoint; and 
these are not as likely to be troubled, as the chances are they 
are on better soils, and hence likely to withstand such depre- 
dations. 

Forest Tires. 

The past season has been a noted one throughout the 
country for disastrous forest fires. The extremely dry sea- 
son rendered conditions exceptionally favorable for fires 
throughout the whole summer season. Exceptionally heavy 
forest fire losses were reported constantly from all the 'New 
England States, New York, Canada and the Lake States. 

This is the first year Massachusetts has ever had a definite • 
system whereby reliable data on forest fires have been col- 
lected. We are not in a position, therefore, to compare this 
year's data with those of previous seasons, other than in a 
general way. The State Forester takes pride, however, in 
reporting that it is his belief that Massachusetts has suffered 
relatively less than other States, considering her dense popu- 
lation and previous experiences. When Maine and the 
Adirondacks and other ISTew England States were having 
their worst fires, Massachusetts was comparatively free. 

It is believed that our new forest warden system saved to 
the State this year alone far more than people begin to 
realize. The State Forester has kept one man busy through- 
out the year, simply attending to the new forest fire regula- 
tions and assisting the forest wardens. 

During the first part of the season forest warden badges 
were decided upon, which are numbered consecutively from 
1 to 350, and sent out to all wardens. This has assisted. 



Portion of State Forest Nursery at Amherst. — Showing transplant beds. 



25 



in that it gives the warden his proper credentials. The num- 
ber of each badge is kept on file in this office, and thereby 
any forest warden can be identified. The badges are the 
property of the State Forester, and held by the wardens only 
during their services as such. 

As alluded to elsewhere, warning forest-fire notices, made 
of cloth, were supplied to all wardens in large numbers ; and 
they and their deputies took great pains in seeing that these 
were posted generally throughout the towns, and particularly 
where there was slash remaining from cut-over lands, etc. 

During the very smoky times this office was repeatedly 
informed from the various wardens that they were exerting 
themselves and keeping close watch, and even patrolling the 
towns to minimize the great chances for fire outbreaks. ]^o 
one could expect a greater loyalty and interest than these 
newly appointed forest wardens and their deputies have 
shown, and the State Forester desires here to publicly ac- 
knowledge their true worth and fidelity to the State. 

It is proposed to publish the data collected on forest fires 
for the State in a bulletin by itself, a little later on. The 
following table will be of interest, in showing to what extent 
and number and of how great damage these fires have been 
during the year. It may be said also that these fire esti- 
mates may be considered extremely conservative. Can any 
one doubt the needed rational legislation for handling such 
a parasite upon our veritable future prosperity ? 



26 



i-H CO 

r-* o' 



Mis- 
cellaneous 
Causes. 


209 

$42,600 

$7,274 

$7,492 

$57,366 

16.8% 
4,578 

1,176 


Berry 
Pickers. 


11 

$1,800 
$700 
$700 

$3,200 

448 


Hunters. 


18 

$5,400 

$1,600 

$1,603 

$8,603 

3.4% 
957 

238 


Set by 
Boys. 


58 
$2,700 
$800 
$800 
$4,300 

238 


Smokers. 


111 

$23,000 
$5,000 
$5,040 

$33,040 

1,302 


Farmers 
burning 
Brush. 


96 

$15,100 
$2,900 
$2,913 

$20,913 

14.2% 
3,958 

994 


Loco- 
motive. 


539 
$23,800 
$4,138 
$4,369 
$32,307 

966 


Unknown. 


337 
$58,200 
$14,736 
$17,479 
$90,415 

1,638 



C 0) 
.2 S 



..S <U 



s 2 s 

Q P 



s e 

pq « 



27 



ToREST Fire Posters. 
Following the instructions in the statutes, as last year, 
the State Forester had the abbreviated instructions of the 
forest fire laws printed on a large paper poster in red and 
black ink, 18 by 27 inches in size, and distributed them to 
all railroad stations, post-offices, chairmen of the boards of 
selectmen and forest wardens. For general use a new, smaller 
and more practical cloth poster was sent out in large quan- 
tities to all forest wardens for use throughout the State. This 
poster has served its purpose well, and good reports come 
from every section, which shows our people are taking an 
interest in stopping forest fires. (See below.) 

WARNING! 

FOREST FBES 

EXTRACTS FROM MASSACHUSETTS FOREST LAWS. 

Setting Fire to Crowing Wood or Timber of Another. Punuitabie by a fine of not 

more than SIOO.OO or by ImprlMnment for not more than ola months. R. L. 208, Sec 7 

2. Letting Fire Escape. Negligently allowing tire to escape from your owr. land to adjoining 

land. Punishable by • fine of not more than StSO.OO, also liable for damages. R. L. 208. Sect* 
8 and 9. 

3. Forest Wardens Not Liable to Arrest for Trespass, wardens. Deputies end Assist* 

ants, not liable for trespass while acting in the reasonable performance of their duties. Act* 
1907. 476. Sec. 6. 

4. Permit to Light Fire in the Open, in Towns so voting, a permit from the Forest War' 

den must be obtained to start a fire between April 1 and December 1. The only exception 
being— that debris from fields, gardens and orchards, or leaves and brush from yards may be 
burned on ploughed fields by the owners thereof, their agents or lessees, but In every case 
such fire shall be at least two hundred feet distant from any forest or sprout lands, and shair 
be properly attended until extinguished. Violation of this provision — Punishable by a fine of 
not more than SIOO.OO or Imprisonment for not more than one month or by both such fine and 
imprisonment. Acu 1908. 209. Sec. I. 

Arrest without Warrant. The forest waraen may arrest any persons found In the act of 
setting a fire in violation of the prorlslons of this act. Acts 1908. 209. Sec. 4. 

6. Penalty for Refusing Aid. Any person between the ages of 18 and 50 years who refuses. 

without good cause, to assist the Forest Warden or his deputies in the fiehting of forest fires 
Is liable to a fine of not less than 5 or more than 100 dollars. R. L 32, Sec. 21: 1907, 476. Sec. 3 

7. Disturbing Notices, whoever wllfully tears down or destroys any notice posted under the 

provisions of this act shall be punished by a fine of SIO.OO. Act 1907. 476, Sec. 7. 



Posted by authorHy ot Acts 1907. Chap. 47S, Sect. Z. F. W. RANE, State Forester, 

State House. Boston, Mas* 



28 



Forest Mensuration of the White Pine in Massachu- 
setts. 

The above was the title of a publication of this office sent 
out during the year. The purpose of the publication was 
set forth in its preface, Reasons for Publication," as fol- 
lows : — 

This handbook is pubUshed by the State Forester that our people 
in Massachusetts may have at their disposal information as to how 
they may determine, by simple measurements and the use of tables, 
the yields, and hence the values, of pine trees, from the commercial 
or lumberman's standpoint. 

The time has come when we should have a better practical working 
knowledge of forest values. Forest products continue to become 
more valuable yearly. It is believed that business men and all per- 
sons at all interested in forestry matters, as well as lumbermen and 
farmers, can get much that is of value from the tables and general 
information contained in this handbook. There is no reason why a 
person owning white pine growth, whether a small or a large tract, 
should not be able to determine practically how much lumber it is 
capable of producing, and hence its value, even before the trees are 
cut, if he cares to do so. This handbook will assist him in doing this 
very thing. 

Trees are easy of access, and can be estimated with great accuracy. 
The old idea, that a man must spend a lifetime as an estimator or 
cruiser in order to determine accurate yields from tree growth, is 
rapidly passing. The time of guesswork is being replaced by more 
definite knowledge. 

In order to secure the data contained in the tables, the State For- 
ester has had measurements of white pine taken in all parts of Massa- 
chusetts by trained men, and the data have been submitted to prac- 
tical experts as well, so we feel the work is authoritative. 

This publication has been well received and apparently 
much appreciated. 

Good Roads a Benefit to Modern Forestry. 
The forward movement and excellent work being carried 
out in road construction throughout Massachusetts are bound 
to result in bringing about modern forestry management in 
many back rural towns, more quickly than many people real- 
ize. The farther the forests are from the railroad or mar- 



29 



ket, the greater the expense made necessary in operating 
them. If to disadvantage in distance poor roads be added, it 
is readily seen that the transportation question alone pre- 
cludes practising modern forestry. The fact that two to 
three times as large loads can be drawn on good roads as 
on poor ones, and in many instances more trips can be made 
in the same length of time, will convince any practical lum- 
berman or business man of the importance of good highways. 

The State Forester is under many obligations to the State 
Highway Commission for courtesies extended during the 
year to study the State forestry conditions, by being invited 
to accompany said commission on their inspection tours, 
which were made by automobiles. 

The Tenth Anxiveesaky of the Biltmore Foeestry 

School. 

The State Forester was the Massachusetts delegate ap- 
pointed by Governor Guild to attend the tenth anniversary 
of the Biltmore Forestry School. 

This occasion, which occurred at Biltmore, ^sT. C, Novem- 
ber 26, 27 and 28, on the estate of George W. Yanderbilt 
proved a most instructive and valuable one. As the " Ameri- 
can Lumberman " expressed it, " An Extraordinary Outing 
of Representatives of all concerned with Timber, from the 
Tree to the Trade." The three days were extremely well 
planned by Dr. C. A. Schenck, the head of the Forestry 
School, for getting just the information desired. There were 
representative men present from every phase of forestry in- 
terests and from all over the country, including Canada. 

It was an excellent opportunity to see just what can be 
accomplished in forestry in a comparatively short time, and 
also to have pointed out and discussed wherein failures have 
been made. 

This occasion marked a new epoch in American forestry, 
and, without giving further details about the gathering, 
suffice it to say that the anniversary proved extremely in- 
structive and valuable, from a great many standpoints. The 
State Forester felt well repaid for the trip. 



30 



CO-OPEEATION WITH THE UNITED StATES FoREST SeRVICE 

Ai^D Forestry Officials of Other States. 
The State Forester wishes here to acknowledge the hearty 
co-operation that Mr. Gifford Pinchot and his able assistants 
and forestry officials of the various States have rendered 
whenever called upon. At the present time co-operative 
work with the division on forest products of the forest 
service is going forward, which we believe will prove of great 
value when finished. This will require some little time yet. 
It has been a pleasure to be of assistance to the many forest 
service men who have been compiling data of various sorts 
for the i^ational Conservation Commission reports through- 
out the season. The State Forester welcomes all interested 
in forestry. 

Articles for Papers on General Forestry Informa- 
tion. 

During the year there were calls upon the State Forester 
for some general literature for use in interesting owners 
of woodland in a few sections. This call came first from 
an enterprising newspaper man and a lumberman at Green- 
* field. Thinking the information would be of equal use to 
all rural sections, articles were prepared from time to time 
and sent to all papers that could use them to advantage. 
These articles were used quite generally, and we believe 
have been of assistance to many. Four of the articles sent 
out were as follows : — 

How ]\rAY THE Farmer assist in the Reforestation of New 

England. 

Forestry, when managed properly, will utilize our millions of acres 
of land in New England, at present seen on all too many farms scat- 
tered in every section, known as waste land, abandoned pastures, 
sprout lands, barrens, plains, etc., returning them to forest culture. 

If modern agriculture has taught us farmers anything, it is that 
concentration of effort, better culture and modem rotations are what 
make profitable farms. If an inventory is taken of the average New 
England farm, it will be found that there are many acres capable 
of yielding more profit to the farmer if devoted to the forest or 



31 



tree crop than used for any other purpose. These acres should 
therefore be converted to forestry as rapidly as possible. If each 
farmer will act accordingly, it may be only a matter of a compara- 
tively short time when New England would be blessed with well- 
balanced rural conditions. The State Forester, agricultural colleges 
and forestry schools of various New England States are ever ready 
to assist and advise in forestry work. 

The same culture that will return saw logs to our mills, make work 
for our country folk in winter, replenish our town treasuries, repaint 
the old red schoolhouse, pay the sexton to again ring the country 
church bell, make better roads, and, in short, return the former sub- 
stantial livelihood of country life, will also conserve moisture, pro- 
tect and enrich the soil, give an equitable climate, and return to New 
England the natural beauty we all would love so much to see. 

This is a seed year for the white pine in Massachusetts, and it 
may be elsewhere. Let each farmer collect some cones before they 
open, which is very shortly, then extract the seeds and plant them 
next spring in a bed in the garden. In two years' time he will have 
enough seedlings, if they are properly cared for, to set out many 
acres. We must learn to plant and care for our forest lands in the 
same way we do our better tillable soils, and they then will bring 
proportional yields of profit. The beauty of the whole forestry 
problem of New England is that in its practical solution it not only 
results in economic forestry, but solves the assthetic side as well. 
It is entirely wrong to think that trees should never be cut. Lumber- 
ing is as imjDortant to successful forestry as is the digging of potatoes 
or the harvesting of any crop when it is ripe. The same essentials 
of culture, also, must be understood in getting maximum returns in 
the one case as in the other. 

F. W. Rane, 
Massachusetts State Forester. 

How TO COLLECT AND USE WhITE PiNE SeED. 

White pine seeds sell at $4.50 retail, $2 in large lots, in Boston 
this summer, and the seeds of some other evergreen trees are still 
higher. Every owner of woodland with matured pines is in a posi- 
tion to take advantage of these almost fabulous prices, for the time 
has arrived when the pine cones should be picked. The white pine 
cones containing the seeds are ripe, and should be picked at once. 
This dry weather will open the cones before many days, and the 
seeds will drop out and scatter to the four winds, almost a total 
loss, while prudent lumbermen all over the countrj'- are paying high 
prices for seeds picked elsewhere. The market has to be supplied; 
it fixes a price that will produce the goods. If the seeds cannot be 
obtained at $4.50 per pound, they will go higher, until the farmers 
go into the business of seed picking or give away their prospects to 



32 



commercial pickers. Moreover, the revival of interest in f orestiy is so 
marked in Massachusetts this year that it points to reforestation on a 
broad scale in the near future, and this will be attended by an in- 
creasing demand for the white pine seed. Tree owners who are 
alive to their prospects will prepare for this demand by saving this 
year's crop, since the white pine seed will retain its vitality for 
several years, if given normal conditions, — not too moist or exces- 
sively dry. 

There is no time to lose this year, nor time to make elaborate prep- 
aration for systematic picking. Collect the seeds somehow, by the 
means that first suggest themselves, and the market will turn them 
into cash. One way is to run a long ladder up the tree; another 
is to go into the sections where lumbering is going on, and collect the 
cones as the trees are felled. Boys may climb up with small bags 
thrown over their shoulders and pick from the large branches with- 
out difficulty, about the same as apples are picked. After the cones 
are gathered, they may be dried where squirrels and mice are kept 
from them, and then thrashed until the seeds fall out. The practice 
of using a bag to put cones in is convenient, as they may be flailed 
in the bag during spare moments, and the seeds fall out where they 
are readily separated from the waste. 

To turn this waste crop into ready cash is not the only inducement 
in store for the land owner. It makes reforestation so comparatively 
inexpensive, producing the seed at the cost of cheap labor, instead 
of at $4.50 per pound, that there no longer will then be good reason 
for allowing waste land to remain idle and non-productive. Under 
its new policy the State of Massachusetts gives direct aid and counsel 
to any land owner who desires to seed his waste land. Communica- 
tion on this subject may be established with the Massachusetts State 
Forester, Prof. F. W. Rane, State House, Boston, and he will be 
pleased to meet the farmers and to give practical advice. He says 
that of the vast amount of lumber used in Massachusetts probably 
95 per cent, is imported from other New England States, from the 
west and from the south. Massachusetts certainly is capable of 
growing more than 5 per cent, of the lumber it uses; in fact, it is 
destined to become a lumber State that will closely approximate its 
consumption with its production, and the production of a seed crop 
at reasonable cost is the first important step in this movement. 

An Opportunity to reforest Waste Lands. 
Reforestation is so vital to Massachusetts and to her country popu- 
lation that it will be placed on a systematic basis in the near future. 
Preparations are now being made, under authority of an act of the 
Legislature of 1908, appropriating $5,000 for this j^ear and $10,000 
annually thereafter. With this money the State proposes to buy and 
reforest idle land, and has already addressed itself on the subject 




The Same Stand after Thinning. 



33 



to the selectmen and land owners throughout the Commonwealth, 
with most promising results. 

The proposition is arousing attention everywhere. Hundreds of 
acres of waste land have been offered to the State at nominal cost, a 
considerable portion of it being offered as a free gift. Such over- 
tures have come from West Brookfield, Spencer, North Ashburnham, 
Hubbardston, West Tisbury, Westford, Sharon, Gardner, Oxford, 
Winchendon and Sandwich. A business concern has pledged itself 
to donate 100 acres of land in southern Massachusetts, and an indi- 
vidual in Hampshire County has come forward voluntarily with an 
offer of 300 acres. This movement among land owners to turn over 
their idle property to the State, brisk at its very inception, substan- 
tiates the general supposition that there is in Massachusetts a vast 
acreage of land that has become unprofitable through indiscriminate 
and unbusinesslike lumbering. It shows, further, that the owners 
of this property have lacked the incentive, or the means, or the 
inducement, to tie up their capital on soil where the returns are so 
remote. Now comes their opportunity to let public capital develop 
their land and restore it to a paying condition on better terms than 
private effort could do ; and many of them are quick to see that this 
is a wise policy, even if it takes away conditionally their title to the 
property. On these terms the State is getting a wide choice of land, 
and when it has registered enough to permit of proper selection, the 
actual work will begin. There seems to be no doubt now about the 
ability of the forest department to get all the land it can handle. 

While the deed in these transactions passes the land over to the 
State, it provides that the original owner may repurchase within a 
stipulated period, at the price he received plus the money spent on 
improvement and 4 per cent, interest. In all probability the re- 
planting can be done by the State at less cost than by private effort, 
because the State has the work reduced to a science, and a corps of 
trained men to execute it. Not only are individuals accepting this 
proposition, but townships have taken it under consideration, with 
a view to turning over to the State sections of poor farms and water- 
sheds for the planting of trees. 

Both in accepting free and in buying land, the State will give pref- 
erence to tracts situated along highways, where the new plantation 
may serve the dual purpose of restoring the lumber stock and demon- 
strating to the public how the work should be done. 

The Collection and Use of Other Forest Tree Seeds than 

White Pine. 

Now is the time to collect certain forest tree seeds. One crop of 
the forest is gone, — the white pine, — and another is ready for the 
harvest. In years gone by the pine seed has been wasted in Massa- 
chusetts ; it was wasted this year, too, but it attracted more attention 



34 



than in the past, and the reports from various parts of the State 
show that more was collected than is usual. For instance, a man in 
Winchendon has collected 100 pounds of clean seeds this fall, em- 
ploying- boys to pick the cones for him, and he netted at least $100 
on the job. Massachusetts could be made to supply its own seed for 
reforestation, and it is squandering- a valuable product so long as it 
does not. The rebuilding of our forests is of such vast importance 
that it is the first subject to be taken up at the conference of New 
England Governoi's soon to be held in Boston. Land owners have 
an excellent opportunity this fall to provide themselves with the 
seeds of hardwood trees, such as the white ash, the rock maple, the 
hickory, the chestnut and the beech tree. The picking should begin 
at once, and it should be completed before the second week in No- 
vember. 

On the white ash, for example, the leaves have fallen off and the 
seed remains on the tree; they are about two inches long, and are 
provided with wings, hence are easily seen and reached. A medium- 
sized tree, about as large as an ordinary apple tree, may yield about 
20 pounds of seed, retailing at about $1 per pound. Almost any other 
crop of equal value would be taken care of, but this one, as a rule, 
is allowed to go to the winds. It can be harvested into a bag without 
much difficulty, either by shinning the tree or raising a ladder. There 
is a good demand for white ash. The seed of the rock maple has 
about the same commercial value; it is easier to gather, because the 
limbs on the tree hang low, and it will remain on the tree two or 
three weeks longer. How to keep the seeds of the white ash and the 
rock maple over winter is a problem that requires some attention, 
but it is not difficult. It is only necessary to dig a hole in the ground 
some feet deep and sink a box into it; in the bottom of the box put 
a layer of sand, and then spread a layer of seed 5 inches thick ; cover 
this with 2 to 3 inches of coai-se sand, and repeat the layers until 
the box is filled or the supply exhausted. Then cover the box about 
1 foot deep, to prevent the contents from freezing, and the stock 
will keep until next April, when it should be taken up. Kept thus 
during the winter it is ready for planting in the spring, and should be 
set half an inch deep in rows about 1 foot apart. In one year the 
plants will be large enough to transplant to the forest where they 
are to remain. 

The first substantial frost will open the burrs on the white oak, 
the chestnut, the hickory and the beech, and the seeds will drop to 
the ground, where they can be picked without any difficulty. The 
acorn is worth about $2 a bushel, the chestnut 15 cents a quart and 
the hickory nut $3 per bushel. They are layered for the winter in 
the same way as the white ash and rock maple, and in case of only a 
small quantity the most serviceable method is to sink a 2-foot tile 
into the ground and fill it with layers of sand and nuts, stretching a 



35 



wire netting" over the top, to keep the squirrels out. The pitch pine 
and Norway pine cones will open almost any time, and should be 
picked at once, before they open, if this year's crop is saved. The 
Massachusetts State Forester is aiding in every possible way to 
accomplish results ; let us all do our part. 

The following very complete and valuable work accom- 
plished by the Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board in 
practical forest planting is published in this, the State For- 
ester's report, by permission of said Board, in order that 
the data may be put into the hands of our people, who will 
find it of great value in demonstrating definite results : — 

Forestry Work in Connection with the Construction of the 
Wachusett Reservoir. 
In order to treat comprehensively the work as it has been carried 
on, it will be found advantageous to divide the subject into five 
branches, namely : general ; nurseries ; plantings ; improvement thin- 
nings; fire protection. 

General. 

The work of reforestation was begun in lcS98 by the preparation 
of two nurseries for the raising from seeds of both coniferous and 
deciduous seedlings, to be planted on such of the lands owned by 
this Board as were not already covered with a timber stand of some 
description. 

The fii-st field j^lanting was made in the spring of 1902, when about 
175 acres were planted, and since that time plantings varying in size 
from 50 to 200 acres have been made every spring and fall. 

The results obtained have been exceptionally satisfactory as far as 
the conifers are concerned, there being approximately 90 per cent, 
of the seedlings planted which have lived. 

The deciduous seedlings raised in the nursery have in almost every 
case failed completely after being transplanted into the field. This 
failure was probably due to the character of the soil in the nursery. 

Altogether, there have been planted about 1,330 acres with about 
1,850,000 trees, made up of 948,000 conifers and 902,000 hardwoods, 
of which about 90 per cent., or 853,000 conifers, and 7 per cent., or 
63,000 hardwoods, are living at present. 

Nurseries. 

There are two nurseries, one on either shore of the reservoir, hav- 
ing an aggTCgate area of 8 acres. 

The one on the north shore, containing 4.3 acres, is used for hard- 
wood or deciduous seedlings, and was originally arable or grass land. 



36 



so that no great amount of preparation was necessary to make this 
area suitable for nursery purposes. 

The one on the south shore, containing 3.7 acres, is used for the 
raising of coniferous seedlings. This area was originally covered 
with a white oak and chestnut stand about fifteen years old, so that 
a large amount of work, consisting of clearing, grubbing, plowing 
and harrowing was necessary to prepare the area for nursery uses. 
This work cost about $200 per acre. 

The nursery work, which consists of preparing the ground, sow- 
ing the seed, caring for the seedlings by watering, mulching, screen- 
ing and weeding the first year, and transplanting, watering, screening 
and weeding the second and third years, costs $1.50 per 1,000 trees 
for the first year and $1.60 per 1,000 trees for each succeeding year. 

Plantings. 

The seedlings, having been at least two seasons in transplant rows, 
are now ready for their final planting into the field. Planting gangs 
composed of from 25 to 30 men are employed on this work, 4 or 5 of 
whom are engaged in the nurseries preparing the trees for the field, 
which work involves taking the trees from the transplant beds, prun- 
ing the roots, sorting, counting, puddling and transferring to the 
field, while the remainder are engaged in the actual planting process. 
The maximum rate of planting acquired by an experienced gang- 
under ideal conditions was 1,000 trees per man per nine-hour day. 

Spring plantings are made immediately after the frost leaves the 
ground, and fall plantings before it enters. 

Previous to the fall planting of 1906 the general type of planting 
was white pines, spaced 10 by 10 feet, with some hardwood filler, 
making the trees 5 feet apart each way. The above-mentioned type 
was abandoned in 1906 because of the almost complete failure of the 
hardwoods, and solid white pine stands, the trees spaced 6 by 6 feet, 
have been planted since that time. 

In order to have an effectual screen along the forested portions of 
the shore of the reservoir, which would prevent the foliage from the 
deciduous trees from being blown into the reservoir, three rows of 
white pines, spaced 6 feet apart each way, and two rows of arbor 
vitas, 2 feet apart, trees 3 feet apart in the rows, have been planted 
on the back half of the 50-foot reservoir margm. The gTcater pro- 
portion of the arbor vitae have failed, probably because of having 
been planted in the field when too young (two or three years old) , to 
endure the severe exposure which prevails along the shores of the 
reservoir. 

Improvement Thinnings. 
Under ideal conditions the trees require no care after having been 
planted in the field; but experience has shown that in pasture or 
brush land, where the common gTay birch grows naturally, and in 



37 



sprout or scrub land which has been underplanted, it is necessary to 
thin out and trim up the hardwoods in order to prevent too much 
shade and the destructive thrashing of the tops of the pines. This 
process, termed " improvement thinning among planted trees," costs 
about $6 per acre. 

In the original timber stands the policy has been to take out the 
mature, undesirable or weak trees, thereby improving the stand by 
giving more space and air to the strong, hardy specimens. This class 
of work costs about $20 per acre, but there is a considerable revenue 
from the wood cut, which in some cases has been sufficient to make 
the work pay for itself. 

Fire Protection. 

Among the greatest dangers to the forests are fires, and in order 
to prevent their spreading to or from abutting property, and . to 
provide a line of defence on which to fight them, a fire guard 40 feet 
wide has been cut around the entire outside limit of the marginal 
lands of the reservoir. There is also a network of forest roads 15 feet 
wide throughout the reservation, which acts as supplementary fire pro- 
tection. The brush and weeds are cut from these two protective 
systems once every year. 

A double furrow has been plowed along that portion of the fire 
guard where there was no stone wall, to check the advance of creep- 
ing fires from neighboring property. 

On holidays and Sundays, during the dangerous seasons of the 
year (early spring and late fall), men armed with fire extinguishers 
patrol the reservation to further protect it from the ravages of 
forest fires. 

Thus far no serious fires have occuiTed, though several have 
started which would have caused great damage but for the effectual 
protection given. 

Table of Work accomplished to Jan. 1, 1909. 



Total area of nurseries (acres), ........ 8 

Total area planted (acres), ......... 1,330 

Total number of trees planted: — 

Coniferous, ........... 948,000 

Deciduous, ........... 902,000 

Total length of reservoir margin planted (miles), ..... 32 

Total length of fire guard cleared and maintained (miles), . . . 20.8 

Total length of forest roads cleared and maintained (miles), ... 30 

Planted area thinned (acres), ........ 488 

Original timber stands thinned (acres), . . . . . . , 209 



Table of Costs {Wage Bate, $1.75 per Eight-hour Day). 

Nurseries: — 

Clearing nursery on south shore, . . $200 00 per acre. 

Maintenance of nursery, first-year seed- 
lings, 1 50 per 1,000 trees. 

Maintenance of nursery, second and third 

year seedlings, 1 60 per 1,000 trees per year. 



38 



Planting s: — 

Clearing areas preparatory to planting, 
Transplanting seedlings from nursery 

field 

Transplanting seedlings from nursery 
field 

Improvement thinnings: — 
Among planted trees, 
■ In original timber stands. 



$4 00 per acre. 

to 

5 20 per 1,000 trees. 

to 

5 50 per acre (6 by 6 feet planting). 



6 00 per acre. 
20 00 per acre. 



Fire protection: — 

Clearing marginal fire guard 40 feet wide, . 150 00 per mile. 

Maintaining marginal fire guard, . . 27 00 per mile per year. 
Clearing and grading forest roads 15 feet 

wide, ...... 120 00 per mile. 

Maintaining forest roads, . . . 8 00 per mile per year. 

Maintaining fire patrol, . . . . 95 00 per year. 



Reforestation. — Summary of Costs {Wage Rate, $1.75 per Eight- 
hour Bay). 



Items. 


Per 1,000 

Trees 
planted. 


Per Acre 
planted. 


Preparing nurseries, ........ 


$0 40 


80 56 


Seedlings (one year), ........ 


1 50 


2 09 


Transplants (two years), ....... 


3 18 


4 42 


Preparatory clearing, ....... 


2 88 


4 00 


Field planting, ......... 


5 20 


5 50 " 


Clearing 40-foot fire guard, ...... 


76 


1 06 


Clearing 15-foot forest roads, ...... 


1 00 


1 35 


Maintaining 40-foot fire guard (per year), .... 


14 


19 


Maintaining 15-foot forest roads (per year), .... 


06 


09 


Maintaining fire patrol, ....... 


02 


03 


Improvement clearing, ....... 


4 30 


6 00 



The foregoing table shows that it costs $14.92 per 1,000 trees, or 
$18.98 per acre (1,390 trees per acre), to raise the trees from seed, 
prepare, plant and protect the lands planted through the time of the 
final planting in the field; that it costs $0.22 and $0.31 per year 
respectively to maintain efficient fire protection; that it costs $1.30 
and $6 respectively for an improvement thinning, which will prob- 
ably have to be made twice during the fii^t ten years, after which 
time the trees should care for themselves. 

Yours very truly, 

Henry H. Sprague, 

Chairman. 

E. R. B. Allardice, superintendent in charge Wachusett depart- 
ment; Dexter Brackett, chief engineer of water works. 



39 



Assistants. 

The assistants and employees of the State Forester have 
practically remained the same throughout the year, and it is 
a pleasure to compliment them on their fidelity and earnest 
endeavors in promoting and advancing the State work. 

Mr.H. O. Cook, M.F., has done valiant service, particularly 
in technological lines, as contained in the publication Men- 
suration of White Pine," in numerous examinations, etc. 

Mr. R. S. Langdell, who has charge of the nursery work 
and is assisting greatly in the reforestation work, is ever 
hustling and giving splendid satisfaction, as the nursery and 
reforestation reports show. 



EXPENDITUKES AND RECEIPTS. 

In accordance with section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts 
of 1904, as amended by the Acts of 1907, chapter 473, sec- 
tion 2, the following statement is given of the expenditures 
for the year ending I^ov. 30, 1908 : — 



Salaries of assistants, ...... 

Travelling expenses (not included in co-operative fund) , 
Stationery and other office supplies, 
Printing, 
Postage, 
Express, 
Instruments, 
Miscellaneous, 
Nursery, 

Balance unexpended. 
Total appropriation. 



Seedlings, 
Express, 
Travelling, 
Land, . 
Tools, . 



Balance unexpended. 



Reforestation Account. 



$3,318 55 
678 89 
379 30 
2,209 78 
711 99 
175 40 
11 34 
89 25 
2,361 73 

$9,936 23 
63 77 

$10,000 00 



$3,495 79 
597 73 

61 35 
759 00 

82 58 

$4,996 45 
3 55 



Total appropriation. 



$5,000 00 



40 



There was realized from the sale of seedlings $578.55, and 
for seeds $74.50, total $653.05, which amount has been 
turned over to the Treasurer and Receiver-General ; there was 
also received from the sale of publications $153.83, which 
has also been turned in to the Treasurer and Receiver-General, 
making a grand total of $806.88. If to this amount is added 
the amounts unexpended, $67.32, we have $874.30 as a credit 
for the year. 

In accordance with section 5 of the above-named chapter, 
the following statement is given of the receipts for travelling 
and subsistence : — 



Lectures. 

Jamaica Plain Unitarian Church, Jamaica Plain, . ' . . $1 02 

Fitchburg Merchants' Board of Trade, Fitchburg, . . . 5 00 

The Thursday Club, Brookline, ...... 55 

Merchants' Association, Pittsfield, . . . . . 10 50 

North Adams Merchants' Association, North Adams, . . 9 91 

Women's Club, Clinton, 2 00 

Farmers' Institute, Ashfield, . . . . . . 9 70 

Worcester Grange, Worcester, . . . . . . 3 00 

Farmers' Club, Franklin (paid by club) . 

Wellesley and Needham Farmers' and Mechanics' Club, 

Wellesley, 1 00 

Winchendon Citizens, Winchendon, . . . . . 5 00 

State Board of Education, Lunenburg, . . . . . 4 93 

Bridgewater Commercial Club, Bridgewater, . . . 3 50 
Waban Women's Club, Waban, ....... 

Pomona Grange, Foxborough, . . . . . . 2 25 

Women's Club, Wellesley Hills, 56 

Institute of Technology, Boston, ..... 85 

Warren Grange, Warren, . . . . . . . 4 80 

Village Improvement Society, Marion, . . . . 2 50 

Women's Club, Lynn, 50 

Yarmouth Camp Meeting, Yarmouth, . . . . . 3 00 

Cochituate Grange, Cochituate, 1 00 

Springfield Pomona, Wilbraham, . . . . . 4 75 

Beverly Improvement Society, Beverly, . . . . 1 00 

Sunderland Grange, Sunderland, 4 50 

Farmers' Association, Upton, . . . . . . 2 50 

Westwood Grange, Westwood, . . . . . . 2 97 

Board of Trade, East Bridgewater, 2 00 

Pomona Grange, Berhn, 2 50 

Pomona Grange, Westfield, 5 50 

South Weymouth Grange, South Weymouth, ... 75 



41 



Marlborough Grange, Marlborough, . . . . . $2 50 

Beacon Club, Waban, ........ 

Women's Club, Norwood, ....... 75 

A list of the visits made, the area of woodland involved 
and the receipts for expenses are as follows : — 



Examinations of Woodlands. 



Name of Owner. 


Town. 


W 

(Acres). 


Expense. 


Aberthaw Construction Company, 


Phillipston, 


211 




Allen, Philip R., . . . 


Walpole, 


2 


$1 60 


Bridgman, H. F., 2 . 


Shirley 


15 


3 05 


Bryant, E. A., . 


Dover, .... 


75 


60 


Bates, Gen. A. E., 


Windsor, 


1,000 


5 00 3 


I3artiett, Kj. iVi., . . 


Templeton, 


ftn 
oU 


2 50 


Bird, C. S 


Walpole, 


60 


60 


Beebe, Miss E., . ' . 


Wilbraham, 


400 


1 80 3 


Cole, E. E., . 


Scituate, 


6 




Hospital School, 2 . 


Canton, 


65 


1 10 


Dennison, H. S., 


Framingham, . 


100 


1 00 


Dunbar, E. P., ... 


West Bridgewater, . 


8 


90 


Edwards, George, 


Middleborough, 


100 


1 25 


Edson, C. F., . 


TVilbraham, 


35 


_ 4 


Fisher, L. N., .... 


W^alpole, 


7 


10 


Farnsworth, R. M., 


Lancaster, . . . 


150 


1 75 


Fall River Reservoir Commission 


Fall River, 


3,000 


52 85 


Griswoldville Manufacturing Com- 


Colrain, .... 


100 


4 90 


pany. 








State Colony for Insane, 


Gardner, 


600 


2 90 


Hall, A. N., . 


Dunstable, 


25 


1 30 


Hall, A. H 


Leominster, 


3 


_ 4 


Hayward, E. L., . . . 


Easton, .... 


4 


1 00 


Harvey, W. A., ... 


Dover, .... 


160 




Holton, S. S., . 


Lexington, 


40 


30 


Holyoke Water Board, 


Holyoke, 


2,500 


6 70 


Howe, L, P 


Bolton, .... 


7 


3 50 


Hudson Water Board, 


Hudson, 


30 


1 00 


Hutchins, Rev. C. L., 


Concord, 


25 


80 


Kilburn, W. G 


Lancaster, 


7 


1 80 


King David Lodge, . 


Taunton, 


17 


1 65 


Leland, E. F., . 


Andover, 


200 


6 00 



Paid by owner. 2 Made two visits. ^ Part expense. * No expense. 



42 



Examinations of Woodlands — Concluded. 



Name op Owner. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Expense. 


Leominster Water Soard, . 


Leominster, 


40 


$1 70 


Lyman, R. W., 


Belchertown, . 


50 


1 001 


Means, Rev. 0. W., . 


Brookfield, 


250 


2 70 


Medfield Insane Asylum, 


Medfield, 




1 10 


Payson, W. E., 


Norton, .... 


3 


1 20 


Pease, Miss Laura, 


Middleborough, 


25 


_ 2 


Plymouth Water Board, 


Plymouth, 


40 


_2 


Randall, C. A., ... 


North Dana, . 


30 


_ 2 


Rutland Sanatorium, 


Rutland, 


100 


2 10 


Seaver, Allyn, .... 


Wilbraham, 


127 


1 801 


Sedgwick, Alexander, 


Stockbridge, . 


300 


6 001 


Snow, R. K., . 


Wayland, 


30 


60 


Stevens, Chas., 


Sudbury, 


5 


1 25 


Stone, C. A., . 


Plymouth, 


200 


1 50 


Symmington, R. B.,^ 


Plymouth, 


10 


3 20 


Thayer, R. P., . 


South Hadley, 


80 


2 00 1 


Walpole High School, 


Walpole, 


20 


_ 2 


Westfield Water Board, 


Granville, 


1,000 


20 00 


Worcester Insane Colony, . 


Grafton, 


500 


1 70 


Whitney, W. M., 


Winchendon, . 


175 


2 65 


School for Feeble-minded, 


Waltham, 


45 


_ 2 


School for Feeble-minded, 


Wrentham, 


15 


1 20 


W^yman, H. A., 


Lakeville, 


400 


1 60 


Lawrence, Dr., 


Lexington, 


20 


40 


Dean, Wm. M., 


Taunton, 


200 


_ 2 


Sharp, A. R., . 


Taunton, 


600 




Pittsfield Water Board, 


Pittsfield, 


1,500 




North Adams Water Board, 


North Adams, 


125 




Prince, F. H 


Wenham, 


800 




Prescott, C. W 


Concord, 


70 




Burgess, J. K., 


Dedham, 


50 




Total area, 




15,842 





Part expense. ^ No expense. ^ Made two visits. * Paid by owner. 



A Stand of White Pine at Sudbukv, Mass.— 
This was a field only partly planted by filling in 
the blanker open spaces when young; now about 
thirty-eight years old, and estimated to cut 38,000 
feet B. M. per acre. One thousand feet per year 
of white pine is a fair return from cheap lands. 
Stum page is woi'th $7 to $10 per thousand. 



43 



What the Geneeal Court is asked to consider at 

Present. 

/. To amend the Reforestation Law, so that the State 
Forester may not he limited to purchasing Forty Acres 
in Any One Tract. 
While, of course, the purpose of the law in stipulating 
the number of acres was to spread the work Out broadly and 
make it an object lesson of educational value, nevertheless 
there are often many tracts that exceed this acreage, and it 
is but natural that the whole tract should be handled at the 
same time, and thereby much more economically. Where a 
few acres overruns the stipulated number, it requires an ex- 
tra survey, and adds greatly to the expense as well in making 
out the transfer papers. This amendment would be of great 
assistance in the practical working out of this law. 

//. A State Forest Survey. 
To authorize a forest survey of the State, in order to de- 
termine just what lands should be retained in forests, as an 
economic factor of the State's conservation policy. With 
a definite knowledge of conditions mapped out, the State 
Forester will be greatly aided in the work of reforestation, 
and have a guide to future endeavor in State work. The 
survey could be carried out in connection with the working- 
plans department of the State Forester's office, by simply 
appropriating a certain amount for employing assistance to 
do the work. Another way of handling the project would 
be for the State to pay one-half of the expense of such a 
survey, provided the counties pay one-half. This work need 
not be accomplished in one year, but taken up in a systematic 
way, spending only a nominal sum each year until it is fin- 
ished. 

Our people realize the great importance of conserving the 
forests in the White Mountains and southern Appalachians, 
and they undoubtedly recognize equally the importance of 
conserving the forests within our own State, although they 
are not on so large a scale. 



44 



Uniform Forestry Legislation. 
It was the consensus of opinion, as the result of the first 
Xew England conference called by the Governors of the ^sTew 
England States, that much mutual benefit could come through 
uniform legislation. Through a call by the Massachusetts 
State Forester, the 'New England State Forestry officials met 
at the State House, Boston, on December 4, and decided to 
make the following general recommendations for considera- 
tion by their respective State Legislatures : — 

(a) Resolved, That the cost of extinguishing fires known to be set 
by railroads shall be paid for by said railroad corporations. 

{h) Resolved, That when forest fires are caused by individuals, the 
individuals causing said fires shall be liable for all expense of their 
extinguishment. 

(c) Resolved, That it is the opinion of the committee that the 
present Massachusetts forest fire law relative to giving permits for 
the burning of brush and setting of fires out of doors should be 
adopted for all the States. 

(d) Resolved, That we believe in legislation to regulate the man- 
agement of forest lands, and that a permit be required by operators 
of portable mills from the State forest officials. 

(e) Resolved, That there should be a law in each State, similar to 
the Vermont law, authorizing the Governor to issue a proclamation, 
when it is thought advisable by the State forest official, prohibiting 
sportsmen and others from traversing the woods unnecessarily. 

(/■) Resolved, That there should be definite understandings with 
the railroads and State forestry officials as to the dangerous sections 
of the railroad lines traversing the respective States, so that patrols 
by the railroads may be established whenever it is thought ad^dsable 
by the State. 

(g) Resolved, That there should be a law to regulate the takmg of 
firearms into the woods during the closed season on game. 

IV. Increased Appropriation needed. 
The State Forester feels it none other than his duty to 
ask for an increased appropriation for his work this coming 
year. 

If examined carefully, it can be shown that the expendi- 
ture for reforestation and nursery work, while in itself an 
expenditure by the State, must ultimately come back to the 



45 



State treasury with interest. This, therefore, eliminates as 
a real out-go from the State treasury fully one-half of the 
annual appropriation made for this office. 

We are convinced that the enactments passed in recent 
years are proving their value. ISTow that we have our corps 
of 350 forest wardens appointed and in the harness, let us 
give them every legitimate worthy support possible. With 
an early convention of the forest wardens, I am sure the re- 
sults to come from such would be regained financially an 
hundred fold in a single year. The State Forester could 
utilize the services of forest wardens in various towns to a 
great advantage along many mutual lines, were there more 
funds that would permit it. Where such work is left to the 
tovms, many are likely to be indifferent, while, if awakened 
by a general current of live endeavor on the part of the State, 
they catch the spirit and realize the importance of self- 
preservation. As soon as we have our forest wardens thor- 
oughly familiar with the great good to be accomplished, they 
are going to impart its importance to the towns they repre- 
sent. 

As I stated last year, the State Forester hopes to so edu- 
cate his wardens that they will become in a sense town forest- 
ers, who shall keep the importance of forestry and how to 
perpetuate and manage the same practically directly before 
the people. With such an organization, when gypsy moths, 
pine blight, fires, etc., are troublesome, or, on the other hand, 
when people desire to reforest lands or thin and give proper 
care to their wood lots, in either case here is a man to whom 
they may look for advice. Is not the State making an ex- 
penditure here that will ultimately bring a great reward ? 

In establishing workable State forest policies, as in every 
other new undertaking that requires an expenditure of 
money, we are inclined to be conservative. When we real- 
ize, however, that many of our small towns are paying large 
sums annually simply for fighting forest fires, which expendi- 
ture is a constant drain and too often a total loss, to say 
nothing about the actual loss in present and future forest 
products, I am sure that business and thinking men can see 
that it is simply a losing proposition not to definitely and at 



46 



once spend a few dollars that will make it possible to save 
millions in the future. 

The State Forester could spend to great advantage in the 
coming year $25,000 in systematizing and furthering the 
forestry interests throughout the Commonwealth. Of this 
sum, $10,000 is already provided for in the reforestation 
act of last year. The regular appropriation for the running 
expenses and general work of the State Forester for the past 
year was $10,000 ; therefore, the appropriation asked for 
would be an increase of $5,000. 

Summary of Recommendation's. 

(1) That the reforestation law be amended so as not here- 
after to limit the purchases of land to 40-acre tracts. 

(2) That a State forest survey be established, and funds 
for its accomplishment be provided. 

(3) That the six resolutions of the Xew England State 
forestry officials be considered with a view to their adoption 
for uniform forestry laws. One recommendation is already 
in the Massachusetts statutes. 

(4) That the appropriation for the State Forester's work 
be $25,000 for this year, $10,000 of which is already pro- 
vided for in the reforestation act. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RAISTE, 

State Forester. 



n 



Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FORESTER 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT 
1909, 



F. W. RANE, ^tVOTj Forfster; ' Uli 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 




STAiE LIBRARY OF MASSACHD3STTS, 
APR & 

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON, 



Appeoved by 
The feTATS Board op Publication. 



®l)e (JIomtnotirDCoUl) of itla00acl)usctts. 



To the General Court. 

It is with great pleasure that I submit this the sixth anuual 
report of the State Forester of this Commonwealth. 

Owing to the fact that the work of suppressing the gypsj 
and brown-tail moths has been placed under this department 
by the last Legislature, this report is divided into two parts : — 

Part I. General Forestry. 

Part II. Gypsy and Brown-tail Moth Work. 

This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of 
chapter 409, section 5, Acts of 1904, and contains a statement 
of the results obtained during the year 1909, together with a 
record of expenditures and recommendations concerning the 
future needs of the department. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. EAI^E, 

State Forester. 

Dec. 31, 1909. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, 7 

Organization, 9 

Staff, 10 

List of forest wardens and local moth superintendents, .... 12 

New legislation, 21 

1. Liability of railroads for extinguishment of forest fires, ... 22 

2. Governor's proclamation act for times of drouth, .... 23 
o. Amended reforestation law enlarging acreage from 40 to 80, . . 23 

4. An act placing the moth work under the State Forester, ... 24 

5. Appropriation for gypsy and brown-tail moth work 26 

6. An act to encourage the growth of white pine timber, ... 26 
Acknowledgments, 26 

Part I. — General Forestry. 

Examination of woodlands and practical assistance given owners, . . 31 

Reforestation work, 33 

Evergreen seedlings now imported free of duty, ...... 35 

Forest nursery, 35 

Larger State nursery needed, 37 

Norway spruce as a forest tree, 38 

Forest fires of 1909, causes, etc 39 

Fires from smoking, 40 

Arrests and convictions in 1909, 41 

Railroad co-operation in forest fire fighting, 43 

Forest fire deputies needed 44 

State subsidy to towns for better forest fire protection, 44 

Plan for establishing forest fire lookouts, 45 

Assistant needed in forest fire work, 47 

Power sprayers as forest fire equipment 47 

Automobiles and motor cycles in forestry work, . . . . . . 48 

Fire balloons responsible for forest fires, 49 

Price to pay for fighting forest fires in towns 49 

Slashings or brush should be burned, . 60 

Fire lines and protective moth belts, 50 

Cape forest fires, 51 

Authority for the State Forester to accept donations, 52 

Public lectures and addresses, 53 

Meeting with State Firemen's Association, ....... 53 

The Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, .... 53 

Conferences of forest wardens, 54 

Municipal forests, 56 

Bulletin on forest fires, 56 

Bulletin on thinning, 56 

Permit act, result of vote, 57 

Co-operation with the United States Forest Service, 57 



6 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Pine tree blight, 58 

The chestnut hark disease 58 

Forestry exhibits, 58 

Massachusetts forestry work recognized in other States, .... 59 

Expenditures and receipts, 59 

Part II. — Gypsy and Brown -tail Suppression. 

General considerations of the year, 67 

Apportionment of allotments, fi9 

Scouting, 69 

The condition of the infested district, 70 

Conference of moth superintendents, 74 

Spraying operations, 74 

Co-operation on state highways, 76 

National aid 77 

Supplies, 78 

Experimental work, 79 

North shore work, 81 

Danger from spraying with arsenate of lead, 84 

The diseases of the gypsy moth, 85 

The fungous disease of the brown-tail moth, 87 

Parasite work, 87 

Parasite appropriation, 92 

Report on parasites, by Dr. L. O. Howard, 93 

Future work, 97 

Proposed amendment to moth law, 98 

The elm-leaf beetle, 99 

Dead trees should be cut and utilized to minimize insect troubles, . . 100 

Modern forestry and insect warfare, -100 

Financial statement, 101 

General appropriation, 101 

Analysis of town expenses, . . . 102 

Financial summary by towns, 102 

Summary of recommendations, 108 



Savory Ways, in the Town of Carver. — The planter of these trees by the 
roadside was a public benefactor. If white pines will grow as well as this 
along a dry and compact roadside in forty years, imagine what better forestry 
could accomplish throughout our State. 



SIXTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

I^ever has there been a time in the history of the State when 
forestry matters more need the wholesome consideration of 
your honorable body than the present. Forestry and forest 
products have been our birthright, and we do well to reflect 
upon their importance to the present in the building of our 
ship of State, and not lose sight of the necessity of conserving 
them for our future needs. The histories of older nations are 
an open book to us, and tell only too well their pathetic tale. 

The year has been one of great activity, and forestry in- 
terests have been given more recognition than ever before. The 
forestry legislation has been well received by our people. It 
may not be in good taste to boast of our new laws, but we do 
wish it known that the American Forestry Association has 
recommended several of our enactments for general adoption. 

During the present year the results from organization and 
a more definite policy have been very evident. The forest 
warden system, which was fully explained in last year's report, 
has been very effective, and we have but just begun to see its 
usefulness. It takes time to create a proper forestry sentiment, 
let alone appreciation. E'ot only have a larger per cent, of the 
forest wardens and their deputies shown increased interest this 
year, but many, — a great many, — of our most public-spirited 
and influential people from every section of the State have co- 
operated in the forward movement of forestry endeavors. 

The services of the State Forester have been in constant 
demand, not only in making examinations and giving advice 
on forestry matters, but for lectures, demonstrations and for- 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



estry literature. More fire warning notices and forest law 
posters have been distributed and actually found posted in the 
towns of the Commonwealth than ever before. 

The permit act for setting fires out of doors was very gen- 
erally adopted last spring by the towns and cities throughout 
the State, and it is the opinion of the wardens generally that 
this legislation alone will be a great saving to the State from 
forest fires. 

For the first time the forest wardens have been gathered to- 
gether at conferences, which will be explained in detail else- 
where in this report. In thus acquainting these officers with 
their duties, we shall secure an efficiency not possible hereto- 
fore. 

By an act of the last General Court the work of suppressing 
the gypsy and brown-tail moths was placed under the State 
Forester. This bill was signed by Governor Draper on March 
14. Since that time, of course, the State Forester's duties have 
been greatly enlarged. It was found advisable to unite the 
offices, and, as there was not sufficient room to accommodate 
both departments in the State House, the office of the State 
Forester was transferred to 'No. 6 Beacon Street, tenth floor. 
In the readjustment of these two departments under one head, 
the aim has been to retain and adopt all the better features of 
each organization. The experience of the first half-year has 
resulted in a more effective organization than has seemed pos- 
sible. 

Ever since coming to Massachusetts in the capacity of State 
Forester, my work has certainly been met with public-spirited 
encouragement; and now, under my enlarged duties, I simply 
ask that you give me the same cordial and co-operative support 
as in the past. Any State department, having the spending of 
money for the public good, appreciates and covets assistance 
from the people generally. We propose to have a " live wire " 
organization in all our undertakings in the State Forester's 
work; and I believe I am not overstating it when I say that 
the citizens of Massachusetts generally are in accord in request- 
ing you, the General Court, to enact laws sufficient for our 
present and future forestry interests. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



9 



Organization. 

The placing of the moth work under the State Forester by the 
Legislature and through the recommendation of Governor 
Draper necessitated a reorganization of the work, to meet the 
new requirements of the office. 

It is to be expected that in the union of forces it will take 
time to adjust the machinery to the new conditions; but I am 
frank to say that all members of the organization have adapted 
themselves most happily to the new system, and, although nine 
months only have passed, the work is running on smoothly. 
What is true in this respect in the office force is equally true 
in the field work. The moth men are not only showing renewed 
interest in their work, but are assisting in perfecting better 
forestry conditions, assuming responsibility, and showing inter- 
est in preventing and extinguishing forest fires. The forestry 
assistants are helping in such work as marking the trees and 
superintending the thinning work so necessary in combating 
gypsy moths, and at the same time benefiting the growth from a 
modern forestry standpoint. 

After going over the organization carefully and discussing 
the matter fully with men experienced in the work, under the 
sanction of the Governor, the 6 divisions into which the moth- 
infested district was formerly divided were reorganized, and 
increased to 15. With 6 divisions each agent in charge had an 
average of 35 towns to look after, and he was allowed a number 
of inspectors to accomplish the necessary field work. In all, 
53 men were employed in the old organization. In the new 
organization of 15 divisions the 6 agents were given the more 
difficult ones, and the remaining 9 were filled by experienced 
inspectors. Four other inspectors were retained for special 
duties, subject to the direction of the main office. From 53 
men, therefore, the force has been cut down to 19, and by fur- 
nishing the present division superintendents with motor cycles, 
with only 12 to 15 towns to cover, they can readily keep in close 
touch with local conditions. Not only do I believe that our effi- 
ciency is greater, but in a year's time it is believed the saving 
to the Commonwealth, even after deducting the expense of motor 
cycles, will be $8,000 to $10,000. 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The next step needed is in raising the standard of the local 
town superintendents. The moth work has now progressed far 
enough so that competent men are available, and it is poor busi- 
ness policy to be compelled to have the work in some towns and 
cities in the hands of men utterly unable to get the best possible 
results. 

The present organization of the State Forester's staff is as 
follows : — 



Mr. F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.S., 

Mr. L. H. WORTHLEY, 

Mr. H. O. Cook, M.F., 

Mr. R. S. Langdell, . 
Mr. Gould, M.F., 
Mr. Chas. O. Bailey, 
Miss Elizabeth Hubbard, . 
Mr. F. P. Woodbury, A.B., 
Miss Charlotte Jacobs, 

Mr. George A. Smith, 



Mr. John W. Enwright, 



Mr. Chas. W. Minott, 



Mr. Frank A. Bates, 



Mr. Francis C. Worthen, 



Mr. Henry F. Armstrong, 



Mr. Thomas W. Emerson, . 



Staff. 

State Forester. 

Assistant Forester, in charge of moth work. 
Assistant Forester, in charge of forestry man- 
agement. 

Assistant Forester, in charge of nursery work. 

Assistant Forester. 

Secretary. 

Clerk, in charge of accounts. 

Clerk, in charge of forest fire records. 

Clerk, in charge of mail and office. 

Agent, Division 1, as follows: Chelsea, Dan- 
vers, Everett, Hamilton, Ipswich, Lj^nn, 
Lynnfield, Marblehead, Middleton, Nahant, 
Peabody, Revere, Salem, Swampscott, 
Wenham and Winthrop. 

Agent, Division 2, as follows: Arlington, Bed- 
ford, Billerica, Burlington, Lexington, Mai- 
den, Medford, Melrose, Reading, Saugus, 
Stoneham, Wakefield, Wilmington, Win- 
chester and Woburn. 

Agent, Division 3, as follows: Belmont, 
Brookline, Cambridge, Concord, Lincoln, 
Natick, Needham, Newton, Somerville, 
Sudbury, Waltham, Watertown, Wayland, 
Wellesley and Weston. 

Agent, Division 4, as follows: Abington, Avon, 
Braintree, Cohasset, Hanover, Hingham, 
Holbrook, Hull, Milton, Norwell, Quincy, 
Randolph, Rockland, Scituate and Wey- 
mouth. 

Division Superintendent, Division 5, as fol- 
lows: Amesbury, Boxford, Georgetown, 
Groveland, Merrimac, Newbury, Newbury- 
port, Rowley, Salisbury, Topsfield and 
West Newbury. 

Division Superintendent, Division 6, as fol- 
lows: Andover, Chelmsford, Dracut, Haver- 
hill, Lawrence, Lowell, Methuen, North 
Andover, North Reading and Tewksbury. 

Division Superintendent, Division 7, as fol- 
lows: Acton, Ayer, Boxborough, Carlisle, 
Dunstable, Groton, Littleton, Pepperell, 
Townsend, Tyngsborough and Westford. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



Mr. Clarence W. Parkhurst, . Division Superintendent, Division 8, as fol- 
lows: Ashland, Bellingham, Dover, Fram- 
ingham. Franklin, Holliston, Medfield, 
Medway, Millis, Norfolk and Sherborn. 

Mr. Wm. a. Hatch, . . . Division Superintendent, Division 9, as fol- 
lows: Canton, Dedham, Foxborough, Hyde 
Park, Norwood, Plainville, Sharon, Stough- 
ton, Walpole, Westwood and Wrentham. 

Mr. George A. Sands, . , Division Superintendent, Division 10, as fol- 
lows: Blackstone, Grafton, Hopedale, Hop- 
kinton, Hudson, Marlborough, Maj^nard, 
Mendon, Milford, Northborough, North- 
bridge, Southborough, Stow, Upton, Ux- 
bridge and Westborough. 

Mr. Harry B. Ramsey, . . Agent Division 11, as follows: Ashby, Auburn, 

Berlin, Bolton, Clinton, Fitchburg, Gardner, 
Greenfield, Harvard, Holden, Lancaster, 
Leicester, Leominster, Lunenburg, Millbury, 
Oxford, Palmer, Princeton, Shirley, Shrews- 
bury, Springfield, Sutton, Templeton, War- 
ren, Westminster and Worcester. 

Mr John A. Farley, . . Agent, Division 12, as follows: Carver, Dux- 

bury, Halifax, Hanson, Kingston, Marsh- 
field, Pembroke, Plymouth, Plympton and 
Whitman. 

Mr. Lewis W. Hodgkins, . . Agent, Division 13, as follows: Attleborough, 

Bridgewater, Brockton, East Bridgewater, 
Easton, Lakeville, Mansfield, Middlebor- 
ough. North Attleborough, Raynham, 
Taunton and West Bridgewater. 

Mr. John F. Carleton, . . Division Superintendent, Division 14, as fol- 
lows: Barnstable, Bourne, Brewster, Den- 
nis, Falmouth, Marion, Mashpee, Orleans, 
Rochester, Sandwich, Truro, Wareham, 
Wellfleet and Yarmouth. 

Mr. Saul Phillips, . . . Division Superintendent, Division 15, as fol- 
lows: Beverly, Essex, Gloucester, Man- 
chester, North Shore Woodlands and Rock- 
port. 



L. O. Howard, Ph.D., 

Theobald Smith, Ph.B., M.D., 
Roland Thaxter, Ph.D., . 

E. L. Mark, Ph.D., LL.D., 

W. M. W^heeler, Ph.D., . 

C. H. Fernald, Ph.D., 

M. L. GuPTiL, 
Frank H. Moshier, . 



Co-operative Scientific Staff. 

. Chief United States Bureau of Entomology, 
Washington, D. C, Parasites and Predaceous 
Insects. 

Professor of Comparative Pathology, Harvard 

University, Diseases of Insects. 
Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 
University, Fungous Diseases affecting In- 
sects. 

Director of the Zoological Laboratory, Har- 
vard University, Protozoa and Insect Life. 
Professor of Entomology, Harvard University, 

Experimental Entomologist. 
Professor of Entomology, Massachusetts Ag- 
ricultural College, Consulting Entomologist. 
Expert experimentalist. 
Entomologist in charge of laboratory. 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by towns.] 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


A Kin erf an 


287 


B. Ernest Wilkes, chief fire department, 


C Frederick Shaw 




181 


William H. Kingsley, 


James O'Neil. 


AcuslinGt 


275 


Eben F. Leonard, .... 






7 


John Clancy, ..... 






93 


Edward M. Hitchcock, 




Alford 


24 


John H. Wilcox, .... 




Amesbury, 
AmnGrst) 


228 
67 


James E. Feltham, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

G. E. Stone tree warden 


A. L. Stover. 


Andover, . 


212 


J. H. Playdon, tree warden, 


J. H. Playdon. 


A flin erf on 


193 


"Walter H, Pierce, chief fire department, 


William H. Bradley. 


A qVi V^n m n fi Tn 


104 


William D. Miller 




Asbbyj • 


158 


Wm. S. Green, .... 


H. A. Lawrence. 


Asbfiield 


50 


Chas. A. Hall, .... 




Asblandf 


200 


H. H. Piper, 


H a Snrinp- 


A+Vinl 


105 


Frank P. Hall, chief fire department, 




A nV^iTm 


265 
123 


Hiram Packard, 3 Hope Street, chief 

fire department. 
J» Fred Searle 


Wm E S Smith 

Will. Xli* O. Oi-llitll* 




259 


E. "Walter Packard constable 


WiUard W. Beals. 


Ayer, 


169 


V^'llCtllC^O Allt JL Cl 1 111 , .... 


Tir^Tino" A r^QTrnoTi 


JL#£t 1 11 o t (X ' f 


315 


Henry C. Bacon, P. 0. Hyannis, 


Harry W. Bodfish. 




142 








23 


Elmer D. Ballou, 




J3ctnorU| 


179 




W A riiitlpr 


Belchertown, 


73 


James A. Peeso, constable, 




Bellingliaiii 1 


326 


J_i. i . J-llciyKZLf LWWll tlCdOUlC^l, 


TT An TV A "XAT^ n 1 1 TI p V 

JLXCUljr TT iXltllCj' • 


Belmont , 


194 


John F, Leonard, chief fire department. 


V^IiaiO. X* • XXOU.UiIld.Il. 


Berkley, 


971 


VjrlQeOn XI. iJiXDULLL f .... 




Berlin, 


139 


Walter Cole, constable. 


WilUs Rice. 


Bemardston, 


39 


E. E. Benjamen, .... 




Beverly, 


220 


Robert H. Grant, chief fire department, 


Josiah B. Brown. 


Billerica, 
Blackstone, 


173 
114 


Geo. C. Crosby, chief engineer fire de- 
partment. 
Thomas Reilly, .... 


Francis J. Dolan. 


Blandford, 


81 


H. K. Herrick 




Bolton, 


146 


Frank A. Powers, tree warden, . 


Chas. E. Mace. 


Boston,' 






D. Henry Sullivan. 



* No forest area. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 73. 13 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Bourne, 


311 


Emory A. Ellis, P. O. Boumedale, 


Stillman B. Wright. 


Boxborough, 


182 


M. L. Wetherbee, selectman. 


John J. Sherry. 


Boxford, 


218 


Harry L. Cole, selectman. 


Chas. Perley. 


Boylston, . 
Braintree, . 
Brewster, . 
Bridgewater, 


138 
244 
318 
293 


Chas. S. Knight, metropolitan watch- 
man. 

James M. Cutting, special poHce, P. 0. 

South Braintree. 
T. B. Tubman, highway surveyor, P. O. 

North Brewster. 
Edwin S. Rhoades, .... 


E. E. Abercrombie. 
David A. Newcomb. 
Robert J. McNeeland . 


Brimfield, . 


99 


Edward J. Prindle, .... 




Brockton, . 
Brookfield, 


286 
120 


Harry C. Marston, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

David N. Hunter, .... 


Edward Moltan. 


Brookline, . 


237 


Geo. H. Johnson, chief fire department, 


Ernest B. Dane. 


Buckland, . 


49 


Wilham Sauer, P. 0. Shelburne Falls, 




Burlington, 


178 


Walter L. Skelton, tree warden. 


Walter W. Skelton. 


Cambridge, 1 




_ 


J. F. Donnelly. 


Canton, 
Carlisle, 


249 
171 


Laurence Horton, fire engineer, P. 0. 

Ponkapoag. 
Herbert P. Dutton, selectman, . 


Augustus Hemenway . 
G. G. Wilkins. 


Carver, 


304 


Eugene E. Shaw, .... 


Herbert F. Atwood. 


Charlemont, 


42 


Fred D. Legate, .... 




Charlton, . 


115 


Carlos Bond, ..... 




Chatham, . 


320 


Geo. H Eldredge, .... 


- 


Chelmsford, 


172 


Arthur E. Barton, .... 


M. A. Bean. 


Chelsea, 1 






J. A. O'Brien. 


Cheshire, . 


11 


Chas. D. Cummings, 




Chester, 


80 


William H. Babb, .... 


- 


Chesterfield, 


63 


Chas. A Bisbee, P. 0. Bisbee, . 




Chicopee, . 
Chilmark, . 


87 
308 


John H. Pomphret, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Ernest C. Mayhew, .... 




Clarksburg, 
CUnton, 


3 

145 


Robert Lanfair, R. F. D, No. 1, P. 0. 

North Adams. 
Daniel W. Goss, 40 East Street, 


Wm. McGown. 


Cohasset, . 
Colrain, 


246 
37 


Wm. J. Brennock, captain fire depart- 
ment. 
Wm. H. Davenport. 


Joseph E. Grassie. 


Concord, 


180 


G. E. Morrell, chief fire department, . 


H. P. Richardson. 


Conway, 


51 


Chas. Parsons, tree warden. 




Cummington , 


60 


W. S. Gabb, P. O. Swift River, 




Dalton, 
Dana, 


14 
147 


William M. Colton, forester, Flint 

Stone Farm. 
Ebner A. Collier, chief fire department, 

P. 0. North Dana. 





No forest area. 



14 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dan vers, 


210 


Thos. E. Tinsley, tree warden, . 


Thos. E. Tinsley. 


Dartmouth, 
Dedham, 


278 
241 


John W. Howland, P. 0. North Dart- 
mouth. 

George A. Phillips, .... 


George A. Phillips. 


Deerfield, . 


52 


Wm. L. Harris, selectman. 




Dennis, 
Dighton, 


317 

272 


Alpheus P. Baker, constable, P. 0. 

South Dennis. 
Ralph Earle 


H. H. Sears. 


Douglas, 


112 


W. L. Church, county commissioner, . 




Dover, 


240 


John Breagy, ..... 


Arthur Hagerty. 


Dracut, 


163 


Daniel D. Fox, .... 


Herbert C. Jones. 


Dudley, 


110 


F. A. Putnam, .... 




Dunstable, 


161 


Dexter Butterfield, .... 


James A. Davis. 


Duxbury, . 

E. Bridgewater, . 

E. Longmeadow, 


303 
298 
95 


Fred B Knapp, master Powder Point 
School. 

Loren A. Flagg, chief fire department, 

P. O. Elmwood. 
Asher Markham, .... 


Henry A. Fish. 
Wm. T. Greene. 


Eastham, . 


322 


W. Horton Nickerson, road surveyor. 




Easthampton , 


77 


Frank P. New kirk, tree warden. 




Easton, 
Edgartown, 


264 
309 


John Baldwin, chief fire department, 

P. 0. North Easton. 
George N. Cleveland, 


R. W. Melendy. 


Egremont, . 
Enfield, 


29 
74 


Frank W. Bradford, Great Barrington, 

R. F. D. No. 3. 
Chas. W. Felton, .... 




Erving, 


46 


Ch. H. Holmes, selectman, P. 0. Farley, 




Essex, 


233 


Otis 0. Story, tree warden. 


Otis O. Story. 


Everett,! . 






James Davidson. 


Fairhaven, 


276 


Albert C. Aiken, .... 




Fall River, 


280 


William Mulligan, tree warden, . 




Falmouth, . 


312 


J. M. Watson, .... 


W. B. Bosworth. 


Fitchburg, 


157 


Geo. H. Hastings, superintendent. 


Geo. H. Hastings. 


Florida, 
Foxborough, 
Framingham, 
Franklin, . 
Freetown, . 


5 

261 
197 
255 
274 


Fred R. Whitcomb, P. 0. Hoosac 
Tunnel. 

Ernest A. White, chief fire department 

and constable. 
James Stalker, P. O. South Framing- 

ham, assistant tree warden. 
Edward S. Cook, dealer in wood and 

lumber. 

Andrew M. Hathaway, P. O. Assonet, 


Frank C. Carpenter. 
N. I. Bowditch. 
M. J. Van Leeuwen. 


Gardner, 


153 


Theodore W. Danforth, . 


T. W. Danforth. 


Gay Head, 


343 


Leander B. Smally, Menemsha, Mass., 




Georgetown , 


224 


Clinton J. Eaton, .... 


Edward J. Watson. 


Gill, . 


45 


Lewis C. Munn, .... 





1 No forest area. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 15 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Gloucester, 


234 




Herbert J. Worth. 


Goshen, 
Gosnold, 


61 

344 


Sidney F. Packard, P. 0. R. F. D. No. 

2, Williamsburg. 
Harold S. Veeder, P. 0. Cuttyhunk, . 




Grafton, 
Granby, 


125 
79 


Sumner F. Leonard, overseer of the 
poor. 

C. N. Rust, ..... 


Chas. K. Despeau. 


Granville, . 


91 


Laurence F. Henry, selectman, . 




Gt. Barrington, . 


25 


Daniel W. Flynn, 54 Russell Street, . 




Greenfield, 


44 


William A. Ames, tree warden, . 


Wm. A. Ahies. 


Greenwich, 

Groton, 

Groveland, 


327 
167 
225 


William H. Walker, P. 0. Greenwich 
Village. 

James B. Harrington, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Sidney E. Johnson, 311 Center Street, 


William A. Woods. 
Raymond B Larive. 


Hadley, 


66 


Edward P. West, tree warden, . 




Halifax, 


299 


Edwin H. Vaughan, assessor. 


Frank D. Lyon. 


Hamilton, . 


222 


Fred Berry, P. 0. Essex, R. F. D., 


Fred A. Nason. 


Hampden, . 


97 


John S. Swenson, .... 




Hancock, . 


9 


Chas. F. Tucker, .... 




Hanover, . 
Hanson, 
Hardwick, . 


295 
296 
141 


Chas. E. Damon, P. O. Box 113, North 
Hanover. 

Albert L. Dame, tree warden, P. 0. 

South Hanson. 
Myron N. Ayres, constable. 


Lyman Russell. 
A. L. Dame, 


Harvard, . 


152 


Benjamin J. Priest, .... 


Geo. C. Majmard. 


Harwich, . 


319 


John Condon, ..... 




Hatfield, . 


65 


John M. Strong, P. O. West Hatfield, 




Haverhill, . 


216 


John B. Gordon, chief fire department. 


Geo. F. Moore. 


Hawley, 
Heath, 


48 
36 


Ernest R. Seare, tree warden, P. 0. 

Charlemont. 
S. G. Benson, ..... 




Hingham, . 


289 


Geo. Gushing, chief fire department, . 


Arthur W. Young. 


Hinsdale, . 


15 


Lewis B. Brague, tree warden, . 




Holbrook, . 


247 


E. W. Austin, .... 


William Hay den. 


Holden, 


136 


Henry E. Holt 


H, E. Holt, 


Holland, . 
Holliston, . 


101 

202 


0. F. Howlett, P. O. Southbridge, 

R. F. D. No. 2. 
Waldo E. Collins, .... 


Geo. H. Moody. 


Holyoke, . 


85 


Chas. C. Hastings, .... 




Hopedale, . 
Hopkinton, 


328 
201 


Walter F, Durgin, constable, superin- 
tendent of parks. 
R. I. Frail 


Walter F. Durgin. 
John T. Riley. 


Hubbardston, 


149 


Ernest A. Young, tree warden, . 




Hudson, 
Hull, 


199 
329 


Fred W. Trowbridge, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Smith F. Sturges, tree warden, P. 0. 
Allerton. 


R, H, Hapgood. 
John Knowles. 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Huntington, 


70 


Daniel B. Mack, constable, 


- — 


Hyde Park, 


330 


Harry G. Higbee, .... 


Harry G. Higbee 


Ipswich, 


223 


Augustus J. Barton, 


James A. Morey. 


Kingston, . 


301 


Thos. W. Bailey, selectman, 


Carl C. Faunce. 


Lakeville, . 
Lancaster, . 
Lanesborough, 


283 
151 
10 


Nathan F. Washburn, P. O. Middle- 
borough. 

Everett M. Hawkins, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

King D. Keeler, constable, 


S. T. Nelson. 
Geo. F. Morse, Jr. 


Lawrence, . 


214 


Chas. G. Rutter, chief fire department, 


Isaac Kelley. 


Lee, , 


22 


James W. Bossidy, .... 




Leicester, . 


122 


Walter E. Sprague, .... 


J. H. Woodhead. 


Lenox, 


18 


Geo. W. Fitch, . . 


~ — 


Leominster, 
Leverett, 


155 
57 


William K. Morse, chief fire depart- 
ment, P 0. North Leominster. 
Orman C. Marvel, assessor. 


S. R. Walker. 


Lexington, 


188 


Azor P. Howe, .... 


E. P. Merriam. 


Leyden, 


38 


Herman W Severance, Bemardston, . 




Lincoln, 


187 


Edward R. Farrer, tree warden, 


Edward R. Farrar. 


Littleton, . 


170 


Chas. F. Johnson, town clerk, . 


Alfred Hopkins. 


Longmeadow, 


94 


Oscar C. Pomeroy, .... 


- - 


Lowell, 
Ludlow, 


165 

88 


Edward S. Hosmer, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Edward E. Chapman, constable, 


Charles A. Whittet. 


Lunenburg, 


156 


Clayton E. Stone, .... 


Stephen Farnsworth. 


LjTin, 


331 


Nathan M. Hawkes, park commissioner. 


Albert C. Doal. 


Lynn field, . 


209 


Thos. E. Cox, P. 0. Wakefield R. F. D., 


Alfred W. Copeland. 


Maiden, 


191 


Frank Turner, .... 


Geo. W Stiles. 


Manchester, 


236 


Frederick Burnham, 


John D. Morrison. 


Mansfield, . 


263 


Herbert E. King 


W. 0. Sweet. 


Marblehead, 


332 


William H Stevens, 


William H. Stevens, 
2d. 

James H. Morss. 


Marion , 


306 


Isaac E, Hiller, .... 


Marlborough, 
Marshfield, 


198 
292 


Chas. H. Andrews, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Edward E. Ames, .... 


M. E. Lyons. 
P. R. Livermore. 


Mashpee, . 


313 


Joseph A. Peters, .... 


Watson F. Hammond. 


Mattapoisett, 


281 


Everet C. Stetson, .... 




Maynard, . 
Medfield, . 
Medford, 


184 
252 
192 


Arthur J. Coughlan, room 17, May- 
nard's block. 

Waldo E. Kingsley, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Chas. Bacon, chief fire department. 


Albert C. Coughlin. 
Geo. L. L. AUen. 
Wm. J. Gannon. 


Medway, . 
Melrose, 


254 


Clyde C Hunt, captain fire depart- 
ment. 


Frank Hager. 

John J. McCullough. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 17 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest "^Varden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Mendon, 


119 


Geo. B. Cromb, .... 


Frank M. Aldrich. 


Merrimac, . 


227 


Edgar P. Sargent, .... 


Frank E. Bartlett. 


Methiuen , 


213 


Herbert B. Nichols, 


Alfred H. Wayland. 


Middleborough, . 


284 


C. W. Weston, 


John C. Chase. 


Middlefield, 


342 


Thos. H. Fleming, P. 0. Bancroft. 




Middleton, 


211 


Oscar H. Sheldon, .... 


Benj. T. McGlauflin. 


Milford, 
Millbury, 


127 
124 


Elbert M. Crockett, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

William E. Horn, .... 


Patrick F. Fitzgerald. 
Edward F. Roach. 


Millis, 


253 


Chas. La Croix, .... 


Fred Holland. 


Milton , 
Monroe, 


242 
34 


Nathaniel T. Kidder, park commis- 
sioner. 

S. R. Tower, ..... 


Nathaniel T. Kidder. 


Monson , 


98 


Omer E. Broadway, 




Montague, . 


53 


Fred W. Lyman, lumber dealer, 




Monterey, . 


28 


Andrew J. Hall, .... 


- 


Montgomery, 


82 


Frank C. Preston, P. Huntington, . 




Mt. "Washington, 


30 


Fred Porter, ..... 


- 


Nantucket, 


333 


Albert R. Coffin, .... 




Nahant,^ 






Thos. Roland. 


Natick, 


204 


William E. Daniels, 


H. H. Hunnewell. 


Needham, . 
New Asb.ford, 


238 
6 


Howard H. XJpham, captain fire de- 
partment. 
Wm. E. Baker, .... 


Ernest E. Riley. 


New Bedford, 
New Braintree, 


277 
131 


Edward F. DahiU, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

E L. Haven, ..... 


- 


New Marlborough, 


32 


Dennis Hayes, P. 0. Mill River, 


- 




55 


Rawson King, P. 0. Cooleyville, 




Newbury, 


231 


William P. Bailey. .... 


0. B. Tarbox. 


Newburyport, 


230 


David Kent, 26 Arlington Street, 


Charles P. Kelley. 


NnrfnlW 


205 
256 


Walter B. Randlett, chief fire depart- 
ment, P. 0. West Newton. 
C. Albert Alurphy, 


Chas. J. Bucknam. 
C. Albert Murphy. 


North Adams, 
North Andover, . 


4 
215 


H. J. Montgomery, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Geo. A. Rea, ..... 


Peter Holt. 


N. Attleborough, 


262 


Harvey W. Tufts, chief fire department, 


F. P. Toner. 


N. Brookfield, . 


129 


H, S. Lytle, chief fire department, 




N. Reading, 


175 


Irving F. Batchelder, 


Geo. E. Eaton. 


Northampton, 


72 


Frederick E. Chase, 




Northborough, . 


140 


T. P. Haskell, .... 


T. P Haskell. 



1 No forest area. 



18 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Northbridge, 


LI 1 


w. ill. xieemap, tr. KJ. wnitmsviiie, 


Arthur F. WTiitin. 


Wortnnela, 


40 


rrea W. Uoane, .... 




Norton, 


266 


Alden Vj. WalKer, .... 




Norwell, 


290 


Jonn Wanlen, ..... 


Jonn ri. feparrell. 


Norwood, . 


250 


J. Fred Boyden, chief fire department. 


H. Frank Winslow. 


Oak Bluffs, 


334 


Samuel N. Kidder, .... 




Oakham, 


135 


Unas. ±1. Irowbriage, 




Orange, 


47 


Unas. tj. Liane, .... 




Orleans, 


321 


Unas, r . r^oor, .... 


Albert A. bmitn. 


Otis, . 


27 


Wilbur Li. fetricklana. 




Oxford, 


335 


A. W. Stafford, North Oxford, . 


Chas. G. Lamed. 


Palmer, 

Paxton, 


oy 
130 


James Summers, chief fire department, 

P. 0. Box 333. 
(jeo. W . Van Wyke, 


\j. XI. xveim. 


Peabody, 


219 


Michael V. McCarthy, Forest Street, . 


James F. Callahan. 


Pelham, 


68 


E. P. Bartlett, P. O. Amherst, . 




Pembroke, 


294 


Jos. J Shepherd, .... 


L^aivm o. vv est. 


irepperell, . 
Peru, 


160 
lb 


(jeo. {j. larbell, Jr. U. Hiast r^epperell. 

Room 17, Aldine block. 
Clarence W. Hathaway, 


John Tune. 


Petersham, 


148 


(jrcorge r Marsn, .... 




PhilUpston, 


106 


Wilham Cowbleck, Athol, R. F. D. 
No 3. 

Lucien D. Hazard, .... 


- 


xittsneJa, . 


io 




Flamville, . 


59 


J. r. Inompson, .... 


Hj. u. rsiacKweii. 


Plain field, . 


309 


Lestan E. Parker, .... 




Plymouth, . 


302 


Herbert Morissey, .... 


Geo. R. Briggs. 


Plympton, . 


300 


i nomas W rJlancnarcl, 


Zina E. Sherman. 


Prescott, 
Princeton, . 


69 
150 


Waldo 11. x^ierce, r. U. ureenwicn 

Village. 
J. Heyden Stimpson, 


J. Harry Allen. 


Provincetown, 


325 


James H. Bamett, . 




Quincy, 
Randolph, . 


243 
248 


Peter J. Williams, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Chas. A. AVales, chief fire department. 


xtandoipn u. r>ain- 

bridge. 
James E. Blanche. 


Raynham, . 


270 


John V. Festing, .... 


Geo. M. Leach. 


Reading, . 


176 


Herbert E. Mclntire, 


Guy A. Hubbard. 


Rehoboth, . 


268 


Silas A. Pierce, .... 




Revere,* 






George Babson. 


Richmond, 


17 


T. B. Salmon, .... 




Rochester, . 


282 


William N. Smellie 





1 No forest area. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Rockland, . 


288 


John H. Burke, water commissioner, . 


rranK xi. ianaw. 


Rockport, . 


ZOO 


A., d. ivicrariana, Jr. kj. jdox yi, 


Hill KjOlZ. 


Rowe, 


OO 


Merritt A. Peck, .... 




Rowley, 

Royalston, 

Russell, 


102 

OO 


Daniel O'Brien, agent Gypsy Moth 
Commission. 

Willow./-! WT WViit-a T> r\ Q/~>,i + l-i T?/->irol_ 

vv inara vv. v> nite, r. \j. ooutn xvoyai 
ston. 

Sidney F. Shurtleff, highway surveyor, 


Daniel O'Brien. 


Rutland, 


143 


Henry Converse, chief fire department. 


- 








Amos Stillman. 


Salisbury, . 


229 


Wm. H. Evans, .... 


Chas. M. Pike. 


Sandisfield, 


33 


Lyman H. Clark, P. O. New Boston, . 




Sandwich, . 


314 


jonn r. i^ariion, Jr. kj. oprmg Jriiii, 


r>. r . JJenison. 


Saugus, 


207 


Ole C. Christiansen, 


inos. hi. xJerrett 


Savoy, ^ 
Scituate, 


3 

291 


Herbert H. Fitzroy, P. O. Savoy 
Center. 

John F. Xumer, tree warden. 


Percival S. Brown. 


Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


267 
251 


John L. Barker, P. 0. Attleborough, 

R. F. D. No. 4. 
<ionn Kji. J:^niiups, .... 


T. J. Leary. 


oiieiueiat 


31 


<jeo. Kj. jrecK, ..... 




S n a1 V>1 1 VTt A 


43 


xi. yj, J; loK, X . \j, oiieiuurne xaiib, 




Sherborn, . 


203 


Milo F. Campbell, constable. South 

Sherborn . 
Melvin W . Longley, assessor. 


J. P. Dowse. 




168 


A. A. Adams. 


Shrewsbury, 


132 


vv in . jcj. Jxice, ..... 


rrank Li. Utt. 


Shutesbury, 


OO 


Emmons J. Spear, .... 




Somerset, 


OOO 


James Wilson, fish and game warden. 




Somerville,^ 






Asa B. Prit chard. 


ooutn xiauiey, 
Southampton, 


/o 
/ O 


Josepn lieacn, r. U. tooutn Madley 
Falls. 

(jreo. W. lyler, .... 




Southborough, . 


337 


Harry Burnett, tree warden. 


Harry Burnett. 


Southbridge, 


109 


Aimee Langevin, Olney Avenue, 




Southwick, 


Q9 

yz 


Edward Gillett, tree warden, 




Spencer, 


121 


A. F. Howlett, .... 




Springfield, 


86 


Burton Steere, assistant fire chief, 


Wm. F. Gale. 


Sterling, 


144 


G. F. Herbert, assessor. 




Stockbridge, 
Stoneham, . 
Stoughton , 


21 
190 

258 


Geo. Schneyer, selectman, P. O. Glen- 
dale. 

Geo. E. Sturtevant, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Jesse E. Smith, .... 


Geo. M. Jefts. 
Wm. P. Kennedy. 


Stow, 


183 


WilUam H. Parker, P. O. Gleasondale, 


J. Frank Robbins. 



No forest area. 



20 THE STATE FORESTER. Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town ok City. 


Badge 


Forest Warden. 


Local iviotn 
Superintendent. 


Sturbridge, 


108 


Chas. M. Clark, P. 0. Fiskdale, 




Sudbury, . 


185 


F. E Bent, ..... 


Wm. E. Baldwin. 


Sunderland, 


338 


A. C. Warner, .... 




Sutton, 


116 


Ransom W. Rchardson, . 


John E. Gmord. 


Swampscott, 


339 


Geo. P. Cahoon, fire chief department. 


Geo. New ha 11. 


Swansea, . 
Taunton, . 
Templeton, 


273 
269 
107 


Thos. L. Mason, constable, P. O. R. P. 
D. No. 2. 

Fred A. Leonard, chief fire department, 

School Street. 
Henry H. Seaver, P. 0. Baldwinville, 


Alvaro Hamden. 
John B. Wheeler. 


Tewksbury, 


164 


Herbert W. Pillsbury, 


Harry M. Briggs. 


Tisbury, 


310 


Albert Rotch, P O. Vmeyard Haven, 




Tolland, 


90 


Eugene M Moore, .... 




Topsfield, . 


218 


Isaac B. Young, selectman. 


C. W. Floyd. 


Townsend, 


159 


F. J. Piper, chief fire department, 


Geo. E. King. 


Truro, 


324 


Nay lor Hatch, .... 


Joseph H. At wood. 


Tyngsborough, . 


162 


Otis L. Wright 


Howard E Noble. 


Tyringham, 


26 


Geo. F Knapp, .... 




Upton, 


126 


Geo. Z. Williams, chief fire department. 


Geo. H. Evans. 


Uxbridge, . 
Wakefield, . 


113 

208 


Arnold S. Allen, constable and chief 

fire department. 
Samuel T. Parker, .... 


W W. Wmttredge. 


Wales, 


100 


W. W. Eager, ..... 




Walpole, 
Waltham, . 


340 
195 


N. Emmons Winslow, chief fire depart- 
ment.' 

Geo. L. Johnson, chief fire department. 


Philip R. Allen. 
Jesse M. French. 


Ware, . 


75 


L. S. Charbonneau, P. 0. Box No. 25, 




Wareham, . 


305 


Arthur B. Savary, .... 


J. J. Walsh. 


Warren, 


119 


Joseph St. George, constable, 


Alfred A. Warriner. 


Warwick, . 


41 


Chas. H. Williams, .... 




Washington, 


19 


Geo. Messenger, R. F. D., Becket, 




Watertown, 


206 


John C. Ford, tree warden. 


John C. Ford. 


Way land, . 


196 


Clarence S. Williams, Cochituate, 


Daniel Graham. 


Webster, . 


111 


Arthur B. Patterson, 




Wellesley, . 


239 


Fletcher M. Abbott, tree warden. 


Fletcher M. Abbott. 


Wellfleet, . 


323 


Edwin P. Cook, .... 


Everett S Jacobs. 


Wendell, . 


54 


Geo. A. Lewis, .... 




Wenham, . 


221 


Jacob D. Barnes, tree warden, . 


Jacob D. Barnes. 


West Boylston, , 
West Bridgewater, 


137 
285 


Frank H. Baldwin, agent Metropolitan 

Water Board. 
Octave BeUnore, tree warden, . 


Octave Belmore. 


West Brookfield, 


128 


Robert M. Carter, P. 0, Box 135. 





1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 21 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


^^estborough, 
'W'Bst Newbury, 


133 
226 


ment. 

Riln<5 M Titpnmh P O RvfipM 


Tv<iitt;i ouiixv<iii. 


West Springfield, 


341 


A. A. Sibley 




^Vest Stockbridge, 


20 


RATTififH 'M'nTi Ti in or 




west' xisuuiy. 


307 


Will in m T T?nfoh 




westneia, . 
Westford, . 


166 


Ggo. H. By6rs, chisf fire clGpRrtiiiGiit, 

P. O. address, Arnold Street. 
John A, Healey, P. 0. Graniteville, . 


Harry L. Nesmith. 


^iVesthampton, 


71 


JjtJVI X>U.I tf ..... 


r 


T^estininster, 
Weston, 


154 
186 


John C Goodridge, chief fire depart" 
ment. 

Edward P. Ripley 


Stillman "Wliitney. 
Edward P. Ripley. 


^W^estport, . 


279 


X' lcLLLt\. Ml ll<XL\JHj J.^ KJl til VT Co \j\J\Jl I;* * 




^^estwood, 


251 




v>. XX. ooui/uerianu. 


Weymouth, 
Whately, . 


245 
56 


J. Rupert Walsh, P. 0. East Wey- 
mouth. 

James A. Wood, .... 


Dummer Sewall. 


Whitman, . 


297 


Clarence A. Randall, tree warden. 


Clarence A. Randall. 


TVilbraham, 
AA^illiamsburg, 


96 
64 


braham. 




W^illiamstown, 


2 


X^aniel Hogan, , . . . 




^Vilmington, 
^ATinchendon , 
T^inchester, 
Windsor, . 


1 

12 


Jos. M. Hill, chief fire departmentt P. 
0. North Wihnington, P. O. Box 24. 

Arthur L. Brown, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Irving L. Symmes, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

H. Ward Ford, tax collector. 


Oliver A. McGrane. 
Samuel S. Symmes. 


Winthrop,^ 






Frank W. Tucker. 


Wobum, 


177 


Frank E. Tracy, chief fire department. 


John H. McGann. 


Worcester, 


131 


H. Ward Moore, Winnefred Avenue, . 


J. H. Hemingway. 


Worthington, 


62 


Chas. E. Clark 




Wrentham, 


260 


Chas. E. Brown, chief fire department. 


Wm. M. Gilmore. 


Yarmouth, 


316 


Seth Taylor, constable. 


Chas. R. Bassett. 



New Legislation. 
The new legislation enacted by the last General Court on 
forestry matters was as follows : — 

1. An act relative to the liability of railroads for the ex- * 
tinguishment of forest fires. 

2. An act empowering the Governor of the Commonwealth 



^ No forest area. 



22 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



to issue a proclamation for a closed season for game during 
times of droutli. 

3. Amended law, extending the area in one tract from 40 
to 80 acres in lands purchased by the State for reforestation. 

4. An act placing the work of suppressing the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths under the State Forester. 

5. Appropriation for gypsy and brown-tail moth work. 

6. An act to encourage the growth of white pine timber. 

1. An Act relative to the Liability of Railroads for the Ex- 
tinguishment of Forest Fires. 

The enactment of this bill makes the railroads liable not only 
for the damage resulting from a fire caused by them, but for 
the expense of extinguishment of the fire. This act at first 
might seem to work hardship on railroads, as it was shown 
last year that 43 per cent, of the fires set in the State were 
railroad fires. With our new forest warden law, however, it 
is believed by both the State Forester and the railroad officials 
that with a perfected system of fire fighting the railroads them- 
selves will gladly reimburse the towns and cities for the expense 
of extinguishing fires set by them, believing that by so doing 
the real damage to property will be thus lessened, and in the 
outcome not only will the railroads themselves be the gainers 
financially, but the towns and cities, in that less acreage is 
likely to be burned. 

The act is as follows : — 

Acts of 1909, Chapter 394. 

An Act relative to the Liability for the Extinguishmext of 

Forest Fires. 
Be it enacted^ etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Any railroad corporation which, by its servants or 
agents, negligently, or in violation of law, sets fire to grass lands or 
forest lands shall be liable to any city or town in which such fire occurs, 
for the reasonable and lawful expense incurred by such city or town 
• in the extinguishment of the fire. 

Section 2. Cities and towns may recover sums to Avhich they are 
entitled under the provisions of this act by an action of contract in 
the superior court. [Approved May 14, 1909. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



23 



2. An Ad empoiuering the Governor of the Commonwealth to 
issue a Proclamation for a Closed Season for Game in 
Times of Drouth. 

This is a precautionary measure that will result in calling the 
attention of the public to the importance of being careful about 
fires at a time when attention is most needed. 

The act is as follows : — 

Acts of 1909, Chapter 422. 

An Act to authorize the Governor to proclaim a Close Season 

FOR Game in Times of Drouth. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Whenever, during an open season for the hunting of 
any kind of game in this state, it shall appear to the governor that by 
reason of extreme drouth the use of firearms in the forest is Hable to 
cause forest fires, he may, by proclamation, suspend the open season 
and make it a close season for the shooting of birds and wild animals 
of every kind for such time as he may designate, and may prohibit the 
discharge of firearms in or near forest land during the said time. 

Section 2. During the time designated as above by the governor, 
all provisions of law relating to the close season shall be in force, and 
whoever violates any such provision shall be subject to the penalties 
prescribed therefor. In case any person shall, during a close season 
proclaimed as aforesaid, discharge a firearm in or near forest land, or 
shoot any wild animal or bird, as to which there is no close season other- 
wise provided by law, he shall be subject to a fine of not more than one 
hundred dollars. 

Section 3. A proclamation issued under authority hereof shall be 
published in such newspapers of the state and posted in such places 
and in such manner as the governor may direct, under the charge and 
direction of the state forester and the commissioners on fisheries and 
game. [Approved May 21, 1909. 

3. Revised Law extending the Area in One Tract from JfO to 80 
Acres in Lands purchased by the State for Reforestation. 
The restriction to 40 acres was found to necessitate the expense 

of an extra survey where the lots ran slightly over the limited 
number, and by placing the area at 80 acres this objection is 
eliminated. 

The act is as follows : — 



24 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Acts of 1909, Chapter 214. 

An Act relative to the Purchase by the State Forester of Land 

adapted to forest production. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter four hundred and seventy-eight 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and eight is hereby amended 
by striking out the words " forty acres in the tenth line, and in- 
serting in place thereof the words : — eighty acres, — so as to read as 
follows: — Section 1. For the purpose of experiment and illustration 
in forest management and for the purposes specified in section seven 
of this act the sum of five thousand dollars may be expended in the 
year nineteen hundred and eight, and the sum of ten thousand dollars 
annually thereafter, by the state forester, with the advice and consent 
of the governor and council, in purchasing lands situated within the 
commonwealth and adapted to forest production. The price of such 
land shall not exceed in any instance five dollars per acre, nor shall 
more than eighty acres be acquired in any one tract in any one year, 
except that a greater area may so be acquired if the land purchased 
directly affects a source or tributary of water supply in any city or 
town of the commonwealth. All lands acquired under the provisions 
of this act shall be conveyed to the commonwealth, and no lands shall 
be paid for nor shall any moneys be expended in improvements thereon 
until all instruments of conveyance and the title to be transferred 
thereby have been approved by the attorney-general and until such 
instruments have been executed and recorded. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 25, 1909. 

Jf. An Act placing the Work of suppressing the Gypsy and 
Brown-tail Moths under the State Forester. 

The enactment of this law was the result of its recommenda- 
tion by Governor Draper in his inaugural address. 

The act is as follows : — 

Acts of 1909, Chapter 263. 

An Act to provide for consolidating the Office of Superin- 
tendent FOR SUPPRESSING THE GyPSY AND BrOWN TaIL MoTHS 

AND THE Department of the State Forester. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section one of chapter four hundred and nine of the 
acts of the year nineteen hundred and four, as amended by section 
one of chapter four hundred and seventy-three of the acts of the year 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



25 



nineteen hundred and seven, is hereby further amended by striking 
out the said section and inserting in place thereof the following : — 
Section 1. The governor, with the consent of the council, shall ap- 
point an officer to be known as the state forester, and shall determine 
his salary. He shall be a trained forester who has had a technical 
education. He shall be ex officio a member of the state board of agi'i- 
culture. He shall act for the commonwealth in suppressing the gypsy 
and brown tail moths as public nuisances. The governor may, with 
the consent of the council, remove the state forester at any time for 
such cause as he shall deem sufficient. In case of the death, removal 
or resignation of the state forester the governor shall forthwith ap- 
point a successor. 

Section 2. The office of superintendent for suppressing the gypsy 
and brown tail moths is hereby abolished. All the powers, rights, 
duties and liabilities of the said superintendent are hereby transfeiTed 
to the state forester. No existing contracts, proceedings or liabilities 
shall be affected hereby, but the state forester shall in all respects and 
for all purposes be the lawful successor of the superintendent for 
suppressing the gypsy and brown tail moths. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 7, 1909. 

5. An Act to provide Funds for carrying on the Moth ^Yorlc 
during a Definite Period of the Year, so that the Effect of 
the Work will not he handicapped. 
The act is as follows : — 

Acts of 1909, Chapter 452. 

An Act to provide for the Suppression of the Gypsy and Brown 

Tail Moths. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The state forester is hereby authorized to expend for 
the suppression of the gypsy and brown tail moths, and for expenses 
incidental thereto, the simi of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars 
annually for three years, beginning with the year nineteen hundred 
and ten; and if any part of the said one hundred and fifty thousand 
dollars remains unexpended at the close of any year the balance may 
be expended in the following year. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
May 26, 1909. 



26 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



6. An Act to encourage the Growth of White Pine Timber. 

This bill was enacted in order to encourage land owners to 
leave seed trees and encourage natural methods of reforestation. 

It offers as a premium exemption from taxation for a certain 
period of all lands that are properly restocked to white pine. 

Acts of 1909, Chapter 187. 

An Act to encourage the growth of white pine timber. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Land which does not exceed in value ten dollars an 
acre, if well stocked with thrifty white pine seedlings that have at- 
tained an average height of not less than fifteen inches, upon satis- 
factory proof of its condition by the owner to the assessors, shall be 
exemjDt from taxation for a period of ten years thereafter: provided, 
that if any trees of commercial value, except such as are reasonably 
removed for the improvement of the white pine growth, are cut or 
removed from the said land, the exemption herein provided for shall 
cease. 

Section 2. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent herewith are 
hereby repealed. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 18, 1909, 

Acknowledgments. 

It is with pleasure that the State Forester acknowledges the 
valuable services and loyal support which he has received 
through his corps of assistants, not only in the office but in the 
field, throughout the year. 

Mr. L. Howard Worthley has been untiring in his efforts to 
leave nothing undone in his assistance in perfecting the organiza- 
tion of the moth work and in getting the best possible results. 

Mr. H. O. Cook, M.F., has kept up the high standard in tech- 
nological lines, and, as the reports show, has increased the 
efficiency of the work in forestry management beyond that of 
any previous year. 

Mr. R. S. Langdell, who has charge of the nursery work, has 
not only demonstrated that this work is a commercial success, 
but has penetrated every section of the State, and is largely 
responsible for the splendid beginning already made in refor- 
estation. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



27 



Mr. Chas. O. Bailey has loyally stood at his post of duty as 
secretary, and kept the machinery well oiled and properly 
running. 

The State Forester is under obligation, for courteous treat- 
ment and kindly consideration, to all citizens, boards and offi- 
cials with whom he has come in contact, and especially to Dean 
W. C. Sabine of Harvard University, Dr. L. O. Howard of the 
United States Bureau of Entomology, and his predecessor, A. 
H. Kirkland, for kindly assistance, suggestions and advice. He 
wishes also to acknowledge the great assistance rendered by the 
men of the co-operative scientific staff. 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



Examination of Woodlands and Practical Assistance 

GIVEN Owners. 
This department of our forestry work is the largest estab- 
lishment of all our lines, yet it is not as familiar to the people 
of the State as it should be. If it were, we believe that there 
would be many more calls for advice than we receive at present. 
By examinations we refer briefly to this, that owners of wood- 
land in the State may, by applying to this oflice on a special 
blank, have a trained forester come and look over their woodland, 
and he will point out to them how it can be improved, and 
furnish any other information which it is in his power to give. 
Where it is a case of thinning, he may, if he sees fit, mark a 
portion of the trees to be cut. The only expense to the owner 
for this advice is the travelling expenses of the visiting forester. 
This offer applies equally to land owners who want advice on 
the planting of barren land. Counsel given on the ground, 
where all the conditions can be seen and met, is far superior to 
any given by correspondence or to the general advice contained in 
pamphlets. 

The following table shows the number of examinations made 
in this and past years, together with the combined area of the 
various wood lots. It will be noticed that there is a slight 
falling off since last year ; but this fact does not discourage us, 
because in 1908 we made a special effort to advertise this part 
of our work, first by sending out a large number of examination 
application blanks to those on our mailing list, and second, by 
sending a special circular letter to all the water boards in the 
State. The result was, of course, that quite a number of re- 
quests for assistance were received which otherwise would not 
have been made, including some of our largest. Holding that 
the figures of last year were abnormal, we consider those of this 



32 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



year to be distinctly encouraging ; yet, as we have said before, we 
think that there should be more use made of this offer on the 
part of the State of free forestry advice. 





1904. 

(6 mos.) 


1905. 


1906. 


1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


Number, .... 


14 


36 


47 


37 


65 


60 


Total area, .... 


2,000 


6,545 


9,357 


8,713 


15,842 


15,862 



As was done last year, a circular letter with an accompanying- 
set of questions was sent to those who received advice during 
1908, the object of which was to ascertain how far the recom- 
mendations made by the visiting forester had been carried out. 
A larger percentage of replies was received than last year, there 
being 46 who sent in reports, to 12 who did not. Eight were 
not given blanks, as enough was known of their work, through 
other channels, to make further information unnecessary. The 
following table gives a summary of these reports : — 

Reports received from Examiners of 1908. 



Recommended to thin : — 

AH the work done, '8 

Partly done, 13 

Nothing done, 10 

Recommended to plant : — 

All the work done, 2 

Partly done, 13 

Nothing done, 15 

Recommended to do nothing, 4 

Clean cutting recommended, 2 

Results op Examinations of 1907. 

Recommended to thin : — 

All the work done, 3 

Partly done, 6 

Nothing done, or not reporting, 8 

Recommended to plant : — 

All the work done, 2 

Partly done, 10 

Nothing done, or not reporting, 8 

Recommended to do nothing, 4 



A Avliile pine i)lantalion on the watershed of the Wachusett reservoir, near Clinton. 




A mixed white pine and hard-wood plantation, five years after setting. The hard 
Avoods are not a success. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



33 



Contrary to results in 1907, thinning work in 1908 seemed 
to be more popular than planting. This may be due in part to 
the fact that we have endeavered to mark a portion of the trees 
to be cut. 

For a record of the work done, see list under forestry ex- 
penditures and receipts. 

Reforestation Wokk. 

Great interest has been shown in regard to reforesting the 
waste and denuded lands of the Commonwealth. The reforesta- 
tion law of 1908 fills to a large extent a long-felt want in this 
line of work, and, although the State planting is necessarily 
limited by the appropriation, it is desired as far as possible to 
plant one or more lots in each town in the State. This will 
place before the people an example which private owners can 
follow out in their own work, and in time bring much of the 
lands generally considered worthless and an eyesore to the com- 
munity back into a profitable forest growth. 

Land referred to as fit only for reforesting purposes can be 
classed under the following types: cut-over land, burnt-over 
land, and run-out pasture land (growing up to gray birch, etc.). 
The land taken over under this act generally comes under one 
of the foregoing types. 

The first of the year a notice and copy of the acts were sent 
to the selectmen, forest warden and the leading newspapers in 
each town. From applications desiring to take advantage of 
the act, deeds for 929 acres of land have been recorded and the 
tracts planted last spring. For this purpose 500,000 three-year- 
old white pine transplants were obtained from German nurseries, 
and as many more seedlings from this country, a portion of the 
latter being sent out from the State nursery at Amherst. 

The different lots were planted by local workmen in the 
towns, under the supervision of experienced foresters from this 
office. The average cost of planting this year ranges from $6 
to $10 per acre ; but by raising our own trees in a nursery estab- 
lished for the purpose the cost could be greatly reduced. 

In a few instances it was deemed advisable to cut a fire belt 
on the exposed side of the plantation, to act as a protection from 



34 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



forest fires, which are the chief danger and drawback to setting 
ont trees to be grown for a term of years. 

The coming year land in other sections will be planted, and 
it is hoped plantations will become quite generally distributed 
throughout the State. 

The following plantations were made in the towns named 
during the past year : — 



State Plantations. 



Town. 


Acres 


Type of Land. 


Variety planted. 


Andover, 


40 


Cut and burnt land, 


White pine. 


Ashburnham, . 


66 


Run-out pasture 


White pine. 


Ashbumham, . 


10 


Run-out fields, 


White pine. 


Ashburnham, . 


5 


Old orchard, 


^\Tiite pine. 


Carver, 


5 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Gardner, 


93 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, . 


54 


Sandy plain land. 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, . 


40 


Plains land. 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, . 


40 


Cut and burnt land. 


WTiite pine. 


Hubbardston, . 


14 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, . 


10 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Kingston, 


10 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Montague, 


261 


Plains land. 


White pine. 


Paxton, .... 


55 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Pelham, .... 


16 


Cut-over hillside. 


White pine. 


Pelham, 


6 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Rowley, .... 


10 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Sandwich, 


14 


Cut-over land. 


Scotch and Austrian 


Spencer, 


35 


Cut and burnt land. 


pine. 
White pine. 


Spencer, 


23 


Run-out pasture, 


White pine. 


Spencer, 


6 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Temple ton, 


1071 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Temple ton, 


601 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Westminster, 


40 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Westminster, . 


40 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Westminster, . 


39 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Westminster, . 


36 


Cut-over land, 


White pine. 


Westminster, . 


29 


Cut-over land. 


WTiite pine. 


Total area, 


927 







' Lots protected by fire belt. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 73. 35 



Planting done under Advice of State Forester. 



Name. 


Town. 


Variety. 


No. of 
Trees. 


Amherst Water Company, 


Amherst, 


White pine. 


10,000 


Holyoke Water Company, 


Holyoke, 


White pine, 


10,000 


Leominster W^ater Company, 


Leominster, 


White pine. 


7,000 


Westfield Water Company, . 


Westfield, 


White pine. 


7,000 


Harlow Brook Cranberry Company, 


Wareham, 


White pine. 


5,000 


Fred Barclay, ..... 


Spencer, 


White pine. 


12,000 




Gardner, 


White pine, . 


2,000 


E. E. Rice, 


Boston, 


White pine, . 


1,000 


D. H. Rice 


Barre, 


White pine, . 


2,000 


N. D. Bill 


Springfield, . 


Chestnut, 


500 


E. P. Dunbar 


West Bridge water. 


White pine, . 


4,000 


A. H. Hall 


Leominster, 


White pine, . 


1,000 


Brown Bros, and John Folsom, 


Winchendon, 


White pine, . 


50,000 



Evergreen Seedlings now imported Free of Duty. 
It may be of interest to know that the last session of Con- 
gress removed the duty on evergreen seedlings. This places 
the reforestation work with evergreens on a practical basis. 
Our people will ultimately grow their own stock, and the foreign 
importation will keep prices within bounds until that time. The 
tariff heretofore was $1 per 1,000, and 15 per cent, ad valorem. 

Forest Nursery. 

The State forest nursery at Amherst on the farm of the Ag- 
ricultural College was again enlarged last spring, and we have 
prospects of being able to use at least 1,200,000 white pine two- 
year-old trees of our own growing in the reforestation work 
throughout the State next spring. Besides white pine we also 
have many other species in lesser lots, but all of value in the 
State work. The detailed table which follows may be of interest. 
The State forest nursery work speaks for itself, when we show 
that the total expense of carrying it on has been for three years 
$5,749.69, and were we to sell the stock now on hand at cur- 
rent prices it would be worth $7,500. 

Meanwhile, we have been using seedlings and transplants 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



every year which are not included here. Last spring alone we 
dug from the nursery at least 150,000 trees, and at present we 
have fully 2,000,000 one-year-old white pine seedlings, besides 
100,000 of other species. The following table shows the esti- 
mated amount of nursery stock on hand : — 



Vakiett. 


Age 
(Years). 


No. of Trees. 


White pine seedlings, ........ 


2 


1,200,000 


TVliite pine seedlings, ........ 


1 


2,000,000 


Pitch pine seedlings, ........ 


2 


40,000 


Pitch pine seedlings, . . . . . . • . 


1 


50,000 


Norway pine seedlings, ....... 


1 


5,000 


Austrian pine seedlings, ....... 


1 


2,000 


Norway spruce seedlings, ....... 


1 


25,000 


Balsam fir seedlings, . . 


1 


5,000 


Hemlock seedlings, ........ 


1 


5,000 


Red spruce seedlings, ........ 


' 


2.000 


Black locust seedlings, ........ 




5,000 


Total, 




3,339,000 


White pine transplants, ....... 


4 


25,000 


White pine transplants, ....... 


3 


25,000 


White ash transplants, ....... 


2 


20,000 


Norway spruce transplants, ....... 


3 


3,000 


Black locust transplants, ....... 


2 


2,000 


Catalpa speciosa transplants, ...... 


2 


300 


Honey locust transplants, ....... 


2 


6,000 


Total 




81,300 



It has been the aim of the State Forester not only to demon- 
strate in the nursery what can be done, but to assist those inter- 
ested in growing their own trees by sending literature describ- 
ing how to collect the seed, and even furnishing an assistant to 
demonstrate how to make the seed beds and plant the seeds. 
During the planting season at the nursery we are glad to welcome 
any one desiring experience in nursery work. This offers an 
opportunity not only to see how the work is performed, but to 
get some actual experience. Last spring several persons availed 
themselves of this offer. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



37 



A few persons have started seed beds of their own. One man 
will have 150,000 two-jear-old seedlings to use from his own 
growing next spring, while another estimates he will have from 
250,000 to 350,000.. Many more will have smaller lots. 



Larger State Nursery needed. 

The time has come when the State should have a more definite 
forest nursery policy. It is deemed practically necessary that 
the State operate a nursery of sufficient size to raise its own 
trees for reforestation purposes under the refore§.tation act. It 
is believed the State Forester will be unable to secure sufficient 
suitable land in large enough area on the farm of the Agri- 
cultural College to carry on the work necessary. The college 
already feels cramped for land, and the small tract used for 
the present nursery, which is altogether inadequate for the needs 
of the coming year, is allowed us only temporarily. If the col- 
lege trustees feel unable to allow the State Forester double the 
area where the present nursery is located, it will necessitate 
making plans elsewhere. A water supply should be put in, more 
screens made and a better work shed built. The nursery should 
also be fenced off, as damage has repeatedly resulted from ani- 
mals getting loose and trampling the beds. These improvements 
will be necessary, whether we remain at the college or move the 
nursery elsewhere. 

The State Forester should, be given sufficient funds for estab- 
lishing a nursery commensurate with the carrying out of the 
reforestation act, for, as already demonstrated, it amounts only 
to lending the money to carry on work that will be returned to 
the State treasury later in the sale of forest products. 

N'ew York State last year published a bulletin offering forest 
tree seedlings and transplants from the State forest nursery to 
any one who would guarantee to plant them in that State, at the 
following prices : — 



White pine transplants, . 
White pine seedlings (2 years old), . 
Scotch pine transplants, . 
Scotch pine seedlings, 



$4.25 per 1,000, f.o.b. 

2.25 per 1,000, f.o.b. 

3.75 per 1,000, f.o.b. 

2.25 per 1,000, f.o.b. 



38 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



While tlie State of New York was encouraging its people in 
reforestation by the above generous offer, Massachusetts was 
unable to purchase similar white pine seedlings for less than $4 
per 1,000 in this country, and even at that price w^e were com- 
pelled to take them in 100,000 lots ; for 1,000 lots the price was 
$5 per 1,000 for the best and $4 for second quality. Transplants 
of white pine were quoted at from $10 to $20 per 1,000. 

If IvTew York can do this, and make the work self-supporting, 
I feel sure that under similar conditions Massachusetts can do 
as well. 

As was stated last year, it is not the intention of the State to 
go into the nursery business, other than to meet requirements in 
carrying out a practical economic reforestation policy. If we 
can grow seedlings and pay all expenses for $2.25 per 1,000, why 
should we be compelled to pay $5 ? Using, as we will the coming 
spring in the State reforestation work, 2,000,000, the cost if 
grown by ourselves would not exceed $4,500, while in the Amer- 
ican markets they would cost us $8,000 if purchased in large 
lots, or $10,000 if purchased in smaller quantities. 

While the difference in white pine seedlings seems large, trans- 
plants are comparatively more expensive, the one being $4.25 
per 1,000 as compared to $12. 

E"oRWAY Spruce as a Forest Tree. 

This tree is used quite commonly as an ornamental tree in 
this State, and common observation shows that it succeeds re- 
markably well. As a possible forest tree it has not been con- 
sidered very seriously until this year. It is believed that the 
I'^^orway spruce will succeed where our native spruces are 
found growing naturally, and perhaps elsewhere. The follow- 
ing experience of Mr. George Aiken, manager of the Billings 
Farm at Woodstock, Vt., in growing IN^orway spruce on his 
farm, is herewith offered, with his permission. 

One acre was planted with three-year-old trees, 8 feet apart 
each way, requiring 680 trees to the acre. The land was a poor, 
sandy hillside, unfit for cultivation. In 1908, when the trees 
were thirty-two years of age, or thirty-five years from seed, 4 
average-sized trees were cut. Their measurements were as fol- 
lows : — 



A large tract of land in Hiibbardston, which was reforested by llie department last 

spring. 




A portion of one of the lots turned over to the State. The cord wood taken out 
pays the expense, and the remaining stand is in a much-improved condition. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



39 



No. 1, 72 feet high, 11-inch butt cut, 46y2 feet of logs 6 inches at top. 

No. 2, 57 feet high, 15-inch butt cut, 47^2 feet of logs 6 inches at top. 

No. 3, 63 feet high, 14-inch butt cut, 42 feet of logs 6 inches at top. 

No. 4, 67 feet high, 16-inch butt cut, 40 feet of logs 6 inches at top. 

These 4 trees produced 1 cord of pulp wood. Beckoning 
from this yield as applied to an acre, the yield would be iTS^/o 
cords, which at the current price of $6.50 per cord, would give 
the income from this acre $1,120 in thirty-two years. 

Computing the land at $5 per acre, cost of trees and planting 
at $5, and to this adding compound interest for the thirty-two 
years, the total would amount to $65.50 ; adding to this taxes for 
thirty-two years, or $7.50, makes the total investment $73, 
and hence leaves a net income of $1,046.86, or a yearly average 
of $36.72 per acre. Mr. Aiken claims that this land is not 
worth over 50 cents per acre per annum for grazing. 

The pulp wood cut here was sold to the International Paper 
Company, who made it into paper at the Bellows Falls mill. 
Mr. Edward Barrett, superintendent of this mill, reports as 
follows : — 

The Norway Spruce Test. — One cord of rough wood, 71 sticks 4 
feet long, after preparing for gxinding room, gave us 98 cubic feet; 
this made 1,228 pounds of dry wood pulp. The spruce worked nicely 
on the paper machine, and, under the same conditions as our regular 
spruce, gave us a higher test for strength and a brighter shade with 
the same amount of color. 

For the first time the State Forester expects to set out quite 
a large number of Norway spruce in Massachusetts the coming 
spring. The beauty of the spruce for pulp wood is that prac- 
tically the whole tree is utilized. 

Forest Fires of 1909. 
Forest fires have been altogether too numerous throughout the 
State during the past season. We are convinced that the permit 
act which went into effect last spring gave splendid results, 
and that forest wardens generally were more active than ever; 
but with all this we are not accomplishing the results we should 
and must. 



40 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The total number of forest and grass fires reported to the 
State Forester during the year was 1,531 ; the number of acres 
burned over, 42,808 ; loss to the State, $236,478. 

From the table it is shown that the chief cause of forest fires 
is from railroad locomotives, which set 497, or 34 per cent, of 
the total of the year, compared with 490 last year. ^N'ext in 
point of number are fires from unknown causes, 360. The 
third largest cause is due to burning brush, 108, or 71/9 per cent, 
of the total. The fourth in number is that caused by smokers, 
90. It is believed, however, that in the latter should be in- 
cluded the great number of those listed under the unknown, 
and even some of those attributed to other causes. The fifth 
cause was directly traceable to our juvenile population, as 83 
wfere known to be set by boys. 

It is hoped that our railroads will exert themselves to lessen 
these fires in the coming year. We certainly should ascertain 
the causes unknown at present, and, with our permit law in 
force, the burning brush cases should be very much reduced; 
while the number of fires caused by smokers and boys will be 
overcome only by a determination to place the responsibility 
where it belongs by our forest wardens, deputies and people 
generally interested in preserving our forests. 

Fires from Smoking, 
That the careless smoker, who persists in the habit when in 
woodlands or traversing the country during a dry time, whether 
at work or play, is the greatest menace to future forestry, it is 
believed there is little question. The railroad fires are con- 
fined to certain areas, but the smoker is everywhere. If forest 
wardens or their deputies were to bring more circumstantial 
evidence to bear against smokers from known locations where 
hunters, fishermen, campers, woodsmen, etc., have traversed, it 
is believed the effect of the law which makes such persons 
liable for damages would prove helpful to future forestry. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 41 



Causes of Forest Fires in Massachusetts, 1909. 





Causes. 


No. 


Per Cent. 




25 


1.72 


Blasting fuse, ......... 


1 






83 


5.72 




108 


7.51 




9 






2 






1 






9 






5 




Cranberry bogs, ......... 


1 






2 






1 




Fireworks and fire crackers, ....... 


4 




Fishermen, .......... 


2 






30 


2.06 


Gypsy moth, .......... 


6 






8 






36 


2.48 




1 






497 


34.26 


Mayflower parties, . . . . . . . . . 


2 


— 




2 






31 


2.13 


Smokers, . . . . . . . . . 


90 


6.20 




5 






6 




Spark from forest fire, ........ 


11 


0.76 




3 






106 


7.33 


Unknown, .......... 


360 


24.89 


Wood choppers, ......... 


3 




Reported too late for tabulating, ...... 


63 




Total 







Arrests and Convictions. 
Forest wardens have been extremely lenient as regards ar- 
rests for violations of the State forest fire laws, — altogether too 
much so, it is believed. The idea has been to caution people 



42 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



and educate them in realizing tlie danger of forest fires before 
arresting them. It is believed, however, that we have been gen- 
erous in this respect, and henceforth if we are to stop fires we 
must be reasonable, but assert a little more backbone in control- 
ling them. 

The following arrests and convictions were made during the 
year 1909 : — 

Edgartown, Jiilj^ 12. Conviction of man taken while burning without 

a permit; case placed on file. 
Falmouth, June 1. Young man convicted of setting woods fire, and 

sent to reformatory. 
Holbrook, December. Conviction of man burning without a permit; 

paid fine and costs. 
Lancaster, April 2. Man taken while burning without a permit; paid 

costs and damages. 
Mansfield, March 30. Tramp convicted of setting fire to farmer's wood 

lot; sent to jail. 

Plymouth, August 8. Man convicted of burning without a permit; 
fined $10. 

Reading, October 13. Two men burning without permit; fined $25 
each. 

Spencer, April 10. Man burning without permit; fined $10. 
Stoughton, April 7. Man burning without permit; fined. 
Tewksbury, July. Boys placed on probation. 
Upton. Two men arrested; placed on probation. 
Wrentham. Cases on file. 



Table of Acres, Cost and Damage, by Months. 



Months. 


Acres. 


Cost. 


Damage 


Damage 
per Acre. 


January, 




13 




$20 




February, 




12 








March, . 




1,577 


$684 


4,763 


$3.02 


April, . 




12,515 


2,866 


72,195 


5.76 


May, 




4, ,322 


1,588 


38,080 


8.81 


June, . 




405 


242 


11,870 


29.30 


July, . 




11,992 


2,715 


26,396 


2.20 


August, 




1,940 


2,745 


10,833 


5.57 


September, . 




1,092 


562 


21,413 


19.51 


October, 




384 


180 


1,805 


5.17 


November, . 




585 


356 


612 


0.61 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 43 . 



Table of Forest Fire Totals. 





No. of 
Fires. 


Acres 
burned. 


Cost to 
put out. 


Damage. 


Reports received too late for tabulation, . 
Totals of reports tabulated for 1909, 
Forest fire totals for 1909, 


63 
1,450 


246 
42,562 


$110 
15,433 


$1,515 
219,425 


1,513 


42,808 


$15,543 


$220,930 



Eailroad Co-operation in Forest Fire Fighting. 
During the last year, as heretofore, the officials of the rail- 
roads have for the most part shown a very helpful and co-oper- 
ative spirit in regard to forest fires. More attention has been 
given to keeping the spark-arresters on engines in order, while 
our 'forest wardens and the section men are working together 
for the prevention of fires. The new legislation of last year, 
whereby the railroads are to reimburse the towns for the cost 
of fighting fires known to be set by them, was enacted without 
any protest, and, in fact, with their consent. Hereby an or- 
ganization for forest fire fighting is resulting which will prevent 
fires that otherwise would be of great expense to railroads. The 
damages for one fire are likely to cost a railroad more than the 
total expense of reimbursing all of its towns in fighting fires set 
by them. 

President Tuttle of the Boston & Maine Eailroad compli- 
mented us by having a representative at both the Northampton 
and Boston conferences of forest wardens, who discussed " What 
the railroads are doing to prevent fires," and pointed out wherein 
they were glad to co-operate with the towns in stopping forest 
and grass fires. The New York, New Haven & Hartford Kail- 
road also sent a representative to the Middleborough meeting 
in a like capacity. Mr. Louville Curtis, the representative of 
the Boston & Maine Eailroad, has already adopted the use of 
hand fire extinguishers on the western division of their road, 
and is delighted with the results. He believes that their use 
will become very common by railroads for extinguishing forest 
or grass fires in the future. They could be kept at points along 
the line easy of access, and quickly shipped by the first train 
or sent by a special if occasion demanded. Much clearing up 



44 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



and widening of the right of way have been done by the 'New 
York, 'New Haven & Hartford Railroad throughout the year, 
particularly in the Cape section. 

Forest Fiee Deputies needed. 

The forest warden law has undoubtedly been tested far enough 
to be pronounced a success as another step in perfecting our 
organized efforts against forest fires. I now propose the idea of 
empowering the State Forester to appoint deputies at large to 
assist him. Many of our forest wardens need instruction and 
co-operation in getting their work well in hand. The best way 
to teach these men just how to accomplish results in fighting 
forest fires is to confer with them right on the ground, and dem- 
onstrate what can be accomplished and how it can be done. 
There are experienced men whom the State Forester could in 
times of emergency delegate to assist, and, if need be, with 
authority to take charge. 

In the case of the gypsy and brown-tail moth agents, these 
men are at present mounted on motor cycles and hence are 
familiar with the country. They are already State employees, 
and men interested in the preservation of the forests. They 
will gladly acquaint themselves with modern methods of fight- 
ing forest fires, and, were they appointed deputies authorized 
to assume responsibility, the State would have their services at 
no extra compensation. Of course this would apply only 
throughout the moth-infested territory, but other plans could be 
worked out for the remainder of the State at a minimum cost. 

State Subsidy to Towns for Better Forest Fire Pro- 
tection. 

The time has come when we can ill afford to allow forest fires 
to run rampant over the State, destroying each year thousands 
of dollars worth of property. 

In many cases the reason for present conditions is that a great 
many of our rural towns have nothing in the way of equipment 
with which to fight forest fires when they occur. With a simple 
equipment, consisting of a few hand chemical fire extinguishers 
provided with extra charges and loaded into a light one-horse 



A photograph, taken after the fire, of a portion of the ten thousand acres burned 
at Bourne and Fahiiouth. 




The plowed fire line along an old road, which enabled Sandwich to protect the town 
from the Bourne fire. Bourne on the left. Sandwich on the right. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



45 



spring wagon, together with some shovels and hoes, many of the 
fires could be easily handled before they could do much damage. 

Believing, therefore, that the State can afford to encourage 
the towns to make a definite beginning in stopping forest fires, 
I recommend the following for your consideration : that the State 
offer through the State Forester to reimburse towns 50 per 
cent, of their expenditures for forest fire fighting equipment, or 
in making forest fire protective belts, to an amount not to exceed 
$250 for each town thus accepting such aid. 

This idea is practically that now in operation by the State 
in the construction of our State highways, which has proved 
a great success. The incentive for towns that would otherwise 
move slowly is apparent. 

The total expense, were every town to accept, would amount 
to but $80,250, — not one-third of the annual loss from forest 
fires, and with every possibility of the expenditure meaning a 
saving of ultimate millions in future values to the State. 

Plan foe establishing Forest Fike Lookouts. 
This plan provides for the erection of lookout towers on va- 
rious high points throughout the State, with the object of de- 
tecting and locating forest fires while yet in an incipient stage. 
The plan is by no means a new one, even in this State, as is 
evidenced by the towers already in use in Plymouth and Dux- 
bury, and described in the recent fire bulletin issued by this 
ofiice; while it is generally conceded that the system of towers 
used by the large timber operators in Maine is one of their 
most valued assets, since it affords means of preventing fires 
which would otherwise destroy millions of feet of valuable 
timber. 

But, while the principle and the results are thus similar, the 
method of application in Massachusetts must necessarily differ 
greatly from that in Maine. This is because of the different 
physical conditions of the two States, as we may say ; for, while 
the forest regions of Maine are practically in the central and 
northern part of the State, and often lie for miles in unbroken 
tracts, in Massachusetts there are no real forests, properly so- 
called, and the tracts of woodland that do exist are scattered 



46 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



over all parts of the Commonwealth, from Cape Cod to the 
Berkshires, and occur under widely different topographical 
coHditions. And, furthermore, such systems of lookouts as we 
have mentioned are managed over comparatively localized areas, 
usually vast wildernesses, by the owners themselves for their 
own benefit, while the difference in Massachusetts is obvious. 

The problem is not to immediately establish a complete fire 
protection system all over the State, but to endeavor, by placing 
lookouts at certain important poijits, to co-operate as far as 
possible with the local wardens in the quick detection of fires. 
It is easily seen that such a system becomes useful largely in 
proportion to the distance covered from a given point, so that 
a tower erected on flat country may prove of great service. 
Take, for example, the Plymouth tower. This tower was built 
by the town of Plymouth, and is of skeleton steel construction 
somewhat like a windmill tower, with a small sheet-iron cabin 
at the top. The structure itself is 85 feet high, and the watch- 
man is elevated 250 feet above sea level, — an elevation which 
enables him to see many miles over the surrounding flat country. 
A man is kept on watch in this tower in dry seasons from March 
15 to October 1, from 8 in the morning till 6 at night. This 
watchman is connected by telephone with the forest warden, aiid 
the plan has proved to be a most excellent one. 

The Cape has by far the most destructive fires of any region 
in the State, and it is therefore thought advisable to lay the 
strongest emphasis on that section at present, at the same time 
choosing suitable locations in other sections. At least two 
towers are urged for the Cape section. 

One of the necessary equipments of such stations is the tele- 
phone, and the cost of installation would depend, first on whether 
such hills were already equipped (as is Mt. Greylock) ; and, 
second, on the distance to the nearest line and likelihood of 
future development in the vicinity, which would affect the cost 
of putting in such a line. In the more remote localities a larger 
proportion of the expense would have to be borne by the State. 

Other equipment consists of good field glasses, range finder 
and accurate maps of the region. The cost of the structure 
itself depends, of course, on the locality and the amount of con- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



struction necessary. Of 22 stations in Maine, the cost runs 
anywhere from $350 to $1,000, depending largely on the length 
of telephone connection. Telephone lines have cost there from 
$30 to $40 a mile. 

One of the large lumber companies owning timber lands in 
Maine recommends a number of extinguishers on hand at the 
watch tower for use in case of emergency, and also the main- 
tenance of a patrol during especially dry times. 

As regards the expense of maintenance, it seems only fair 
that it should be borne in part at least by the towns to which 
protection is given. 

Assistant needed in Forest Fike Work. 
The time has come when the State Forester should have the 
assistance of a man who can spend his whole time on forest fire 
work. For the next few years each town should be visited, and 
the whole matter of forest fire prevention gone over carefully 
with the local wardens. Your State Forester cannot get over 
each of our 321 towns and give them the attention they should 
have regarding forest fires, and at the same time keep the refor- 
estation, moth work, lectures, correspondence, etc., going. With 
a competent assistant, however, he can direct the work, and 
save great values that each year at present are a total loss. Such 
an assistant could be provided with a motor cycle, by means of 
which even the most inaccessible country sections could be easily 
reached. The idea would be to keep this man in the field, par- 
ticularly during the forest fire season. The expenses of such a 
man would be his salary and travelling expenses. 

Power Sprayers as Forest Fire Equipment. 
With the high-power engines and improved pumps on the 
modern power sprayers, we have an outfit not only adapted to 
spraying our tallest trees in moth-suppression work, but when 
properly handled they can be used very effectively for fighting 
forest fires. While these outfits are rather heavy when loaded, 
and need a strong team to handle them on the ordinary roads, 
they may need four horses when operating in woodlands. The 
advantages of these machines are that they contain a large tank 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



for water, and also that their power is sufficient so that hose 
one thousand feet or more in length can be used. In cases 
where the machines can be placed at the water supply, they can 
pump directly to the fire. 

The following quotation is taken from a letter written to H. L. 
Frost & Co. by Mr. J. D. Barnes, local superintendent and 
forest warden, Wenham, Mass. : — 

I also put the machine to a good fire test. Of course we did not 
purchase this outfit for a fire fighter, but we happened to have a large 
fire here, where nine ice houses were burning at once. Now, there was 
a forest across the road from these buildings, also a group of four 
cottages. I started to save the forest land, not thinking I could do 
anything about the cottages, but to my surprise we stopped the forest 
fires and saved the cottages. I started the machine at 4 p.m. and played 
until 3 A.M., and then started at 7 a.m. and played all day except the 
noon hour, using two streams of 500 feet of 1-inch hose each, draft- 
ing and playing direct. I had to remove the plug in the bottom of the 
tank to get rid of surplus water, which gained about 400 gallons every 
forty minutes, which the nozzles could not take care of. 

Automobiles and Motor Cycles in Forestry Work. 
Upon assuming the duties of the moth work, it was found 
that the expenditure of a large amount of money in automobile 
hire would be necessary, as this is the only expedient way of 
getting into the infested districts and keeping in touch with 
the field work. It was found that this expense during the pre- 
vious year had been over $2,000. The matter was taken up 
with Governor Draper, and he authorized the purchase of an 
automobile, which has been in constant use. When controver- 
sies have arisen in towns or cities over the conditions of the 
work, we have been able to take the board of selectmen, mayors 
and others interested directly into the field. It has not been 
uncommon for the automobile to cover from 10 to 20 towns in a 
single day, and to do business with as many local superin- 
tendents. 

The motor cycles were purchased by the department for the 
division superintendents, and were first used in September. 
From this short experience we are convinced that the efficiency 
of each man is greatly multiplied. With a motor cycle he can 
if need be get into every town under his supervision in one day. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



49 



Two motor cycles have also been purchased for the use of the 
forestry assistants. 

I predict even farther that it is only a matter of a short time 
before our towns will be able to combat forest fires through the 
assistance of automobiles. Already some of our public-spirited 
forest wardens have automobiles of their own, and they do not* 
hesitate to use them as occasion demands. They reach the 
fire quickly, and thus accomplish results when other means of 
conveyance would be too late. 

Fire Balloons. 
A few complaints have reached the State Forester claiming 
that the so-called toy paper or hot-air balloons have been respon- 
sible for starting forest fires, and their use should be regulated. 
It can be readily seen that where the conditions are just right 
the damage from this source might be very serious. It is recom- 
mended, therefore, that in order to fly these balloons the partici- 
pant be required to secure a permit from a forest warden, and 
that the liability for damages should they occur be the same as 
for other fires set out of doors. 

Price to pay for fighting Forest Fires m Towns. 
There seems to be no uniformity in towns regarding the price 
per hour paid for fighting forest fires. One town may pay 15 
cents an hour and another 50 cents, while others range between 
these two extremes. At the various conferences of forest war- 
dens held the past fall this question was brought up, and it was 
the consensus of opinion that a uniform rate should be adopted 
for the entire State. This question, however, is a local one ; 
and, while 15 cents may not be enough, 50 cents seems high, 
and it is believed that the town forest warden should have the 
matter adjusted at the town meeting to meet his needs. One 
forest warden has an arrangement with his town chief of the 
fire department, whereby he can have experienced firemen at 
the rate of 50 cents for the first hour and 25 cents for each suc- 
ceeding hour. A few live men who are willing and interested 
in the town's future welfare, with some up-to-date equipment, 
are worth much more than a large number of unorganized men, 
as frequently found at forest fires. 



50 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Slashings or Brush should be burned. 

The common custom of allowing the slashings to remain 
upon the ground after lumbering operations leaves a veritable 
tinder box for forest fires. A fire once started here is soon 
'beyond control, and the damage is not confined even to the area 
covered with slashings, but in most cases adjoining properties 
are endangered and frequently large areas are devastated. With 
forest products at present prices and the facts well understood 
that fires are the great menace to future forestry, it is time that 
we should enact laws regulating the handling of slashings. 

The United States Forest Service requires that the brush 
resulting from lumbering operations upon the forest reserves be 
piled and burned as a part of any contract they let. Wisconsin 
has a special commission appointed by the Legislature to report 
recommendations toward regulating this matter. 

There are few States that need to give attention to this sub- 
ject more than Massachusetts. We are thickly populated, and 
the damages from fires are relatively great. Our markets are of 
the best, and as a matter of business we can ill afford to practice 
a slack policy. 

If when operating our forest or wood lots the brush is made 
at the time into small piles, they can be burned at a time when 
there is no danger from spreading. It is advisable to burn the 
slashings when operating, if conditions are favorable, as they are 
then green ; and, as the work is usually done during the winter 
season, there is snow on the ground, or sufficient moisture is pres- 
ent to prevent any spreading of the fire. 

With the slashings and general debris out of the way, the fire 
danger is reduced to a minimum ; and, whether the land is re- 
forested by setting out seedlings or a copse growth established, 
the conditions for future success will be of the best. 

Fire Lines and Protective Moth Belts. 
It is a common practice in the gypsy moth work to surround 
badly infested colonies that otherwise would spread by making 
protective belts of 50 to 100 feet wide, and by thinning out the 
stand and opening up an avenue whereby the insects cannot pass 




A fifty-foot fire lane to iirotect the plantation on the left In the center of tlie pic- 
ture and at the inner edge of the fire lane is a six-foot trench, made with mat- 
tocks and shovels by taking off the turf which surrounds tiie planting. Burning- 
brush in separate piles, when the snow is on the ground, to avoid forest fires. 
Work of the State Forester, carried on under the reforestation act. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



51 



without being destroyed. This protective moth belt is usually 
kept sprayed, and thus the insects are poisoned before they get 
across it. 

This same belt can also be utilized as a forest fire line, as it 
serves to make a stand against a fire, if it is so desired. Old 
wood roads can be made to answer nicely for these belts. In the 
first place, the road is needed for getting spraying pumps 
through for moth suppression, and forest fire wagons need simi- 
lar conditions ; now, if roadsides are widened on either side, 
giving the width mentioned, both purposes are accomplished. 
Forest wardens and moth superintendents should take advantage 
of these conditions, and work together in getting more of these 
protective belts in the town. 

Cape Forest Fiees. 

Each year great waste and destruction from forest fires seem 
to visit some section of the Cape country. This condition has 
continued so long and become so common that not only are many 
thousands of acres reduced to acorn brush deserts, but, from 
their being burned over every few years as soon as they accumu- 
late enough vegetation to feed the fiames, there is little likelihood 
of conditions improving until something is done. 

Where fires have been kept out and even nature had a chance 
to assist, we find sufficient forest growth to really amount to con- 
siderable commercial value. Even on rough, rocky and ledgy 
lands, as well as those of pure sand, if we will keep out fires so 
that a forest fioor can accumulate, the mulch or humus, which 
is composed of decaying leaves, twigs, etc., will form and here 
magnificent forests can be grown. The early history of this 
country tells us that the Cape was completely forested, and if it 
was once, it can be again reforested under modern methods. 
First of all we must stop the forest fires. 

The pitch pine revels in the Cape conditions more than most 
other species, because it has a thick bark and can withstand 
fires better than most other trees ; and then, again, it propagates 
easily from seed, even small specimens yielding more or less 
cones. If this tree will grow under such adverse conditions, 
were we to assist it in its struggle and even collect and plant or 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



sow the seed, start nurseries and transplant the seedlings, we 
soon could bring about great results on the Cape. 'Nov are we 
confined to the pitch pine. Many more species of trees will grow 
here when once they are given a little consideration as regards 
shelter, soils and freedom from fires. 

Last summer a forest fire of approximately 10,000 acres 
burned over a territory in the towns of Bourne and Falmouth. 
Upon making a thorough examination of this fire, as to its 
causes, methods of handling, etc., it is evident that this forest 
fire which laid waste this vast territory could have been handled 
easily and controlled with comparatively no damage had there 
been any organized effort or suitable equipment. 

From data secured through competent men, whose reports are 
now on file in the State Forester's office, together with photo- 
graphs showing conditions where fires crossed roads, maps of 
the territory burned each day, it is evident that if we Massachu- 
setts people are willing to allow such conditions to continue to 
exist, we certainly are neglecting our birthright. 

If towns are not willing or able to protect themselves, the State 
should step in and regulate or assist. Since this large fire the 
towns adjacent have been aroused to activity in future protec- 
tion, and it is hoped this interest may not die out until some- 
thing results. 

It is generally acknowledged that these fires originate from 
Mayfiower gatherers and blueberry pickers. It is evident that 
this being the case, some regulations must be made for fixing the 
responsibility and punishing the offenders. 

It is understood that the association composed of the boards 
of selectmen of various towns expects to ask some legislation on 
this subject this year. 

Authority to accept Donations. 
If the State Forester were given authority to accept lands or 
funds on behalf of the Commonwealth which are to be used for 
State reserves and managed by the State Forester, with the 
understanding that all net sales from the management of such 
lands shall be used by him for improving State forestry condi- 
tions, subject to the approval of the Governor and Council, it is 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



S3 



believed the State would derive a great deal of benefit. This 
suggestion has come to the office a iew times from such sources 
as we have reason to believe would be interested in aiding the 
future forestry work in Massachusetts. 

Public Lectures and Addresses. 

As heretofore, the State Forester has endeavored to do as 
much of this kind of work as he could consistently, and keep up 
the regular routine work of the department. More engagements 
have been filled than ever before. The policy of accepting invi- 
tations preferably when a large and representative audience is 
assured (not less than 100), and the meeting an open one, has 
been adhered to this year, as last. The requests for lectures 
have been greater than ever. 

Besides the 51 lectures by the State Forester, occasional en- 
gagements have been filled by assistants. The usual course of 
lectures was given at the Massachusetts Agricultural College 
during January. 

Meeting with the State Firemen^s Association. 
The State Forester was requested to again address the State 
Firemen's Association on the occasion of their annual meeting, 
held at Plymouth, September 15. Chiefs of the fire depart- 
ments have expressed a willingness to co-operate with forest 
wardens in suppressing forest fires, and have offered in many in- 
stances to instruct the wardens in the use and care of extinguish- 
ers. The State Firemen's Association also sent representatives 
to address the conference meetings of forest wardens at North- 
ampton and Boston, the subject being, in each instance, ''The 
Co-operative Relations between the Firemen's Association and 
the Forest Wardens." 

The Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science. 

This organization, which is the oldest and most influential 
society of the kind in this country, held its meeting at Portland, 
Ore., on August 17, and the State Forester, who is secretary- 
treasurer, attended this meeting. The special program for this 
occasion was Forestry," and various phases of the subject were 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



discussed by leading scientists from different sections of the 
United States. This meeting was held directly after the ^sTa- 
tional Irrigation and Forestry Congress, and just before the 
Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment 
Stations. 

I also visited Seattle, where the Alaska- Yukon Exposition 
was held. Besides the excellent forestry exhibit, occasion was 
offered here to spend some time with the fire warden of the 
State of Washington and various lumber companies, in getting 
a better idea of the forestry methods used. 

The following statement was given to the press upon my 
return : — 

On a recent trip through the northwest, I have had splendid oppor- 
tunities to examine the magnificent forests of that section. This was 
not my first trip, and hence, from a forester's standpoint, it has proven 
even more interesting. One is first impressed with the great amount 
of forest products and particularly by the cheapness thereof; but upon 
further reflection and study of the area and prices, it grows upon one 
that after all we Massachusetts people get very little benefit from them. 
While prices are relatively low, that country is so far away that other 
than for our best grades it is prohibitive for our use. Fine, square- 
edged lumber is looking for a market in Washington to-day, and it 
is offered for much less per 1,000 feet than we get for our round- 
edged box boards. There are hundreds of miles of treeless areas be- 
tween here and there, and a country that will demand in a few dec- 
ades even more forest products than the famous forests will be able 
to supply. We Massachusetts people must depend for our future 
lumber supply, I am convinced, upon our own well-directed efforts. 

Our people may think their State Forester is overzealous in regard 
to forestry matters, but he is more willing than ever to go on record 
in stating that there are few subjects of more importance at the present 
hour that really need the attention of our Massachusetts people than 
that of reforestation, and even more mandatory laws governing forestry 
management. Every dollar rightly spent in the old Bay State now is 
bound to return us 100 per cent, in future benefits. 

Conferences of Forest Wardens. 
During the latter part of October and fore part of ^NTovember 
the State Forester held a series of five forest warden conferences, 
which were distributed evenly throughout the State. All the 
forest wardens of the State were invited to attend, with their 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



55 



travelling expenses paid, as per chapter 475, section 8, Acts of 
1907. The first conference was held at Pittsfield, on October 
14, and included all of the towns in Berkshire County ; the sec- 
ond, at Northampton, on October 29, included Hampshire, 
Hampden and Franklin counties; the third, held at Boston, 
State House, on November 4, included all the towns in Essex 
and Suffolk counties; the fourth convened at Worcester, on 
November 11, and included the towns of Worcester County; 
while the fifth, held at Middleborough, on November 18, con- 
sisted of all the counties of the Cape, Plymouth, Barnstable and 
Dukes. 

These meetings were the first attempts to get the forest ward- 
ens together. The conferences were in each case held through- 
out one day, beginning at 10 o'clock and continuing until 4 
P.M., taking out only forty-five minutes for lunch. The program 
consisted in a general outlining of the State's policy by the State 
Forester, which was followed by a discussion for the remainder 
of the forenoon, in which the wardens took an active interest. 
Other subjects discussed by competent speakers were : reforesta- 
tion; forestry management; forest insects and their control; 
co-operation of railroads ; co-operation of chiefs of fire depart- 
ments with forest wardens; forest fire equipment; co-operation 
between towns, etc. 

As was expected, there was not sufficient time to go into the 
subjects in detail, but one of the great benefits was in getting 
the wardens together, and setting them to thinking in lines of 
accomplishing results in their towns. 

Splendid interest and a very co-operative feeling were mani- 
fest at each meeting, and it is the opinion of your State Forester 
that the expenses for these meetings will be as productive of 
future results as any money investment this year. The total 
expenses of the five meetings did not exceed $500. The benefits 
of these conferences are already shown in the increased interest 
of the forest wardens in sending in reports of fires and in asking 
for assistance in their work. This conference in the future will 
resolve itself into a gathering whereby we may keep posted on 
modern methods of fire fighting and other forestry operations. 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Municipal Forests. 
This type of forestry work has again received more or less of 
our attention this year. The forest working plan for land 
belonging to the city of Fall River in the N'orth Watiippa water- 
shed, which is the water supply for that city, was completed and 
published in a bulletin from this office. This bulletin has not 
only proved of interest to other cities and towns as well through- 
out the State, but has been called for by many cities from outside 
the State. When the advantages to be derived from such under- 
takings become more fully understood, there is little doubt but 
that the recommendations outlined in the bulletin mentioned 
will be generally carried out and put into practice. This bulle- 
tin was not generally distributed, but can be had by any one 
interested in such work. 

Bulletin on Foeest Fires. 
A bulletin entitled We must stop Forest Fires in Massachu- 
setts," was published during the year. It contained 44 pages, 
and was published that our people may realize more fully the 
exact condition of forest fires in the State, and especially to 
bring together data for the benefit of our forest wardens and 
their deputies, that they may know what the better towns of the 
State are doing, thereby gaining new ideas and being enabled 
more intelligently to accomplish good results in their own com- 
munities. The bulletin contains several illustrations of forest 
fire wagons and equipment, together with estimate costs; and 
gives a list of all the forest wardens, with their addresses, from 
each town and city in the State. 

Bulletin on Thinning. 
The first bulletin on " Forest Thinning " has been exhausted 
for some time, and we have a new bulletin now in press on this 
subject, which contains some definite experimental data of Mas- 
sachusetts conditions and treats the subject in an up-to-date 
manner. This bulletin will be of interest, we believe, to the 
whole State, and particularly throughout the gypsy-moth-infested 



One of the roads that the Bourne fire crossed. Had this roadway been widened, it 
would be a natural fire lane. Had there been a well-organized force, the fire 
should have been stopped here. By making a study of our town and wood 
roads throughout wooded sections, and widening them for fire belts, much of 
our present fire losses could be curtailed. 



1910.] • PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



57 



territory; for, by thinning our woodlands properly, the condi- 
tions are not only better for forestry proper, but for the suppres- 
sion of insect pests. 

Permit Act^ Result of Vote. 
The results of the vote by our Massachusetts towns on the 
permit act were very satisfactory, and for the most part the act 
was adopted. The failure of a few towns to accept the provi- 
sions was found to be due to a misunderstanding of the objects 
sought, and they will probably adopt the law at their coming 
annual town meetings. Forest wardens generally are convinced 
of the value of the permit act in lessening forest fires, while this 
office can point to far more efficient service throughout the State. 

Massachusetts Fire Permit Law. — Towns accepting Chapter 

209, Section 5. 

Towns voting to accept the law, 248 

Towns voting to reject the law, 15 

Towns faihng to report on vote (probably favorable), ... 47 

Towns postponing action on the law, 7 

Chapter 209, section 5, does not include the cities whose or- 
dinances should cover same, 27 

Co-opeeation with the United States Forest Service. 

The State Forester has been favored with hearty co-operation 
from the United States Forest Service throughout the year. The 
work on ^' Massachusetts Wood-using Industries,'' which was 
begun last year, has been completed and is now in press. Mr. 
H. S. Hackett, in charge of wood utilization, and Mr. Hu Max- 
well, expert, both of the United States Forest Service, have 
rendered us splendid service in this work. 

Recently arrangements have been made with another depart- 
ment of the United States Forest Service, under the supervision 
of Mr. J. G. Peters, to carry on some co-operative work in forest 
survey work. 

The State Forester wishes to acknowledge many other courte- 
sies extended to him by Mr. Gifford Pinchot and the United 
States Forest Service. 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Pii^E Tree Blight. 
The alarm in regard to the disease called the pine tree blight^ 
which was so prevalent two years ago, has very much subsided 
of late. Occasional trees have died from this cause during the 
year, but nothing equal to the number of last year, which in turn 
was less than that of the year before. Our people generally 
have become familiar with it, and are following the practice of 
cutting out and utilizing all pine trees of commercial size that 
are badly affected. It is quite generally believed that we have 
little to fear from this malady in the future in growing white 
pine. 

The Chestnut Bark Disease. 
This disease of the chestnut has been extremely disastrous 
along the southern Hudson River district and in certain sections 
of Connecticut. By reading about it and its results in the above- 
named territory, many of the people owning chestnut forests 
have become alarmed and written to our office. We have not as 
yet had any large area reported which was thought to be infested 
with this chestnut disease. Experts on the subject seem to differ 
as to the cause of the depredation. The United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture claims the disease is Diaporthe parasi- 
tica^ and that it is contagious; while equally skilled botanists, 
like Dr. G. P. Clinton of Connecticut and Dr. G. E. Stone of 
Amherst, claim that it is due to unfavorable climatic condi- 
tions. 

It is believed to be unnecessary for us to worry at present over 
the chestnut bark disease in Massachusetts. If chestnut trees 
here and there become unhealthy, it is a safe rule to remove 
them, and thus minimize possible trouble. This method we are 
practising with the white pine blight. It is certainly to be 
hoped that this trouble may not come our way, for our chestnut 
growths are valuable properties. 

Forestry Exhibits. 
During the year various forestry exhibits, mainly showing 
moth work and seedlings, have been made, the principal ones 
being before the following organizations: the I^Tew England 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



59 



apple show, Boston, October 18-23; the Boston ^'1915 Exhi- 
bition/' Boston, during November and part of December ; and 
at the meeting of the American Association of Economic Ento- 
mologists, Boston, December 27-29. The other displays were 
largely made before agricultural fair associations in the newly 
infested sections. 

Massachusetts Forestky Work recognized in Other 

States. 

During the past year we have had cause to feel complimented 
upon our work, as the State of New York, in a bulletin entitled 
" Instructions for Reforesting Lands," published, with due 
credit, many tables found in our handbook on Forest Mensu- 
ration of the White Pine." Also, this pamphlet of ours has 
been sought by many forest schools. Another of our publica- 
tions. Forest Trees of Massachusetts, how you may know 
them," a pocket manual, was practically copied in full by the 
Maine Forestry Commission. Other States have in part adopted 
the Massachusetts forestry legislation. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
In accordance with section 6 of chapter 409 of the Acts of 
1904, as amended by the Acts of 1907, chapter 473, section 2, 
the following statement is given of the forestry expenditures for 
the year ending Nov. 30, 1909 : — 



Forestry Expenditures. 

Salaries of assistants, $3,875 70 

Travelling expenses, 1,083 24 

Stationery, postage and other office suppHes, . . . 1,048 35 

Printing, 1,018 85 

Instruments, 80 17 

Forest warden account, 290 44 

Nursery, 2,305 94 

Co-operative work with the United States Department of 

Agriculture, . . . 215 00 

Miscellaneous, 81 95 



$9,999 64 

Balance, 36 



Total appropriation, . . ... . . . $10,000 00 



\ 



60 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Reforestation Account. 

Seedlings, $771 01 

Land, 1,792 50 

Labor, 5,769 47 

Equipment, 663 58 

Travelling, 846 31 



$9,842 87 

Balance, 157 13 



Total appropriation, $10,000 00 



There was realized from the sale of publications $73.62, 
which amount has been turned over to the Treasurer and Re- 
ceiver-General. If to this amount are added the amounts unex- 
pended, $157.49, we have $231.11 as a credit for the year. 

In accordance with section 5 of the above-named chapter, the 
following statement is given of the receipts for travelling and 



subsistence : — 

Lectures. 

Auburndale Improvement Association, $0 50 

Attleborough Women's Club, 1' 50 

West Manchester Women's Club, - 

Montague Agricultural School, 50 

Cornell Club, 2 00 

Leominster Board of Trade, 1 74 

Quincy Unitarian Club, 46 

Amesbury Women's Club, 1 70 

Cambridge Entomological Club, . . . . -. . - 

Mangus Club, Wellesley Hills, 50 

Fall River Natural Science Association, 5 00 

Chicopee Falls Women's Club, 5 50 

Milton Women's Club, 35 

Agriculture Board of Trade, 2 50 

Farmers' Institute, East Charlemont, 6 24 

New England Rural Conference, ...... 

Concord Women's Club, 85 

Men's Club, Melrose, 1 00 

Fitchburg Grange, 3 00 

Farmers' Institute, Brimfield, 4 55 

Boston Merchants' Club, 2 00 

High School Masters' Club, 75 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



61 



North Reading- Grange, 
Farmers' Institute, West Brookfield, 
Plymouth Board of Trade, 
Middlesex Women's Club, Lowell, 
Lexington Grange, 
Lee Grange, .... 
Swift River Valley Pomona Grange, Greenfield, 
State Board of AgTiculture, Cummington, 
New Hampshire Board of Trade, Manchester, 
State Firemen's Association, Plymouth, 
Board of Agriculture, Barre, Fair, 
Pittsfield Wardens' Conference, 
Northampton Wardens' Conference, 
Boston Wardens' Conference, . 
Worcester Wardens' Conference, 
Middleborough Wardens' Conference, 
Gardner Women's Club, . 
Channing Club of Boston, . 
Hyde Park Current Events Club, 
The Atalanta Club, Lynn, . 
Palmer Men's Club, . 
Cantabrigia Club, Cambridge, . 
Boston Society of Civil Engineers, 
Economic Club, Boston, 
Boston Market Gardeners' Association, 
Massachusetts Reform Club, Boston, 
Massachusetts Forestry Association, 
Conservation Club, Kingston, . 
American Forestry Association, 
Friday Club, Everett, 
Webster Grange, Marshfield, 
Becket Camp, Becket, 
Harmony Grange, Easton, 
Holden Farmers' Club, 
Cape Ann Literary Association, Gloucester, 
American Association of Economic Entomologists, 



A list of the visits made, the area of woodland involved and 
the receipts for expenses, are as follows : — 



62 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Examinations of Woodlands. 



Name of Owner. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Expense. 


Adams, Sarah. E., 


Pembroke, 


7 


$2 00 


Barryune, F. J., 


Lynnfield, 


22 


1 00 


Barnes, H. K. , ..... 


Shirley, 


43 


1 40 


Burbank Hospital, .... 


Fitchburg, 


400 


12 40 


Burgess, J. K., ..... 


Dedham, . 


50 


50 


Carpenter, S. I., . 


Sharon, 


15 


80 


Clapp, W. A 


Ashland, . 


90 


1 00 


Cook, Robert, ..... 


Brockton, 


50 


1 00 


CunningharQ, Paul, .... 


Bolton, 


125 


1 45 


Crane, A. S., 


Weston, 


5 




Dole, W A., ..... 


Townsend, 


28 


1 60 


Emery, Miss M. E., 


Newburyport, 


55 


1 50 


Foxborough State Hospital, 


Foxborough, 


110 


1 25 


Fillebrown, Mrs. W., .... 


Ply mp ton. 


50 


1 25 


Gaskill, D. W 


Blackstone, 


75 


1 50 


Gilbert, E. H., 


^Vare, 


170 


3 50 


Greenwood, Levi, 


Gardner, 


275 


4 80 


State Board of Insanity, 


Lexington, 


20 


2 80 


Hubbard, Eliot, ..... 


Millis, 


40 


90 


Humphrey, L. C, 


Rochester, 


200 


2 10 


Hyde, H. S 


W^est Springfield, 


60 


4 30 


Jones, C. H., ..... 


TVeston, 


200 




Joslin, E. P., 


Oxford, 


100 


2 40 


Harlow Brook Cranberry Company, 


"Wareham 


1,000 


2 00 


Libby, F. M., 


Wakefield, 


10 


_i 


Manning, W^arren, 


Billerica 


78 


_ 1 


Milford Water Company, 


Milford, . 


175 


1 50 


McCarthy, N. F., . 


Lynnfield, 


50 




Matthews, W. L., 


Conway, 


50 


4 60 


Morse, Prof. A. D. 


Pelham 


300 


3 80 


Needham Park Board, .... 


Needham, 


60 


35 


Newton City Forester, .... 


Newton, , 


10 


_ 2 


Paine, Chas., ..... 


Sturbridge, 


125 


3 00 


Parker, F. H., 


Westborough, . 


175 


1 00 


Parker, Chas. S., . 


Wostford, 


23 


70 


Prescott, C. W. .. 


Concord, . 


60 




Simmons, H. F., . 


Hanover, . 


10 


1 25 



1 Train fares paid by owner. 



'- No expense. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 63 



Examinations of Woodlands — Con. 



Name of Owner. 


Town. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Expense. 


Swett, Frank, 


Westminster, 


103 


$2 50 


Symington, R. B., .... 


Plymouth, 


2 


3 95 


Thomdike, R. K., 


Millis, 


20 


90 


Tolland Fish and Game Association, 




500 


8 50 


Walker, Mrs. J. G., 


Hamilton, 


6 


1 00 


Warren, Fiske, ..... 


Harvard, . 


285 


1 85 


Whitney, Fred, ..... 


Leominster, 


12 


1 75 


Williams, G. F., 


Needham, 


200 


_ 1 




Canton, 


8 


_ 2 


Y, M. C. A. Camp, .... 


Becket, 


200 


5 40 


Massachusetts Fish and Game Association, 


Carver and Plymouth, 


6,000 


3 40 


Barclay, Fred, ..... 


Spencer. . 


200 


2 


Freeman, Lucy, ..... 


Wrentham, 


30 


1 30 


Hillside Industrial School, 


Greenwich, 


300 


4 00 


■Gloucester Common, .... 


Gloucester, 


1,500 


2 05 


Conservation Association, 


Kingston, 


1.000 


1 50 


rJill, JNatnan D., . 


Worthington, 


600 


4 80 


Adams, Chas. F., . 


Lincoln, . 


500 


70 


Newton, Mr., ..... 


Royalston, 


23 


3 00 


Dexter, Prof. F. B 


Fairhaven, 


8 


2 70 


Symington, R B., 


Plymouth, 


4 


2 00 


Thompson, M. S., 


Newbury, 


40 


1 50 


Lane, Emory, . . 


Waltham, 


5 


_2 


Total 




10,860 





Train fares paid by owner. 2 No expense. 



Part II. 



GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH 
SUPPRESSION. 



Part II. 



GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH 
SUPPRESSION. 



General Considekatioxs of the Year. 

The work of suppressing the gypsy and brown-tail moths in 
the year 1909 has been carried on along well-defined lines which 
have been determined through previous experience to be the best, 
and in most cases gratifying results are shown. Weather condi- 
tions have been favorable for our work, and also for insect life. 
Natural causes, such as the wilt disease of the gypsy moth cater- 
pillars, have been helpful to some extent in badly infested wood- 
lands. The brown-tail moth caterpillars came through the winter 
season very well, and but a small amount of the fungous disease 
was noticeable; consequently, there was need of more work 
against this insect than in previous years. The usual methods 
of treating the gypsy moth egg clusters with creosote, and re- 
moving the brown-tail webs and burning them, were prosecuted 
vigorously during the winter and early spring, and unusually 
extensive spraying operations were carried on during the cater- 
pillar season; there were 150 large power outfits in operation, 
and 200 hand outfits ; consequently, more noticeable results 
were obtained from spraying than in previous years. There 
were used, as near as can be ascertained, about 300 tons of 
arsenate of lead. The maximum number of men engaged in the 
work at any one time during the year was 2,750. 

During the month of August in many cities and towns there 
was a cessation of field work, on account of lack of funds, owing 
to the fact that so much more spraying than usual was done in 
June. 

The area infested by the gypsy moth in Massachusetts com- 
prises 3,950 square miles. Although the known spread has been 



68 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

very slight during this year, the infestation in the central west- 
ern part of the State is being watched closely, as it is from that 
point that the insect is most likely to spread, and thus far no 
noticeable increase has been made westward. It is generally 
believed from observations that the spread of this year has been 
northerly, if in any direction. 

The work carried on by the cities and towns has been com- 
mendable in most cases, although there are a few instances 
where the indifference of the people, or the neglect and lack of 
interest on the part of the public officials, has caused great an- 
noyance and considerable damage. Unfortunately, these cases 
have been in some of our large cities, and have given the bor- 
dering places anxiety. There are municipalities where the 
infestation has been bad in previous years, and where the prop- 
erty holders have suffered greatly from the pests, and much 
money has been expended, with the result that they are now in 
comparatively good condition. Here, efforts are apt to be re- 
laxed. If these places are not carefully watched now, there will 
be a repetition of the conditions of past years. 

In October a reduction of our field force was made, for, as 
the local superintendents have had nearly five years' experience 
in the work, less inspection and instruction from this office 
should be necessary. This will make a saving in supervision, 
and enable us to assist cities and towns financially to a greater 
extent. The infested area has been divided into 15 divisions, 
and a division superintendent retained for each division. The 
inspectors we have retained are also responsible directly to this 
office. Most of our agents and division superintendents have 
been provided with motor cycles, and are now able to keep in 
closer touch with the work in their towns for about nine months 
in the year than before, when they were dependent upon steam 
or electric cars, or walking. 

By the approval of the Governor, the co-operative work in the 
north shore woodlands has been carried on as in previous years, 
with an expenditure there of nearly $58,000, of which $22,500 
has been furnished by the State. A much larger area was 
covered than in 1908. This office has also supervised the scout- 
ing work on the State highways for the State Highway Com- 
mission. 



Gasoline power sprayer, built by State Forester's department, with four-cylinder 
engine and triplex pump, the latter designed by same department, capable of 
furnishing 300 pounds' pressure in woodland work. Weight of outfit, 3,000 
pounds. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



69 



Apportionment of Allotments. 

The problem of apportioning our appropriations among cities 
and towns where the liability under the law is not sufficient to 
cover the necessary work, is one of the most difficult connected 
with this work. At the beginning of the fiscal year it is com- 
paratively easy to apportion the continuing appropriation ac- 
cording to the needs of each town; but later in the year, when 
the Legislature has made an additional appropriation, as it has 
in years past, which must be divided fairly among the most 
needy municipalities, a problem arises which is hard to solve. 
This is because we are often unable to secure proper returns of 
expenditures already made from cities and towns expecting 
reimbursement. These cities and towns are not unaware of the 
necessity, but they are neglectful. 

When allotments are made, local officials should all see to it 
that expenditures are kept within the limits laid down by this 
office, unless they are willing, if need be, to provide for the extra 
expense by extra town appropriations. It should be the aim of 
each local superintendent to carry on his work as economically 
as possible, and in cases where large allotments have been made 
in the past, the towns should be nearer to being self-supporting 
each year. There are still, however, badly infested towns need- 
ing more money than the State can give them at the present 
time, with available funds. 

Scouting. 

At the beginning of the year 1909 it did not seem advisable 
to do scouting work to the same extent as in the past two years, 
as the towns bordering on the infested area had been carefully 
inspected last year. Only such places, therefore, as were most 
exposed to infestation were scouted. In previous years the whole 
cost of this work has been borne by the State, but this year 
arrangements were made for cities and towns to employ our 
trained men to do the work, and much better results were thus 
obtained. We believe it to be good policy to do this scouting 
when necessary, as small infestations can be handled easily 
when first found, and often stamped out if taken in hand in 
time. 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



In the central part of the State 15 men were employed in 
this work, and gypsy moth infestations were found in the follow- 
ing places: Hopedale, Lancaster, Mendon and Northborough. 
Also, the following towns were scouted, but nothing found: 
Blackstone, Boylston, Sterling, Uxbridge and West Boylston. 

In the southern part of the State 6 men were employed, and 
the following towns and cities were thoroughly scouted : i^ew 
Bedford, Fairhaven, Marion and Mattapoisett. In several other 
infested towns in this section our trained men were employed to 
scout thoroughly, that the exact conditions might be ascertained. 

In the extreme western part of the State, the towns of Lee, 
Lenox and Stockbridge were given a thorough examination, as 
they are much frequented by automobiles from the heavily 
infested section. The main highways in the city of Pittsfield 
were also scouted, but nothing was found in any of this western 
section. In the city of Springfield and the towns of Greenfield, 
Palmer and Warren, where infestations were found in 1908, no 
signs of the moths have been seen this year. During the coming 
year it may be advisable to do some scouting in the towns of 
Orange, ISTew Salem, Dana, Hardwick, 'New Braintree, ^^'orth 
Brookfield, Brookfield, Charlton and Sturbridge, but this will 
depend largely on conditions found in adjoining towns. 

The Condition of the Infested District. 

The larger part of the area known to be infested with the 
gypsy moth is to-day in most cases in a better condition than at 
the time of the writing of the last report. The work in the 
sections where the worst infestations have been found this year 
has been done generally in a very thorough manner, and excel- 
lent results obtained. This applies mostly to residential sections, 
and belts in woodlands for the protection of sections already 
cleaned. In our judgment, these good results are due to the 
efficiency of the local forces, gained through their long training 
in certain tovms where the moth work has been carried on ex- 
tensively. We have done, as far as possible, the necessary work 
in the worst-infested districts, but the woodland work still suffers 
from lack of funds. 

In some places results worthy of note have been obtained, as 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



in the case of the city of Newton. Here, through the neglect of 
the city government to make suitable appropriations at the time 
when the infestation was light, and when it could have been 
handled with comparatively little expense to the city, a large 
expenditure of money has been necessary this year to keep the 
moths in check. In the latter part of the year 1908 this city 
realized the danger which threatened it from the ravages of the 
gypsy moth, and took hold of the situation in a competent man- 
ner, engaging an experienced man to take charge of the work. 
Throughout the year 1909 the work has been carried on vigor- 
ously. At times it has been necessary to employ as many as 
200 men, and during the caterpillar season a large number of 
spraying machines were used. This surely should be an example 
and object lesson for such places as are to-day in similar condi- 
tion to that of Newton, and funds should be made available at 
the proper time, as suggested by this office. It is a fact that 
where, through the indifference of the local government, moth 
pests are allowed to go unchecked for a certain length of time, 
the result is a large expenditure finally, and severe damage from 
the ravages of the moths. In sections where infestations have 
occurred in the northern part of the State, not as .bad as in Bos- 
ton and vicinity, the gypsy moth has shown some increase from 
the fact that in most cases the cities and to\\Tis were not able to 
engage experienced men for the work in the past; that is, this 
year's scouting has been done by more experienced men, and 
therefore has perhaps in some places brought to light more 
widespread infestation, but in most cases this infestation is 
very light, and should cause little anxiety. Where the infesta- 
tion is light, the towns as a rule have handled it well, and these 
places have also been given close supervision by our men. 

It is the aim and object of this office, where it is possible, to 
put cities and towns infested with either of the pests in a con- 
dition so that they may become self-supporting ; that is, in such 
condition that the towns' own liability under the law (^5 of 1 
per cent, of the valuation of the town or city where it is under 
$12,500,000, or $5,000 where the valuation is over $12,500,000) 
will pay for all the necessary work to keep the towns free from 
the nuisance. We expect the coming season with the expendi- 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ture of small sums from the State to have several municipalities 
put in this condition by doing thorough suppressive work. 

We shall also be obliged, in several cases where cities and 
towns are not ready to make necessary appropriations, to adopt 
such methods as the law allows to make sure that the necessary 
work is done in a thorough manner. Although these cases may 
be few, it is not justice to the adjoining cities and towns to 
allow such places to continue delinquent in making appropria- 
tions, or to continue to do the work in an unsatisfactory manner. 

Work in woodlands which are heavily infested should be 
given careful consideration before it is entered upon. If it is 
found necessary to take such work up, careful consideration 
should be given to the future, as it will probably mean a con- 
tinued expense for some years to come, and it is not good policy 
to take up this work where it can not be followed out and car- 
ried to completion. The land valuation of woodlands is usually 
very low, and where only % of 1 per cent, can be collected from 
owners, the expense of cleaning falls almost entirely upon the 
city or town, and State ; and we believe that there should be some 
way provided by law, in cases where property owners will receive 
benefit from these operations, to make larger assessments on the 
same. The cord wood which is removed from cleaned woodland 
would in most cases pay for the greater part of the thinning; 
and, as expert foresters are available at all times in this office 
to lay out woodland work along scientific lines, the property 
owner is bound to profit in the end from this treatment. 

The woodland work done the past year, with the exception 
of that done on the north shore, has been confined in most cases 
to the most valuable wood lots, as it seems a waste of money to 
expend large sums on scrub land. 

The question of woodland work in any town should be taken 
up with representatives of this office, and a very thorough under- 
standing of the matter reached before entering upon work of 
this kind. The condition of the residential section of the tovm 
must be considered before taking up woodland work. A prime 
consideration in woodland work is that it shall be of a protective 
nature, either to protect estates, or adjoining property which is 
not infested. In cases where a light infestation occurs, and the 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



73 



necessary funds are available, it is advisable for some time to 
come to do nest treating through as much woodland as possible. 
This will hold the general infestation in check until such aid as 
may come from natural sources is sufficient to be appreciated. 

The conditions in the woodlands on the south shore promise 
to be serious in the future, unless handled by removing the 
deciduous trees and confining the growth almost entirely to 
conifers. Through some part of this section there are valuable 
areas of white pine, and the work of clearing is being prosecuted 
vigorously, in the hope that we may save most of it, or that but 
slight damage may occur. 

In the section of our State which borders on the New Hamp- 
shire line the work is being done very carefully, and very little 
spread is likely to occur from any of these bordering towns. 
However, the work is not as well done across the line in New 
Hampshire, where inadequate appropriations are made for the 
work, and very little care taken regarding the spread of the 
insects. It is our feeling that we should be given more protec- 
tion here, as the expenditure in this section amounts to a large 
sum. 

In the past season the brown-tail infestation in the Merrimac 
valley bordering along the New Hampshire line was very serious, 
caused chiefly by the fact that no suppressive work was done 
across the line. In fact, the infestation was so heavy that large 
sums of money had to be expended in work against these moths, 
thus handicapping our appropriations which otherwise could 
have been used in gypsy moth work, where it was much needed. 
The reinfestation of towns or estates already cleared, by prox- 
imity to neglected towns or estates, is one of the serious problems 
with which we have to contend. 

It may be interesting to note in this connection that from 
reports made to this office we find the number of acres sprayed 
throughout the infested district during the season to be 7,776; 
the number of burlaps put on, 698,597; and the number of 
tanglefoot bands, 26,313. These figures are of course approxi- 
mate, several towns not having made complete returns. 



74 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Conference of Moth Superintendents. 
On December 10 a meeting of all tlie local moth superin- 
tendents of the oldest infested districts was held at room 240, 
State House. The conference lasted from 10 a. m. to 4.30 p. m. 
In so far as possible, all the important points about future 
policies of the work were discussed by the State Forester and his 
assistants. Representatives from the laboratory discussed the 
parasites and their work, also specimens were passed about, to 
familiarize the men with them. The moth superintendents 
were left free to ask questions, and it is believed the day's efforts 
were well spent and will result in more efficient work this 
winter. 

Spraying Operations. 
During the year 1909 the spraying operations carried on 
against the gypsy moth caterpillars have been on a larger scale 
than ever before, and extremely good results have been obtained 
in most cases. The use of arsenate of lead in spraying the foliage 
has become one of the most efficient methods used in suppressing 
injurious insects, it being beneficial to the crop and detrimental 
to the insect. In cities and towns where the work has been 
carried on in an intelligent manner for the last four years, the 
street trees should be in such condition that spraying should not 
be needed; but during the past season the ravages of the elm- 
leaf beetle have been so severe in many such places as above men- 
tioned that considerable spraying has been done on street trees 
for elm-leaf beetle where very little benefit was derived on the 
moth work. In a good many cases the spraying should have 
been done in other sections, to benefit the gypsy moth work; 
consequently, our work has suffered to some extent from this 
cause. The introduction of power outfits and their continued 
improvement has been one of the greatest benefits to the suppres- 
sive work against insects which we have ever had, for the prob- 
lem is of such great magnitude that it would be impossible to 
accomplish the same results without them. It is believed that 
even more improvements will be made in the future as this 
method of combating insect pests is in its infancy at the present 
time. 



Old Method. 



New Method. 



The above illustrations show nozzle and shut-off designed by State Forester's de- 
partment for woodland work, with I inch straight tip; also, the nozzle formerly 
used, 18 inches long. Note difference in spray, as the long nozzle is carrying 
stream higher before breaking into mist. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



75 



The work of climbing large trees must be done away with as 
much as possible, as, in the limited amount of time in which 
spraying is effective, it is necessary to cover as much area as 
possible, and climbing is slow and expensive work. In using 
high-power outfits, the greatest care must be given to the way 
in which the solution reaches the foliage, because if it is put on 
with too much force the larger part of it runs off the leaves, and 
good results are not obtained ; it is very essential that it be put 
on as nearly in the form of a mist as possible. The greatest 
trouble in many cases is that the man holding the nozzle stands 
too near the trees he is trying to spray; if care is used, the 
greater part of the foliage can be sprayed with the straight 
stream, and good results obtained. 

Careful attention should be given to the machine itself, as 
breakdowns are often caused from neglect or inattention. As 
soon as a small fault is noticed it should be repaired, as if 
neglected it many times causes bad breaks and long delays. 
Machines should be kept properly oiled and cooled, the spark 
plugs clean, and plenty of gasolene on hand. Valves should be 
looked at if there is an uneven pressure. The machine should 
be given a thorough overhauling before starting for the field of 
operations. Good care should be taken of the machine, so that 
the depreciation from use may be as small as possible. The 
weight of large outfits often causes much comment, yet it must 
be considered that in order to obtain the necessary power and 
capacity a machine must be fairly heavy. Any machine that is 
in the market to-day can be easily handled on hard roads with 
two horses, but in doing woodland work it is necessary in nearly 
all cases to use four horses. The extra cost is not to be compared 
with results obtained. Much moving of apparatus can be avoided 
by using long lines 'of hose. 

Poison should be used as economically as possible. The large 
amount used to-day makes the work very costly, and 10 pounds 
to 100 gallons of water in the first four stages of the caterpillar 
will give just as good an effect as a larger amount. 

Observations should be made within three days of the spray- 
ing, to determine whether the work has been skilfully and effec- 
tively done. If caterpillars are still eating, and no dead ones 



76 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



can be seen, the work has not been successful. Some of the 
causes which might account for this kind of work are as follows : 
weak poison, wet foliage, inefficient man at the nozzle, failure 
to cover the tree well, poor agitation, and presence of soluble 
arsenic in the arsenate of lead. This office furnishes the follow- 
ing formula for arsenate of lead paste : — 

50 per cent, dry arsenate of lead. 

No less than 15 per cent, arsenic oxide (AS^O^). 

To contain not more than % of 1 per cent, of soluble arsenic. 

To contain no free acids or adulterant or inert substances. 

To be in a good mechanical and physical condition. 

Dealers should be required to supply arsenate of lead which 
will stand test for this formula. 

Co-OPEKATION ON StATE HIGHWAYS. 

At the request of the State Highway Commission, which has 
a separate appropriation for the work of suppression of gypsy 
and brown-tail moths on State highway trees, this office has 
taken charge of the details of the work for the commission as in 
previous years, and also has supervised the elm-leaf beetle work 
on State highways in our infested districts. It has not been 
necessary during this year's campaign to do as much thinning 
on the State highways as in previous years. We have also been 
very fortunate in getting the federal authorities to take up some 
work on State highways, which has helped us considerably and 
has been of no expense to the Commonwealth. The elm-leaf 
beetle problem has been a most serious one the past year, and 
possibly has not been given as much attention as it should have 
had, as the infestation in some cases was new and unexpected. 
In the coming year more money must be available, and the 
elm-leaf beetle problem must be taken up at an early date, as 
part of the infestation occurs in towns and cities where we 
are doing very little spraying for the gypsy moth. The work of 
destroying the gypsy moth egg clusters and removing the brown- 
tail webs has been nearly completed at the present time, al- 
though there are a few remaining miles of road to be done in 
the near future. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



77 



This office recommends, also, the removal, if possible, by 
the State Highway Commission of some of the trees on the 
highway where they are in large numbers, more than are needed 
for good shade. 

Work was done at a total cost of $5,079.56 on the State 
highways in the following towns and cities : — 



Abington. 


Harwich. 


Scituate. 


Acton. 


Haverhill. 


Shrewsbury. 


Amesbury. 


XT JI 

Hudson. 


Southborough. 


Ashland. 


Kingston. 


Stoneham. 


Barnstable. 


Lancaster. 


Stoughton. 


Bedford. 


Leominster. 


Sudbury. 


Bellingham. 


Lunenburg. 


Swampscott. 


"p> _ 
Bourne. 


Marlborough. 


Taunton. 


Boxborough. 


Marshneld. 


Tewksbury. 


Bridgewater. 


Melrose. 


Townsend. 


Brewster. 


Merrimac. 


Truro. 


Brockton. 


Methuen. 


Tyngsborough. 


Chatham. 


Middleborough. 


Walpole. 


Chelmsford. 


Natick. 


Watertown. 


Cohasset. 


Needham. 


VV ellesley. 


Concord. 


Newbury. 


Wellfleet. 


Dracut. 


Newburyport. 


Wenham. 


Duxbury. 


Norfolk. 


West Bridgewater. 


Falmouth. 


Northborough. 


Westborough. 


Foxborough. 


Orleans. 


Westford. 


Framingham. 


Pembroke. 


Weston. 


Franklin. 


Plainville. 


Westwood. 


Gloucester. 


Quincy. 


Weymouth. 


Groton. 


Raynham. 


Winchester. 


Hamilton. 


Reading. 


Wrentham. 


Hanover. 


Rockland. 


Yarmouth. 


Harvard. 


Salisbury. 





National Aid. 
In our work against the gypsy and brown-tail moths in this 
State during the year 1909 we have received considerable as- 
sistance from the federal government, in the way of clearing 
up strips along roadsides where distribution was liable to occur. 
This work is extremely helpful to this office. However, we feel 
that, though the quality of the work is good, there should be 



78 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



more of it done by the federal authorities; that is, larger ap- 
propriations should be available. About $750,000 are expended 
by the State, cities and towns and private individuals in this 
work during one year, while the federal government appro- 
priates only $300,000, and this must go to assist other 'New 
England States as well as Massachusetts. Our woodland in- 
festations, in a great many cases where it has not been possible 
for us to do any work in the same, are gradually coming to 
the roadsides, and the road problem in our infested district now 
needs serious attention. We have made several suggestions to 
the federal authorities, such as that by making the strip which 
they clean along the roadsides narrower they might increase 
the number of miles which could be covered ; but, as they have 
their plans made, and feel that what work they do must be ab- 
solutely protective, they do not think it wise to make the strip 
any narrower. It would be extremely helpful to our work and 
to the Commonwealth if larger federal appropriations could be 
secured and more work done in Massachusetts. However, we 
are thankful for what we are receiving along this line, and 
hope that it will continue and increase in the future. 

Supplies. 

We made a careful estimate of the expenses of supplies for 
the State work during the past season, and it was found that had 
this office purchased them in large quantities, and supplied the 
towns the State is reimbursing, there would have been a sav- 
ing of at least $20,000. The results of this investigation were 
sufficient to secure the approval of the Governor in establishing 
a supply store by this office, from which supplies are to be here- 
after sent to cities and towns receiving reimbursements from 
the State. 

The local superintendent in charge of the work has been 
obliged to buy in quantities as needed for the local organization, 
and that necessarily in most cases is in small lots. Much 
lower prices can be obtained by purchasing in large lots. Also, 
it was found that in ordering supplies from Boston it was 
necessary for the local men to make several trips to the city 
in order to select the goods wanted. This office has also ex- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



79 



perienced considerable trouble in obtaining schedules of bills 
with receipted vouchers for supplies, and the examination of 
these papers has entailed a large amount of bookkeeping. Under 
our new system a part of this can be done away with. It will 
not be necessary for the local man to come to Boston personally 
to order his supplies, as he is furnished with a complete list 
of the supplies the State furnishes. These have been very care- 
fully selected by experienced men, and the town officials are 
assured that it is our intention to furnish tools and supplies 
which will be best suited to the work. It is always desirable 
to have the local superintendent spend as much time as possible 
with his men, as efficient supervision means efficient work, and 
this arrangement will save much time. 

We have asked the local official who has charge of the work 
in the towns and cities where we are furnishing supplies for 
any suggestion which he thinks will improve this ne^ system, 
and if at any time local superintendents can buy as cheaply and 
get as good quality of goods, we shall be willing to authorize 
them to do so. 

Experimental Work. 
In the four years past very little experimental work has 
been carried on by this office, and we have been at the mercy of 
manufacturers and dealers as to what material or apparatus we 
have been obliged to use in the work. However, it now seems 
advisable that, owing to the large amount of money that is being 
expended in this work, some experimental work should be car- 
ried on relative to the apparatus used in fighting the pests, as 
well as in regard to habits of the insects and their natural en- 
emies ; and we are bending our efforts at the present time to 
the solving of several problems which have arisen in our use 
of apparatus. We hope in the future to have something more 
effective in the way of apparatus, and also to find some improve- 
ments in the methods of doing our work. During the past 
spraying season it has been noted that on the large outfits the 
nozzles, and also the couplings in the hose which were being used, 
offered too much resistance to the pressure which we were trying 
to obtain. In spraying with large power outfits, the use of 
li^-inch hose was preferable to any smaller size, from the fact 



80 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



that a higher stream was obtained ; but at the same time a 
inch hose was so heavy and clumsy that it lowered the efficiency 
of the men ; so we have been experimenting with a coupling that 
will not offer as much resistance as the coupling which has been 
in use on smaller hose, and hope to produce something which 
will give us the full inch stream in inch hose. 

Also, in our nozzle experiments we have succeeded in making 
a nozzle to be used in woodland work that will carry the stream 




Pole brush with bracket, designed by State Forester's 
department for creosote work. 



much higher than anything we have used up to date, as it has 
a tendency to allow the stream to go higher in the air before 
breaking into mist, instead of breaking almost instantly after 
leaving the tip, as in the old nozzle. 

In the large power outfits it has seemed to us that we were 
not getting the efficiency that we should expect from such high- 
priced apparatus, and we are at the present time experimenting 
along these lines, hoping to produce a large outfit that will be 
more efficient than the ones now in use. During the next cater- 
pillar season a series of experiments will be carried on in wood- 
land colonies, to see if any more economical method of sup- 




Fig. 3. — Long- tailed coupling, and resistance which it gives. 



A new coupling, designed by the department of the State Forester, which Avill 
greatly advance the efficiency in spraying work. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



81 



pressive work than we are now using can be found. We have 
also made a bracket and holder for pole brushes, which has 
met with the approval of our field men. 

North Shore Work. 

Very little work was done from July 15 to Dec. 1, 1908, in 
the colonies cleared and sprayed in the spring and summer, but 
several woodland colonies were scouted and conditions deter- 
mined for this year's work. An arrangement was made on Dec. 
1, 1908, for the prosecution of the work in 1909, with funds 
contributed by north shore residents, through their agent. Col. 
Wm. D. Sohier, and this office. 

The woodland colonies bordering on property already cleaned 
and certain areas not touched last year were the problem of this 
year's work. The reinfestation of cleaned estates was to be 
avoided by this work. About 2,138 acres were treated, — 
nearly double the area treated in 1908. The cost of the work 
this year has been about $53,000, compared to $50,000 spent 
in 1908, and about twice as much ground covered this year as 
last. 

In planning our work on the north shore this year the amount 
of apparatus necessary had to be considered, that remaining 
from 1908 not being sufficient. New apparatus w^as purchased, 
and at the beginning of the spring season eight spraying ma- 
chines were in readiness for the work. These machines were 
constantly in operation for a period of twenty-five days, in- 
cluding Sundays, and we did not lose more than three or four 
hours' time on account of bad weather. Indeed, ideal weather 
conditions prevailed during the whole spring and summer. 

We were fortunate in securing our poison at a very reasonable 
price, and very few delays occurred while waiting for poison. 
About 55 tons of arsenate of lead were used, and the work in 
general was very effective. In all the 2,138 acres sprayed 
there were not over five which showed any defoliation during 
the caterpillar season. We were also fortunate in some of the 
colonies cleaned in 1908 in having help from the wilt disease 
of the gypsy moth, and here, with the good results of the 1908 
spraying, conditions were gratifying. 



82 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

This year protective work was done to a large extent ; that is, 
protective belts were cleaned on the borders of large colonies 
where it was too expensive to care for the w^hole colony. The 
work in these belts proved effective, and we shall probably 
be able to handle some of the other large and badly infested 
areas by this method in the future. 

The colony known as " Bishop's Grave " colony, on the old 
Manchester road, which was the only badly infested spot in that 
section, was cared for by means of the protective belt and the 
use of tanglefoot. The colony knovm as the " Piggery " colony, 
also, was treated in this manner. This colony is bounded by 
Crooked Lane, Preston Place and Brookwood Road, and by large 
estates which are being well taken care of by the owners. 

Considerable thinning was done in valuable pine lots, where 
it was necessary that work should be done immediately, if the 
trees were not to be defoliated and killed during the last cater- 
pillar season. Tanglefoot was used on colonies where the trees 
were largely coniferous, and the results were very gratifying. 

In increasing the number of our spraying machines we found 
that it would be necessary to have better facilities for getting 
water to our sprayers. One more water cart was purchased, 
and also a pumping outfit, which was able to force water 1,000 
feet at a 75-foot elevation, and in that way very little time was 
lost in filling our machines with water. This pumping outfit 
was an experiment, and was found to be a good investment from 
an economic standpoint. Consequently, we shall find it advan- 
tageous to increase this line of apparatus in the coming spraying 
season. 

The average cost of the work on the acres which were cleared 
and burned was $32.88 per acre. This amount may seem exces- 
sive, but the explanation of this is, that in thinning in several 
of the colonies a great deal of deciduous wood was removed 
which made the clearing more expensive this year, but the work 
has put the colonies in good condition for future work. 

In the spraying, over 2,138 acres were sprayed, at an average 
of $9.44 per acre, and the creosoting which we did on 1,756 acres 
cost $2.31 per acre. On the whole, the results for last season 
were exceptionally gratifying, and, as this piece of woodland 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 83 



work is the largest of its kind ever done in this country, it is 
extremely interesting to note what can be accomplished where 
funds are available and the proper methods are applied. 

The coming season a great deal of the work will be confined to 
roadsides, as in some of the woods, back farther from the shore 
than we can expect to care for, there are bad colonies reaching 
out to the roadsides, and in order to preserve valuable trees a 
strip 100 feet wide should be cleared. After consulting with 
the committee representing the north shore residents, we have 
deemed it advisable to follow out this course. 

The thinning which is to be done on the north shore woodland 
for the coming season will be done along scientific lines, as an 
expert forester will be sent from this office to blaze all trees 
which are to be removed; this will be helpful to the men who 
have immediate charge of the work, as well as being a benefit to 
the owners of the woodlands to be thinned. 

The co-operation in the work from the city of Beverly and 
the town of Manchester, also from the north shore residents and 
property owners, has been gratifying, and at no time have we 
been handicapped in this work by the indifference of any of the 
citizens in the district. We think it has been proved that in 
caring for woodlands it is very necessary that the best woodlands, 
or, in other words, the most valuable, receive the first considera- 
tion ; and to care for this immense tract of beautiful woods, the 
most valuable of eastern Massachusetts, seems good judgment 
to us. The coming season we may find it desirable to work in 
co-operation with the city of Gloucester and the town of Hamil- 
ton, as well as with the town of Manchester and the city of 
Beverly, in caring for other woodland colonies which have now 
reached a condition where work is immediately necessary. 

We give below a financial statement showing receipts and 
expenditures of the special north shore fund : — 



84 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Special North Shore Fund. 



Br, 

To balance on hand Dec. 1, 1908, ... $70 24 
cash returned for tools lost, etc., . . 31 45 
Wm. D. Sohier, agent, .... 22,500 00 

town of Manchester, 7,500 00 

city of Beverly, 5,000 00 

cash received for work on private estates, . 1,905 75 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts through 

this office, 22,500 00 

$59,507 44 

Cr. 

By wages of employees, $43,451 97 

travelling expenses, 467 95 

rent, 156 00 

supplies, 14,487 92 

stationery and postage, .... 1 17 

sundries, 209 91 

58,774 92 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1909, .... $732 52 

Danger from spraying with Arsenate of Lead. 

This report would not be complete without cautioning people 
in regard to the danger where arsenate of lead is used for spray- 
ing purposes. All of the officials in charge of spraying have 
been cautioned repeatedly, and wherever any spraying has been 
done, notices have been posted calling attention to the fact. 

There is a certain amount of danger to live stock which may 
feed upon vegetation beneath sprayed trees. Besides posting 
notices, the owners of lands thus sprayed should be notified. It 
is recommended in so far as practicable that the sprayed section 
be fenced off from the unsprayed, particularly where the lands 
are to be used for pasture. Again, where the grass and other 
crops beneath sprayed trees are to be cut and used for haj or 
fodder, at least two good drenching rains should occur between 
spraying time and harvest. There seems to be little danger in 
feeding sprayed hay to horses in any stage, but it is quite an- 
other matter with cattle. 

The experience of the past year shows that comparatively 
little trouble has resulted, except in cases of negligence. We 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



85 



have gladly looked into every case reported, and our diagnosis 
lias proved that most instances attributed to spraying were due 
to some other cause. 

Last spring a bulletin from the Colorado Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, in regard to the detrimental effect of arsenate of 
lead upon trees, caused much unnecessary controversy, as we 
have found no basis for believing it harmful under Massachu- 
setts conditions. Trees sprayed repeatedly with a heavy solu- 
tion have failed to show any detrimental effects. We under- 
stand the United States Department of Agriculture is investi- 
gating the whole subject. 

As was stated last year, in the case of the alleged death of live 
stock from spraying operations it is important that the viscera 
should be removed and subjected to chemical analysis, if claim 
for damages is to be made against the city or town. The Hon- 
orable Auditor of the Commonwealth has ruled that claims 
for loss from the death of live stock alleged to be due to spray- 
ing operations, under the direction of this office, are not a 
proper subject for reimbursement from the appropriations for 
the suppression of the gypsy and brown-tail moths ; but that 
rather they fall in the class of consequential damages, which 
must be borne, if at all, by the city or town in which they 
occur. 

The Diseases of the Gypsy Moth. 

During the past season a great amount of interest has cen- 
tered in the diseases of the gypsy moth, owing to the prevalence 
of the so-called wilt disease. 

This disease, alluded to in last year's report, was again taken 
up mid studied under the direction of Dr. Theobald Smith of 
the Harvard Medical School. By an arrangement with Di*. 
Smith, one of his trusted assistants. Dr. H. N. Jones, was dele- 
gated to the work under his guidance. Djr. Jones has endeavored 
to determine the bacteria causing the disease, hoping to be able 
to spread it artificially, if found practicable. 

Dr. Smith has submitted to the State Forester a detailed 
account of the whole season's work. It is not thought desirable 
that his report be published at this time, as it will take at 
least another season to determine any definite results. This 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



work will be continued the coming season, during wliich time 
Dr. Smith has every reason to believe he will be able to deter- 
mine whether the disease is bacterial, or not. 

Prof. W. M. Wheeler of the Biissej Institute, being interested 
in the subject, delegated one of his special students. Dr. Wil- 
liam Reiff, to make a study of the effect of good and poor foods 
upon the gypsy moth larva. Professor Wheeler outlined some 
experiments, which Dr. Reiff carried on throughout the past 
season. The results of these experiments point to some very 
valuable discoveries, if they prove as effective as would appear 
from the first year's investigation. Dr. Wheeler, who was abroad 
most of the summer, very kindly went over the whole matter 
with the State Forester upon his return, and submitted a report 
of Dr. Reiff's work. 

These experiments are to be continued during another season, 
at the end of which a substantial report will doubtless be printed. 
This office is to assist in the work by defraying Dr. Reiff's 
expenses. 

Another line of investigation in progress throughout the year 
has been conducted by Dr. E. L. Mark, director of the Harvard 
Zoological Laboratory, to determine whether the cause of the 
wilt disease is due to protozoa. Dr. Mark has had Mr. Jas. W. 
Mavor, a special student, working under his direction since last 
spring. The results of this work will probably be determined 
this winter, as Mr. Mavor expects to shortly complete his exam- 
ination of the material collected during the past season. It is 
hoped also that the results of this study may throw some light 
upon the better rearing of the gypsy moth larva at the lab- 
oratory. 

Still another possible assistance in controlling the gypsy moth 
is through a fungous disease that was obtained by Dr. G. P. 
Clinton in Japan. This works on the insect just as the disease 
we now have wori^s on the brown-tail. It is understood that Dr. 
Clinton's trip was made possible through some friend of Har- 
vard University, who offered to finance the undertaking. This 
disease is now in the resting spore stage, and Dr. A. T. Speare, 
in charge of the work at present, hopes to establish it in the field 
this coming spring. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



The Fungous Disease of the Bkown-taie Moth. 

This disease Avas outlined and discussed quite fully in last 
year's report. This past season arrangements were made with 
Dr. Roland Thaxter, mycologist of Harvard University, to 
carry on the work. Dr. Thaxter has conducted the work through 
his assistant, Dr. A. T. Speare, who last year assisted Dr. Clin- 
ton in work for this department. Dr. Speare was in the field 
early last spring, and has succeeded in placing out a large num- 
ber of plantings of the disease, with very gratifying results. 
During last spring we furnished him with an assistant who pre- 
pared the specimens for distribution, and two climbers who 
distributed them. Fall plantings have also been made, and Dr. 
Speare feels very much encouraged over the outlook. Upon a 
trip taken with him this fall to examine the plantings, we found 
evidence that these plantings have been very effective. Not 
only were the artificial plantings a marked success, but the dis- 
ease occurred here and there naturally, proving very efficacious. 

We expect to continue this work next season, and we hope to 
be able to get the disease thoroughly established throughout the 
territory infested by the brown-tail moth. 

• Parasite Work. 
Every thinking person must feel that the danger which the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths threaten to our orchards, shade trees 
and forests, renders it highly important that every means sug- 
gested for their suppression, which offers reasonable hope of 
success, should be given a faithful trial. Actuated by this feel- 
ing, and having in mind the well-established fact that in Europe, 
where the gypsy and brown-tail moths are natives, serious out- 
breaks of these insects are checked by natural enemies, the Leg- 
islature of 1905 placed at the disposal of the State Supei;in- 
tendent $30,000, to be expended as needed over a period of 
three years in the importation of parasitic and predaceous ene- 
mies of the gypsy and brown-tail moths. A sufficient amount 
of money has been made available by subsequent Legislatures to 
carry on this experimental work without interruption up to 
the present time. 



88 THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



In prosecuting this work the State Superintendent has been 
fortunate in having had the hearty co-operation of Dr. L. O. 
Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology of the United 
States government, who is regarded as one of the best authorities 
in the world on parasitic work. Many other prominent ento- 
mologists, whose scientific attainments in this particular work 
place them in the front rank of their profession, have been 
here and investigated our methods of importing and distribut- 
ing parasites, have given the department the benefit of their 
knowledge and experience, and offered such advice and made 
such criticisms as they thought might prove helpful. The find- 
ings of these eminent men were published in the third annual 
report of the State Superintendent, and in each instance were 
highly commendatory. Every valuable suggestion made by them 
was adopted and put into operation, and no stone has been left 
unturned which seemed to offer the slightest hope of success. 

'Now, after devoting nearly five years to this work, involving 
an expenditure of nearly $75,000, it is pertinent to ask at this 
time if the results obtained are commensurate with the cost, and 
if the prospect for the future will justify the Commonwealth in 
continuing its efforts in this direction. 

In order to answer this question intelligently, and to meet the 
general demand of the citizens of Massachusetts for exact in- 
formation concerning the progress made in this important 
branch of the work, the State Forester, to whom by an act of the 
last General Court was given the superintendency of work 
against the gypsy and brown-tail moths, has devoted considerable 
time to an investigation of the parasite work, to determine, if 
possible, if everything is being done which can reasonably be 
expected along this line. As a result of that investigation, 
taking into consideration the difficulties in importing, breeding 
and disseminating foreign insects, as well as the long time 
required for them to become established under the most f avol-able 
conditions, I am fully convinced that the progress made thus 
far shows very gratifying results, and expectations for the future 
certainly justify a continuance of the work with unabated vigor. 

The importation and breeding of the Calosoma sycophanta 
beetles, of which much has been said in previous reports, has 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 78. 



89 



been continued during the past year with very gratifying results. 
In the fall of 1908 a stock of adult beetles was placed in hiberna- 
tion at the laboratory, and about the 1st of June, 1909, the work 
of rearing larvse for field colonies was begun. This work was so 
successful that it was possible to liberate 6,100 larviB during the 
season. The places selected for these plantings were in wood- 
land areas badly infested with the gypsy moth, extending as far 
north as Gloucester, Manchester and Essex, as far south as 
Quincy and as far west as Concord. 

The total number of colonies planted were 33, 32 in the larval 
stage, and 1 colony of adult beetles which were imported. Obser- 
vations made of the colonies planted in previous years revealed a 
very satisfactory increase, and in some sections it was found 
that the beetles had spread over several square miles. To guard 
these beetles from the danger of being destroyed by people un- 
familiar with their appearance, the State Forester caused warn- 
ing notices, bearing pictures representing the insect in the 
several stages of its life history, to be posted in libraries, post- 
offices and school buildings throughout the moth-infested area 
of the State, and it is his purpose to issue cards in the near 
future, showing the insects in their natural colors. Efforts will 
be made the coming season to materially increase the numbers 
of these valuable insects, by importation and breeding. 

The following information on five important insects in which 
we already have great faith in establishing a balancing condition 
of the gypsy moth in Massachusetts, has been given me by Mr. 
W. F. Fiske of the laboratory : — 

Anastatus bifasciatus. — This insect parasite attacks newly deposited 
eggs of the gypsy moth during the brief interval which elapses before 
the embryonic caterpillars develop. Its eggs are deposited singly, one 
in each individual egg of the host, and its larvse feed upon the sub- 
stance of the host himself, and become full-fed in about three weeks. 
They then enter on a long resting stage, snugly ensconced within the 
limited confines of the shell, and do not resume activity until the mid- 
dle of the following summer, ten months later. The transformations 
to pupa and adult follow in the course of two or three weeks follow- 
ing, and the latter emerge, and in a few days are ready to deposit 
eggs for another generation within the newly deposited eggs of the 
next generation of the gypsy moth. There is thus but one generation 
of the parasites each year, and its life cycle, which corresponds to 



90 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the annual cycle, is correlated exactly with that of the insect which 
serves as its host. Encouraged by the knowledge that there was an 
egg parasite which could be secured through a winter importation of 
eggs, — a fact which was far from being established up to the rear- 
ing of the first specimens of Anastatus, — larger importations from 
various localities were made during the winter of 1908 and 1909. 
From some of the shipments by far the largest number of parasites 
ever received from any source was secured, there being nearly 90,000 
all told. These 90,000 were liberated in 5 colonies, quite widely sep- 
arated, within the infested area. In each instance they attacked 
freshly deposited eggs of the gypsy moth with avidity, and multiplied 
in the field under perfectly natural conditions. At the present time 
there are many colonies of larva3 of the parasites hibernating in the 
open in the immediate vicinity of the colonies, exactly as they would 
do in their native land, and there cannot be any question that they 
will issue next summer in the normal manner. 

Another egg parasite, Schedius kavancB, is one which will be de- 
scribed at length in a bulletin soon to be issued. There were 26,000 
liberated in September and October. After September the bulk of 
these were reared for extensive propagation work at the laboratory, 
and at the present time a conservative estimate of the number in vari- 
ous stages in the reproduction cages is 2,000,000. It is by no means 
sure that the species will be carried through the winter as success- 
fully as is hoped will be the case, but no obstacle threatens to prevent 
the liberation of parasites during the summer of 1910. The prospect 
seems bright for the establishment of strong colonies in each city and 
town in the infested district during the coming summer, and, if the 
same rate of dispersion indicated during the past fall continues, and 
the parasite demonstrates its ability to exist under American conditions 
during the entire year, it should be generally established in the in- 
fested area in two or three years more. 

Glyptapanteles fulvipes. — This parasite deposits its eggs beneath 
the skin on the caterpillars at any stage from the first to and possi- 
bly including the last. The larvae hatching from the eggs become full 
grown in from two to three weeks, and then work their way out through 
the skin of the still living caterpillar within the body of which they 
have fed. Each spins for itself immediately afterward, for its better 
protection during its later stages, a small white cocoon. The unfor- 
tunate victim of attack does not as a rule die immediately, but it never 
voluntarily moves from the spot. Its appearance both before and 
after death, surrounded by and seeming to brood over the cocoons, is 
peculiar in characteristic, and once seen can never be mistaken. There 
is ample opportunity for two generations annually of the parasites 
from one generation of the gypsy moth. This is the rule in the coun- 
tries to which it is native, and it is to be expected in America. 



Long woodland nozzle with strap attached, 
shut-off and shoulder strap, designed by 
State Forester's department for high, 
solid, straight stream spraying. 



1910.] 



rUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 73. 



91 



Blepharipa scutellata is a very important parasite of the gypsy 
moth in Europe, and in western Europe appears to be very much 
more destructive than does the Glrfptapanteles. For the first time 
since the inception of the parasite work large numbers of living pu- 
paria, containing the inamature maggots of these parasites, were re- 
ceived at the laboratory, and it was possible to allow the formation 
of the puparia under natural conditions in the earth. A very large 
number of parasites were secured in this manner (25,000 is a con- 
servative estimate), and several thousands of maggots were allowed 
to enter the earth in the open in forests infested by the gypsy moth. 

Examination has demonstrated the fact that the maggots pupated 
in a perfectly natural manner, and the condition of pupae at the 
present time is far and away more satisfactory than it has ever been 
before at this season of the year. It is almost impossible to conceive 
of conditions which will prevent the emergence of these flies in large 
numbers in the open the coming spring. 

Monodontomerus aerus. — This parasite attacks and destroys the 
freshly formed pupsB of the gypsy and brown-tail moths by deposit- 
ing eggs on the inside. These eggs hatch, and the larvae feed and 
subsequently undergo all of their transformations within the pupa 
shell, of which they usually consume the entire contents. This para- 
site was first imported and liberated in 1906, and multiplied so rapidly 
in the field that it is now known to be distributed over an area of 
approximately 3,000 square miles. 

Owing to the fact that it is my intention to issue in the near 
future a bulletin treating at length of the large number of for- 
eign insects that have been imported and experimented upon, 
as well as describing in detail the work being done at the labora- 
tory, I have mentioned here only those imported natural ene- 
mies of the gypsy and brown-tail moths that close observation in 
the field leads the government experts to believe are now well 
established, and that give promise of becoming important fac- 
tors in checking the pests we are engaged in fighting. In addi- 
tion to these, many other species have been imported and 
liberated ; and, notwithstanding the fact that up to this time we 
have no evidence of their survival, this cannot be considered 
conclusive, as history records several instances of the introduc- 
tion of foreign insects which apparently died out, but after a 
long lapse of time suddenly became noticeable and did very 
effective work. 

In closing my report on this important branch of our work. 



92 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



I desire to impress upon tlie tax payers and citizens of Massa- 
chusetts that, while the outlook for ultimate success seems bright, 
thej must not expect immediate and sweeping results, as these 
natural enemies will of necessity be slow in demonstrating their 
effectiveness, — just how long, no man can determine with any 
degree of certainty. We have, as an example of the multiplica- 
tion and spread of a foreign insect, the gypsy moth itself, which 
had been in this country nearly twenty years before it became 
abundant enough to attract general attention. Therefore, it 
must be quite obvious to all who give it any thought that, 
although many of the parasites multiply prodigiously, it will 
require several years for them to become numerous enough to 
serve as a material aid in suppressing the gypsy and brown-tail 
moths. 

Incidentally, it may be said that there is a parasite working 
upon the elm-leaf beetle, which ultimately promises very good 
results. 

I desire to express my grateful appreciation of the conscien- 
tious efforts of the expert men from the United States Bureau 
of Entomology, who have been engaged in this experimental 
work, — Mr. W. F. Fiske, who has had charge of the laboratory 
work since 1907 ; Mr. A. F. Burgess, to whom was assigned the 
work on predaceous beetles ; Mr. C. H. T. Townsend, who has 
conducted the experiments on the Tachinid parasites ; as well as 
Mr. F. H. Mosher of the State department, who has been con- 
nected with the laboratory since its establishment in 1905. 
These men, together with their able corps of assistants, are 
entitled to a great deal of praise for their untiring efforts to 
attain success. 

Parasite Appropeiation". 
This appropriation has been used during the year for import- 
ing larger numbers of parasites into this country than ever 
before. Both the importations from Japan and Europe have 
not only been larger, but were received in far better condition. 
Prof. Trevor Kincaid, the same gentleman whom we sent to 
Japan with such good results last year, was commissioned to go 
to Russia and other European points this past season in quest 
of parasites. The results of this trip were not, on the whole. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



as satisfactory in point of securing material as was the Japan 
trip ; however, it is yet early to predict. 

The State Forester has not hesitated to make expenditures 
from the appropriation where the probability of securing de- 
sirable results seemed to warrant them. The total expenses in- 
curred in this work during the year 1909 are as follows : — 



Balance from 1908, $18,930 09 

Appropriation of May 19, 1909, . . . 15,000 00 

$33,930 09 

Expenditures : — 

Wages of employees, $8,705 73 

Travelling expenses of emploj^ees, . . 2,493 77 

Rent, . . 369 00 

Supplies, 1,749 65 

Stationery and postage, .... 165 55 

Printing, 34 25 

Sundries, 806 16 

Importation of parasites, .... 8,075 52 

22,399 63 



Balance Nov. 30, 1909, $11,530 46 



Report of Dr. L. 0. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of En- 
tomology, Washington, D. C. 

United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C, Dec. 29, 1909. 

Prof. F. W. Rajx^e, State Forester^ 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sir : — I have the honor to submit a brief report of the share of 
the Bureau of Entomology in its co-operative effort with the State 
of Massachusetts to import foreign parasites of the gypsy and brown- 
tail moths into Massachusetts during the period since I submitted my 
report to Mr. L. H. Worthley, Jan. 4, 1909, and which has been pub- 
lished in Public Document No. 73 of the State of Massachusetts. 

Respectfully yours, L. 0. Howard, Chief of Bureau. 

Before beginning a brief account of the operations carried on, the 
writer desires to express his entire satisfaction with the outcome of 
the co-operation between the State and the United States Department 
of Agriculture. The relations between the persons engaged in this 
work in both branches have been of the most cordial character; the 
understanding has been perfect. The work of the experts of the Bu- 
reau has been facilitated in the most intelligent and courteous way by 



94 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the officials engaged in the State work, and it is difficult to conceive 
of any arrangement which, on account of this intelligent and cordial 
co-operation, could have been better arranged to bring about the im- 
portant results expected. 

The foreign work for the season was planned during the winter 
of 1908-09,' and instructions were given, so far as possible by cor- 
respondence, to European paid and voluntary agents. Brown-tail 
nests containing parasites were imported from many parts of Europe, 
and active laboratory work was carried on at Melrose Highlands, in 
the course of which, largely through the ingenuity of Mr. Fiske, many 
new points of practical importance were developed. In addition to 
brown-tail nests, egg masses of the gypsy moth were imported during 
the winter and spring, and from especially large numbers of these 
egg masses sent from Hungary by Prof. Josef Jablonowski there were 
reared an astonishing number of an important species of egg parasite. 

Realizing from past experience the comparatively unsatisfactory re- 
sults which follow in this particular work from correspondence alone, 
even with highly trained and most intelligent observers, as compared 
with personal conversations, in which doubtful points can be con- 
sidered at length, the writer in May and June visited Europe for the 
purpose of forwarding the work. As shown in the last report, it had 
not been considered necessary for him to visit Europe in 1908, and 
the funds thus saved were devoted largely to the organization by Prof. 
Trevor Kincaid of a parasite service in Japan, which has been de- 
scribed in the previous report so far as its results for the summer 
of 1908 were available at that time. On the present trip the writer 
started forwarding agencies for parasites at Cherbourg, France (a 
much more convenient and surer locality than the 1908 station at 
Rennes), and at Hamburg, Germany. He arranged at the former 
place with the authorities of the University of Rennes to have Mr. A. 
Vuillet of Rennes, agent of last year, stationed at Cherbourg during 
the shipping season, and through him were forwarded all parasitized 
material coming from France, Switzerland, Holland and Italy. At 
Hamburg the United States Express Company was constituted the 
forwarding agent for the service, with the expert advice of Dr. L. Reh 
of the Hamburg Museum, to act in case of broken packages or dam- 
aged material of any kind. Agents and officials were then visited in 
Holland, Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, Switzerland, and again 
in France. The European situation was thoroughly studied, and the 
result of the trip was the securing of largely increased sendings of 
parasitized material from many points. 

In the autumn of 1908, after Prof. Trevor Kincaid's return from 
his very successful trip to Japan, the writer visited Seattle, Wash., 
in the course of an official trip to the coast, and discussed with Pro- 
fessor Kincaid the advisability of a second expedition to Japan dur- 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



95 



ing the summer of 1909. Although his trip had been of such an 
agreeable nature as to make him greatly desire a good excuse for a 
second trip, Professor Kineaid, nevertheless, was of the opinion that 
the Japanese government and the Japanese entomologists had shown 
such a great courtesy and such a profound interest in the work that 
it would not be necessary to send an American agent again, but to 
throw the work upon the courtesy of the Japanese. Therefore, after 
a preliminary correspondence between the Secretary of Agriculture of 
the United States and the Minister of Agriculture of Japan, Prof. S. 
I. Kuwana was designated by the Japanese government to be its official 
representative in the work to be carried on in Japan during the sum- 
mer of 1909, and he was directed to place himself in correspondence 
with the writer. Professor Kincaid's assurances and the writer's ex- 
pectations have been abundantly justified. Professor Kuwana, a man 
of already established high reputation, has shown himself in the work 
to be one of the highest order of intelligence and resourcefulness and 
of indomitable energy and perseverance, and his work for the summer 
resulted in the receipt of material of large value at the Melrose High- 
lands laboratory. The warm thanks of the United States government 
and that of the State of Massachusetts should be given to the Japanese 
government and to its agent, Professor Kuwana. 

As a result of the writer's trip to Russia in 1907, a service was estab- 
lished in that country which resulted in the securing of interesting 
material from Prof. W. Pospielow o,f Kieff, from Dr. Isaac Kras- 
siltchik of Kishinieff and from Prof. S. Mokschetsky of Simferopol, 
all of whom have official connections with the Ministry of Agriculture 
and Forestry at St. Petersburg. This material continued to arrive 
during the summer of 1908, and, as there were reared from it certain 
parasites which seemed of considerable potential value, but which, on 
the other hand, were not received in the best possible condition, it was 
considered desirable to send an American agent to Russia during the 
proper season of 1909, for the purpose of endeavoring to secure more 
material, in better condition. Professor Kineaid, on account of the 
success of his 1908 expedition to Japan, was requested to do this 
work; and, securing leave of absence from the University of Wash- 
ington, through the courtesy of its president, he sailed for Europe in 
April. He was cordially received by the Russian government, whose 
permission for the visit had been granted in advance, and after con- 
sultation with the officials located himself for the best part of the 
rearing season in favorable locations in Bessarabia, continuing send- 
in gs, which, however, on the whole were disappointing in their char- 
acter on receipt at Melrose Highlands. The problem of securing in 
New England material from Russia in the best possible condition has 
not yet been solved. 

The best material was received from France. Upon his arrival in 
Paris, on the 13th of May, the writer met by appointment Mr. Rene 



96 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Oberthlir of Rennes, a French entomologist of the highest standing 
and one of the world's great amateur collectors, and certain of his 
collaborators. Mr. Oberthiir has taken up this work voluntarily as a 
private citizen of France, wholly without compensation, and entirely 
from his scientific and practical interest in a great piece of experi- 
mental work. The warm thanks of the United States and particularly 
of the New England States are due to this remarkable man. Plans 
were considered, largely at his suggestion, which resulted in the estab- 
lishment of a very large-scale service, principally in the south of 
France, and in the employment of a large number of collectors under 
expert supervision. Through this arrangement several thousands of 
boxes of excellent material were received at the Melrose Highlands 
laboratory from the south of France. In quantity it exceeded the 
total of all other importations made since the beginning of the work, 
and from it have been reared a greater number of Tachinid parasites 
than have been reared from all other importations of this kind put 
together. 

As a matter of course, quantities of miscellaneous material have 
been received as formerly from numerous paid and voluntary col- 
lectors in the other countries mentioned in an earlier paragraph. On 
the American side the organization of the laboratory has continued 
as outlined in the last report. In the autumn Prof. C. H. T. Town- 
send was given an eighteen-months leave of absence, to enable him 
to accept a temporary employment with the Peruvian government; 
but his work has been continued by expert assistants, under the super- 
vision of Mr. Fiske. 

During the season there have culminated in a remarkable manner 
the results of the experience, hard work and experimental efforts of 
the previous years; methods have been bettered and insight has been 
gained not only into the habits of the different species, but into im- 
portant matters like modes of dispersal, which place the attempt upon 
a very satisfactory basis, and which enable more positive predictions 
than the workers have been heretofore inclined to make. During the 
autumn a more extensive effort than previously was made to deter- 
mine exact field conditions. This involved extensive scouting over 
large territories, and the dispersal of several important species has 
been found to have been much more extensive than had even been 
hoped. The general features of this work will shortly be published 
in a bulletin by Mr. Fiske, to be issued from the office of the State 
Forester; and a more detailed consideration of the whole situation is 
under preparation, under the dual authorship of the writer and Mr. 
Fiske, which will appear as a bulletin of the Bureau of Entomology. 
Plans for next year's campaign are already advanced. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 73. 



97 



Future Work. 

The work to be done during the fiscal year 1910 against the 
gypsy and brown-tail moths by cities and tow^ns should be car- 
ried on along similar lines and methods as last year, but with a 
clearer and more definite comprehension and understanding of 
it. It may be advisable in winter work against the pests to give 
the gypsy moth the preference, as its ravages are much more 
severe. In cases where the infestation is in outlying districts 
and in large orchards, where owners are receiving great financial 
benefit from the work, it is generally conceded to be the owner's 
duty to remove the brown-tail webs from his trees ; but it is best 
to allow the town forces to care for the gypsy moth egg clusters, 
where the owner is not familiar with the treatment of them. 
Woodland work should be made of a protective nature, as far as 
possible. Where woodland work is necessary, it should be done 
along scientific forestry lines. 

The use of tanglefoot should be given the preference over 
burlap where it is possible, except on street trees; but even on 
street trees it may be used to advantage in urgent cases. Where 
trees are near stone walls and fences which are badly infested 
with the gypsy moth egg clusters, the trees should be tangle- 
footed as early as is practicable in the spring, and in that way 
the caterpillars driven to seek food farther away from their 
hiding places in the wall and fences, the infestations thus be- 
coming lighter and more scattering. Also in the congested res- 
idential sections of cities and towns, where conditions are un- 
sanitary and estates badly infested (bad spots in which to get 
thorough work from employees), tanglefoot should be applied 
to shrubs and trees, and thus the caterpillars be driven to other 
places for food, or starved to death. This will be found to be 
a very economical plan. In using tanglefoot, it is very necessary 
that it be combed a few times during the season, as this keeps 
the surface sticky. There have been some places where tangle- 
foot has been thought injurious, but thus far this office has 
not been able to authenticate any such cases. However, it is 
well to beware of sticky materials that have not been tried and 
proved to be harmless. 



98 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Great care must be taken at the beginning of the spraying 
season to choose the places where spraying will be most ef- 
fective. We must always bear in mind that one method must 
follow another, in order to make our work show results ; for, 
as it has been determined that no one parasite can keep the 
gypsy moth in check, so also no one method alone will prove 
effective in suppressing the insect pests. 

We must take into consideration at this time that our law 
does not include work against the elm-leaf beetle, and our 
apparatus should not be used in fighting this pest, as the law 
does not authorize any expenditure on this account. Local gypsy 
moth superintendents who are also tree wardens should bear this 
in mind, and see that a special appropriation is made to cover 
such work. 

Proposed Amendmen^t to Gypsy and Brown-taie Moth Law. 

Section 5, chapter 381, Acts of 1905, should be amended by 
striking out the last paragraph, beginning, In case of emer- 
gency," etc., and substituting for it the following paragraph : — 

The state forester may assess cities and towns for such an amount 
as they may be required to expend by the provisions of this act, or 
for such part of it as he may think necessary, the amounts thus 
assessed to be returned to the state treasurer after sixty days, and 
credited to the appropriation for carrying out the provision of this 
act. The work to be done in such cities and towns shall be under the 
direct supervision of the state forester. 

The reasons for asking for the above amendment are as fol- 
lows : — 

More efficient work could be done in various outside towns, 
where the infestation is not severe enough to warrant the keep- 
ing of a permanent force all the year round, if the necessary 
work should be done under the direct supervision of this office, 
by a permanent force made up of picked men from the several 
towns in which the work is to be done. In such places it has 
been the custom to employ men for not more than four months 
in the year, and therefore it was necessary to break in new men 
each season. These new men of course cannot do as efficient 
work as experienced men. 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



99 



This amendment would also enable us to do work in towns 
where appropriations cannot be made at the beginning of our 
fiscal year, which is December 1 ; the fiscal year of most towns 
begins January 1. In some towns and cities appropriations 
have been delayed and the work stopped, with serious conse- 
quences. Thus, in towns or cities where appropriations are not 
available, this office could take up the work with a competent 
force of men, carrying it on until such time as the city or town 
authorities were ready to continue it. The town or city would 
be assessed the total amount spent, and this amount paid in to 
the State Treasurer and credited to this office. 

In cases where there is delay over the selection of the local 
superintendent, this amendment would give this office the right 
to step in and carry on the work until such time as the authori- 
ties should appoint a competent man to go on with the work. 

The Elm-leaf Beetle. 

In recommending an appropriation for elm-leaf beetle work, 
we feel in many cases it could advantageously be combined with 
our work against the gypsy and brown-tail moths. In using 
arsenical poisons against leaf-eating insects there are certain 
times during the spring season when best results are obtained, 
^nd this time for spraying is the same for the elm-leaf beetle as 
for the gypsy moth. It would necessitate in many places the 
purchase of more apparatus, but the work would be done with 
greater thoroughness. 

One thing, however, is certain : we should not include the elm- 
leaf beetle spraying with the moth work, unless an appropriation 
is made, sufficient to take care of it. We should not be handi- 
capped in the moth work, particularly in the coming year, just 
when we are prepared to accomplish effective results, provided 
the usual appropriations are made. The elm-leaf beetle, it must 
be remembered, is found not only throughout the eastern part of 
the State, where the moth work is confined, but over the whole 
State, and it needs extra financial assistance to handle it. 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Dead Trees should be cut and utilized to minimize Insect 

Troubles. 

Trees that have died from any cause whatever should be dug 
up, or cut down and used. This is particularly advisable where 
there are trees of the same species. The reason for this is the 
great unbalancing of nature. There are many insects that live 
under the bark or bore into dead trees, which never trouble us. 
However, under favorable conditions they multiply so fast that 
they are likely to confine their work not to dead trees alone, but 
will doubtless attack live trees, thereby doing great damage. 
These insects are usually found just inside the bark; hence, if 
the bark is stripped off and burned any time before April, they 
would be destroyed. It is hoped that our people will keep this 
suggestion in mind, and practise it as much as possible. The 
cities of Cambridge and Somerville, for example, should cut 
and destroy the bark on the dead elms this winter; and where 
trees have been killed by the gypsy or brown-tail moths, they 
should be cut and utilized at once. 'Not only will it reduce the 
possible danger, but the product itself will be more valuable. 

Modern Forestry and Insect Warfare. 

The more the subject of modern forestry is studied, the 
clearer is it shown that if forestry practice was carried on as it 
should be for economic results, the great expense we now are 
compelled to make in fighting insect pests like the gypsy moth 
would be reduced to a minimum. 

Where gypsy moths give us the greatest trouble is in wild 
neglected woodlands, and in thickets and tangles found along 
the highways or on illy kept estates. 

One thing which our people cannot help but recognize is, 
that where modern methods have been practised through thin- 
ning and exercising some sort of management for the good of 
the trees, here conditions are not as bad as elsewhere. Then, 
again, under the latter management should the infestation in- 
crease, the conditions are so much more favorable that the 
expense of warfare against the pest is greatly reduced. 

It is really possible that the gypsy moth scourge may cause 



Gasoline force pump used in woodland spraying, furnishing water 1,000 to 1,500 
feet from spraying machine, pumping 400 gallons in eleven minutes. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



certain sections to practise modern forestry, and thereby in 
the end gain financially in getting a better forest product, both 
in volume and quality, than would have happened had the in- 
sects never appeared. 

From the experience already gained we have demonstrated 
that where we have a clean stand of pine the forest can easily 
be protected against the gypsy moth. There are few species of 
forest products worth more than white pine to grow commer- 
cially at present here in Massachusetts. What is true of the 
pine is more or less true of other evergreens ; hence, in the 
territory infested by the gypsy moth it is good forestry to grow 
these species. 

The first thing to be done with all woodlands, therefore, is to 
practise modern forestry management for the benefit of future 
products, regardless of gypsy moths or other depredations ; then, 
let come what may, conditions are of the best to overcome them. 

There is little to be gained in treating egg clusters and com- 
bating moths on dead or ill-shaped and weed trees and stumps, 
as one's efforts ought to be centered on those that have prospec- 
tive value. 

We recommend, therefore, that every one begin at once to 
practise modern forestry management, and then the insect war- 
fare will be greatly reduced. 

Financial Statement. 
General Appropriation. 
In our financial statement, given below, we show a balance of 
$4,143.05. This balance will be disbursed during the current 
month in reimbursements to towns and cities which have not yet 
returned final papers of the year's expenditures to this office. 
There are, as usual, a number of dilatory municipalities, from 
which it is almost impossible to get returns at the proper time. 

Balance from 1908, $1,223 37 

Appropriation for 1909, .... 150,000 00 
Amount returned by town of Winchester, 297 06 

Amount returned for tools lost, . . 8 40 

Appropriation of May 19, 1909, . . 150,000 00 

$301,528 83 



102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Office expenses: 



Salaries of clerks, .... 




on 






Dl 


Stationery and postage, 


. ourt 


oo 


T-*vin f in o" 


497 


46 






24 


kJ UJJJJliCo dllU. JL LlllllLUi C, ... 


443 


20 




1 168 


CO 


XLitlUCdLlUllctl w UJL i^, .... 




61 


X IClU. t;Apcilbt;!3 . 






vv ages oi employees, . . . 






J. X d V Cillllg CAjJCilSCS, .... 








3,048 


97 


Special work in parks, etc.. 


22,521 


50 


Supplies for experiment, . 


7 


71 




165 


25 


Reimbursement to cities and towns, . 


216,600 


18 



$297,385 78 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1909, 



$4,143 05 



Analysis of Town Expenses. 
In the table below we show the apportionment of town ex- 
penses in the 98 cities and towns receiving reimbursement from 
the State to the amount of $180,849.13 : — 



Total amount spent, . 
Private work deducted, 



Pay roll. 

Teaming, 

Travel, 

Rent, . 

Supplies, 

Sundries, 

Stationery 

Printing", 



and postage. 



$509,008 06 
95,626 74 

$290,652 70 

22,893 01 

959 00 

799 93 

91,175 62 

4,261 72 

1,450 66 

1,188 68 



$413,381 32 



$413,381 32' 



Financial Summary hy Towns. 
The following table shows the reimbursement paid to cities 
and towns for 1907 and 1908, the total net expenditure, the 
required expenditure before receiving reimbursement and the 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 



amount of reimbursement paid in 1909, and also the required 
expenditure for 1910. The column for 1908 includes some re- 
imbursements for 1908 which we were not able to give at the 
time the report for 1908 went to press, as the final papers were 
not then filed by the towns. 





1907. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1909. 

Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1910. 

Required! 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Abington, . 


- 


SI, 493 44. 


$1,118 96 


1 

$1,915 24 


$796 28 


$1,175 93 


Acton, 


$2,257 82 


2,485 81 


722 99 


2,487 26 


1,764 27 


782 26 


Amesbury, 




378 10 


2,348 81 


2,091 24 




2,434 83 


Andover, . 


1,020 57 


2,365 17 


2,476 21 


6,345 65 


3,095 55 


2,588 47 


Arlington, . 


5,993 94 


6,109 09 


4,442 02 


10,606 09 


4,931 26 


4,591 97 


Ashby, 






198 77 


17 50 


- 


212 71 


Ashland, . 


326 15 


341 24 


470 02 


519 33 


49 31 


477 13 


Attleborough, 






5,000 00 


370 30 


- 


5,000 00 


Avon, 






377 28 




- 


384 84 


Ayer, 






815 53 




- 


835 41 


Barnstable, 






2,277 15 


- 


- 


2,317 10» 


Bedford, . 


6,040 25 


9,466 72 


520 30 


5,129 15 


4,608 85 


522 m 


Bellingham, 


- 


- 


325 46 


- 


- 


335 96 


Belmont, . 


3,161 87 


572 93 


2,431 46 


2,636 85 


164 32 


2,511 51 


Berlin , 


64 87 


460 83 


223 62 


586 57 


362 95 


221 62 


Beverly, 


1,622 45 


1,889 61 


5,000 00 


6,636 87 


818 44 


5,000 OO 


Billerica, . 


3,311 50 


6,091 09 


909 78 


5,148 44 


4,238 66 


974 32 


Bolton, 


222 38 


411 07 


198 02 


884 67 


686 65 


199 14 


Boston, 


10,000 00 


2,500 00 


5,000 00 


43,139 39 


10,000 00 


5,000 00 


Bourne, 


- 


1,489 01 


1,356 60 


2,148 21 


791 61 


1,641 55 


Boxborough, 


916 28 


1,805 43 


99 58 


1,538 05 


1,438 47 


106 79 


Boxford 


1 361 91 




479 97 






520 74 


Braintree, . 




1,445 27 


2,319 73 






2,421 92 


Brewster, . 






210 63 






246 40 


Bridgewater, 






1,300 09 


1,445 47 


143 48 


1,328 11 


Brockton, . 






5,000 00 






5,000 OO 


Brookline, . 






5,000 00 






5,000 OO 


Burlington, 


3,835 94 


5,599 44 


246 52 


2,534 43 


2,287 91 


250 36 


Cambridge, 


380 50 




5,000 00 


88 78 




5,000 00 


Canton, 






1,596 06 


600 00 




1,654 31 


Carlisle, 


3,111 33 


5,485 58 


176 58 


3,126 41 


2,949 83 


182 89 


Carver, 


96 47 1 


3,641 27 


558 34 


1,725 98 


1,167 64 


601 89 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1907. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1909 

Total _ 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1910. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Chelmsford, 


$3,016 93 


$3,740 98 


$1,635 35 


$3,693 20 


$2,057 85 


$1,809 64 


Chelsea, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Clinton, 






3,218 88 


2,154 27 




3,309 63 


Cohasset, 


226 02 


936 40 


2,817 53 


6,814 73 


3,197 76 


3,061 17 


Concord, 


3,521 91 


5,169 66 


2,551 71 


9,046 44 


5,195 79 


2,716 27 


Danvers, 


5,446 59 


6,441 71 


2,352 60 


4,871 10 


2,318 50 


2,404 85 


Dedham, 






5,000 00 


822 53 




5,000 00 


Dennis, 






475 87 






489 60 


Dover, 


1,636 79 


1,487 56 


560 85 


3,445 46 


2,884 61 


2,131 26 


Dracut, 


397 22 


2,462 61 


919 20 


2,137 25 


1,218 05 


939 68 


Dunstable, 


698 40 


544 67 


119 46 


1,057 70 


938 24 


131 58 


Duxbury, . 


908 00 


3,381 91 


1,025 48 


1,776 77 


857 39 


881 61 


East Bridgewater, 


752 67 


3,945 78 


786 16 


1,688 43 


902 27 


831 45 


Easton, 






2,031 17 


851 76 




2,115 65 


Essex, 


1,776 57 


2,096 22 


436 53 


1,536 50 


1,099 97 


456 91 


Everett, 






5,000 00 


2,268 40 




5,000 00 


Falmouth, 






3,201 00 






3,243 69 


Fitchburg, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Foxborough, 






883 73 






911 11 


Framingham, 


1,161 04 




4,035 02 


3,396 27 




4,226 59 


Franklin, 






1,476 97 






1,517 82 


Gardner, 






2,942 78 






3,071 08 


Georgetown, 


638 94 


1,151 67 


412 67 


2,468 33 


2,055 66 


410 16 


Gloucester, 


753 14 


2,063 54 


5,000 00 


6,895 12 


947 56 


1 5,000 00 


Grafton, 






1,069 86 


625 52 




1,067 88 


Greenfield, 






3,645 72 






3,853 77 


Groton, 






1,235 99 


1,432 71 1 




1,515 70 


Groveland, 


903 70 


1,711 10 


466 03 


2,134 79 


1,668 76 


465 07 


HaUfax, 


601 15 


2,237 83 


205 39 


1,027 28 


821 89 


213 70 


Hamilton, . 


2,246 69 


3,167 63 


1,441 27 


2,570 49 


1,129 22 


1,519 37 


Hanover 


1,387 34 


4,054 60 


577 74 


1,866 80 


1,289 06 


591 95 


Hanson 


430 18 


1,871 39 


511 66 


1,203 45 


691 79 


431 80 


Harvard, . 




616 61 


481 67 


1,230 07 


748 40 


493 48 


Haverhill, . 




1,131 62 


5,000 00 


5,573 03 


286 52 


5,000 00 


Hingham, . 


1,994 80 


1,877 15 


2,307 82 


3,307 82 


1,000 00 


2,441 02 


Holbrook, . 






567 83 






580 26 


Holden, . 






600 78 






651 99 



1 No private work submitted. 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



— No. 73. 



105 





1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 




Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


HoUiston, . 


_ 










$663 04 


Hopedale, . 


_ 


_ 


9 077 1^1=; 






2,096 12 


Hopkinton, 


S166 83 


$810 16 


Dio 4^ 




eQAQ ACk 
»IpOt:0 ^y 


631 34 


Hudson, 


1,259 63 


999 59 




1411 "^n 


7 A(K 


1,570 08 


Hull, 


_ 


_ 


n7n on 






2,161 33 


Hyde Park, 


_ 


_ 


o,uuu uu 


A ftQ oc; 
Z,'±Oo ZD 




5,000 00 


Ipswich, 


1,763 08 


1,757 80 


i,/44 oZ 


Z,\)oL Ui 


i,zoD oy 


1,914 70 


Kingston, . 


_ 


861 00 




1 CI 9 OA 


QfiQ ft/1 

ooy 04 


640 91 


Lakeville, . 


_ 


_ 


oin 1 ft 
Z/U iO 






280 54 


Lancaster, 


_ 


_ 


i,40i ZO 






1,656 83 


Lawrence, . 


_ 


_ 


0,UUU UU 






5,000 00 


Leicester, . 


_ 


_ 


944 95 


T AA 

/ UU 




965 45 


Leominster, 


_ 




A Ot f\ KO 

4,ziU 






4,788 85 


Lexington, 


10,796 87 


11,139 99 




Q 387 OQ 


o,oi_;\j kJ<j 


2,903 12 


Lincoln, 


2,785 69 


5,000 00 


1 1 OA 1 Q 


Q OAC Q1 


AO/I 1 Q 

Z,Uo4 io 


1,216 10 


Littleton, . 


287 44 


1,716 01 


412 83 




1,051 05 


428 94 


Lowell, 


_ 


120 42 


K Ann f\n 
o.UUU UU 


Q QftO AC 

0,000 yo 




5,000 00 


Lunenburg, 


_ 


81 34 


4:ZZ 49 


385 39 




441 06 


Lynn, 


7,748 30 


) 1,133 22; 

1 o,Uo'± ) 


OjUUU UU 


z,loi 62 




5,000 00 


Lynn field, . 


3,274 38 


2 982 45 


311 21 


1,841 44 


1 KOA 00 

l,ooU 2o 


312 84 


Maiden, 


2,683 57 




K Ann AA 
o,UUU UU 


4,455 17 




5,000 00 


Manchester, 


_ 


_ 


K AAA AA 

o,UUU UU 






5,000 00 


Mansfield, . 


_ 


_ 


1 1 AO no 

i,iyo DO 






1,580 27 


Marblehead, 


_ 




2,987 21 


'7£rA Cf\ 

2,750 59 




3,101 54 


Marion, 






i,148 Zo 






1,763 45 


Marlborough, 


855 44 


580 83 


A A01 00 

4,U21 26 


4,48o 00 


369 94 


4,128 37 


Marshfield, 


170 37 


2,389 25 


745 86 


1,570 47 


824 61 


767 20 


Mashpee, . 


_ 


104 77 


80 22 


519 27 


439 05 


87 88 


Maynard, . 


1,072 06 


1,551 28 


1,513 59 


2,167 89 


654 30 


1,548 29 


Medfield, . 


_ 




617 18 






638 60 


Medford, . 


3,117 68 


4,006 11 


5,000 00 


14,681 01 


4,000 00 


5,000 00 


Medway, . 






538 39 


320 66 




579 19 


Melrose, 


1,354 96 


1,500 001 


5,000 00 


2,359 70 




5,000 00 


Mendon, 






259 38 






291 48 


Merrimac, . 


189 40 


1,598 02 


489 88 


1,988 09 


1,498 21 


498 68 


Methuen, . 


1,770 79 


3,334 00 


2,368 39 


4,141 80 


1,776 41 


2,453 32 


Middleborough, . 






1,811 04 


2,188 50 


377 46 


1,885 95 



1 Special. 



106 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1907. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1909. 

Total , 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
iniburse- 
ment. 


1910. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Middleton, 


SI ,591 44 


$2,012 23 


$307 


67 


$1,545 12 


$1,237 45 


$316 51 


Milford, . 


_ 


_ 


2,800 


46 


_ 


_ 


3,485 24 


Millbury, . 


_ 


_ 


920 


07 


_ 


_ 


917 32 


Millis, 


_ 


_ 


320 


32 


_ 


_ 


398 03 


Milton, 


_ 


_ 


5,000 


00 


9,700 00 


_ 


5,000 00 


Nahant, 


_ 


_ 


2 373 


87 


_ 


_ 


2,451 60 


Natick, 


2,928 64 


4,613 56 


2,899 


84 


3,669 38 


615 63 


3,133 48 


Needham, . 


364 78 


2,443 84 


2,262 


22 


3.516 51 


1,254 29 


2,322 78 


Newbury, . 


1,902 35 


5,187 19 


499 


53 


3,705 81 


3,206 28 


492 99 


Newburyport, 


_ 


_ 


4,581 


48 


_ 


_ 


4,907 89 


Newton, 


761 36 


2,730 67 


5,000 


00 


36,438 69 


8,000 00 


5,000 00 


Norfolk, 


_ 


_ 


322 


73 


_ 


_ 


331 80 


North Andover, . 


_ 


3,238 23 


1,850 


27 


4,895 35 


3,045 08 


1,841 44 


N. Attleborough, 






2,094 


98 


525 20 


_ 


2,737 98 


North Reading, . 


1,915 81 


2,757 26 


270 


66 


3,077 94 


2,807 28 


542 32 


Northborough, . 


_ 


_ 


530 


72 


_ 


_ 


1,744 38 


Northbridge; 


_ 


_ 


1,699 


24 


_ 


_ 


280 65 


Norwell, 


507 41 


2,291 57 


346 


80 


1,366 50 


1,019 70 


367 98 


Norwood, . 


_ 




2,440 


26 


1,200 00 


_ 


5,000 00 


Orleans, 






245 


67 


_ 


_ 


252 53 


Oxford, 


_ 


_ 


747 


67 


_ 


_ 


775 25 


Palmer, 






1,629 


01 


_ 


_ 


1,671 17 


Peabody, . 


3,997 42 


4,208 67 


4,039 


62 


6,162 57 


1,698 36 


4,156 73 


Pembroke, 


108 45 


1,109 72 


388 


47 


1,180 37 


791 90 


376 90 


Pepperell, . 




870 79 


895 


60 


1,641 19 


745 59 


901 22 


Plainville, . 






299 


98 


_ 


_ 


317 85 


Plymouth, 




_ 


4,179 


44 


_ 


_ 


4,346 09 


Plympton, 


660 07 


5,504 87 


134 


06 


1.914 77 


1,780 71 


150 30 


Princeton, . 






416 


55 




_ 


438 87 


Quincy, 




1,550 24 


5,000 


00 


5,111 03 


55 52 


5,000 00 


Randolph, 






802 


52 


_ 


_ 


826 48 


RajTiham, 




70 80 


301 


45 


132 82 


_ 


307 47 


Reading, 


5,959 66 


6,974 30 


2,095 


45 


7,388 90 


5,293 45 


2,181 77 


Revere, 


370 90 


- 


5,000 


00 


4,702 05 


- 


5,000 00 


Rochester, 




96 34 


250 


74 


349 49 


98 75 


257 35 


Rockland, 




675 17 


1,511 


99 


1,705 21 


193 22 


1,589 06 


Rockport, . 


842 80 


800 34 


1,276 


78 


1.517 44 


240 66 


1,309 19 


Rowley, 


692 45 


1,047 73 


299 


42 


1,326 01 


1,026 59 


298 94 



1910.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT 



— No. 73. 



107 





1907. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 




Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Total , 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


ga,lem . 


$3,914 01 


$2,818 68 


$5,000 CO 


$5,668 00 


$334 00 


$5,000 00 




1,809 08 


2,103 91 


359 39 


1,649 89 


1 290 50 

Xf^*y\j 


356 54 


Sandwicli • • 




494 08 


400 10 


528 93 


128 83 


405 29 


Saugus , 


13,168 61 


12,243 30 


2,054 48 


9,801 77 


7,747 29 


2,082 51 


Scituate, 






1,661 85 


3,013 45 


1,351 60 


1,790 26 


Sh.aron 






1,030 79 






1,105 51 


Sherbom, . 


799 05 


1,463 82 


564 15 


1,320 49 


756 34 


592 24 


Sh.irley, . 






439 31 


423 90 




433 69 


Shrewsbury, . 






598 21 






653 07 


Somerville, 






nno on 

Xj y\J\J\J \J\J 


3,159 21 




5,000 00 


Southborough , 


1,495 95 


984 33 


706 45 


1,812 33 


1,105 88 


733 56 


Springfield, 






Ft 000 00 

%J^\J\J\J \J\J 






6,000 00 


Stoneham, 


7,996 29 


8,052 48 


2 010 Q3 


4,648 92 


2,637 99 


2 021 00 


Stoughton, 






1,402 83 






1 .3QQ 1 ^ 

J. jO»7i7 X%J 


Stow, 


465 47 


773 80 


357 22 


1,235 74 


878 52 


375 39 


Sudbury, 


532 94 


2,390 60 


497 76 


2,048 29 


1,550 53 


501 99 


Sutton, 






492 79 






516 34 


Swampscott, 


980 22 


1,509 10 


^ QQ7 Ofi 


3 QIO fi7 






Taunton, 






5 000 00 

xj ^\J\J\J \J\J 


530 57 




a 000 Oft 


Templeton, 






637 93 






634 61 


Tewksbury, 


1,186 76 


1,771 69 


458 39 


2 203 81 


1 745 42 


508 ."^S 


Topsfield, . 


2,028 50 


1,725 26 


501 98 


1 QOfi .^0 


1 404 32 


."lOS OQ 


Townsend, 






460 92 


3Qfi 55 




469 92 


Truro, 






150 96 






149 06 


Tyngsborough , 


1,114 74 




209 87 


2 102 14 


1 892 27 




Upton , 






441 12 


83 60 




444 37 


Wakefield, 




4 297 83 


3 441 43 


^ 94Q 09 


1 446 07 


0,UOt> o-± 


Walpole, 






1 671 86 


674 58 




1 7'^0 9"^ 

X y < %j\J 


Waltham, . 


1,104 73 




c nnn no 


D,^oo i.y 


fil R fiO 
DID DU 


^ 000 00 

KJ ^\J\}\i \J\J 


Wareham, . 






J.,OUo 






1 884 49 


TVarren 






758 74 








W^atertown, 


1,264 66 




^ 000 oo 


0,00/ ox 




000 00 
,uuu uu 


Wayland, . 


734 02 




884 84 


3,874 13 


2,989 29 


937 77 


Wellesley, . 




587 42 


5,000 00 


6,772 15 


886 08 


5,000 00 


Wellfleet, . 






392 38 






495 76 


Wenham, . 


2,051 79 


1,577 95 


935 63 


3,912 73 


2,977 10 


1,007 04 


W. Bridgewater, 


638 65 


1,342 17 


488 69 


988 09 


499 40 


508 54 


West Newbury, . 


1,158 52 


7,316 20 


424 49 


3,263 13 


2,838 64 


430 97 



108 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1907. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1909. 

Total _ 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1910. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Westborough, 






$1,273 09 






$1,306 06 


Westford, . 


$1,701 49 


$2,727 41 


700 98 


$2,866 90 


$2,165 92 


733 29 


Westminster, 






308 50 


205 04 




314 09 


Weston, 


2,938 33 


10,541 99 


2,711 61 


14,606 82 


4,600 00 


2,733 10 


Westwood, 






926 67 






1,038 27 


Weymouth, 


1,060 83 


1,542 86 


3,093 46 


3,469 37 


300 73 


3,197 19 


Whitman, . 






1,896 61 






1,949 34 


Wilmington , 


1,897 94 


3,803 51 


528 36 


3,502 59 


2,974 23 


555 91 


Winchester, 


5,059 09 


808 08 


4,606 56 


4,269 87 




4,988 65 


Winthrop, . 






4,303 07 




- 


4,797 44 


Wobum , 


4,252 45 


7,624 59 


4,476 08 


11,937 83 


5,969 40 


4,478 69 


Worcester, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Wrentham, 






476 15 






480 48 


Yarmouth, 






811 96 






834 74 



Summary of Recommendatio^^^s. 

1. To provide funds for establisliing lookout stations with 
telephone connections in various sections of the State, to be 
used in times of drouth for detection of forest fires. 

2. To pass an enactment regulating the use of fire balloons, 
which are extremely dangerous at times. 

3. To enact a law defining the powers and duties of the State 
Forester with regards to forest fires, and authorizing him to 
deputize as many State forest wardens as he decrees necessary. 

4. The advisability of regulating by law the treatment of the 
slash or brush resulting from lumbering or the cutting down of 
trees or brush, in order to lessen the future damages from fires. 

5. The regulation and systematizing of the prices paid for 
fighting fires in different towns. 

G. That the State offer, through the State Forester, to reim- 
burse towns 50 per cent, for an expenditure for forest fire 
fighting equipment, or in making forest fire protection belts, to 
an amount not to exceed $250 for each town thus accepting such 
aid. 

7. That the work of suppressing the elm-leaf beetle be placed 
under the State Forester, and subject to the same laws as now 



1910.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



109 



govern tlie moth work, provided that sufficient funds are allowed 
to carry on the work. 

8. That the local moth superintendents in towns and cities be 
appointed in a similar way as the forest wardens are appointed 
at present. 

9. That the gypsy and brown-tail moth law be so amended 
that the State Forester may take supervision in cities and towns 
so desiring it, or where the conditions demand it. 

10. That the work of the tree wardens in towns be subject to 
the approval of the State Forester. 

11. That the State Forester be allowed sufficient funds for an 
assistant, whose duties will primarily be to master the forest 
fire problem throughout the State. 

12. That the usual additional appropriation for gypsy and 
brown-tail moth suppression, which has been $165,000, be again 
made this year ; and that an appropriation of $100,000 be made 
for handling the elm-leaf beetle, provided this work be placed 
under the State Forester; and that an additional appropriation 
of $15,000 be made for carrying on the forestry department 
work as outlined; total, $280,000. 

13. That the State Forester be authorized to accept gifts of 
lands or funds on behalf of the Commonwealth, with the under- 
standing that all net sales from the management therefrom shall 
be used by him for improving State forestry conditions, subject 
to the approval of the Governor and council. 

14. It is of great importance, in order to make definite plans 
and to accomplish the best results, that the State Forester's 
appropriations be made available by the first of March. If it 
is decided by that time, we shall be in readiness to do effective 
work early in the spring, and the same amount of money will 
go much farther in controlling both insects and forest fires. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. EANE, 

State Forester. 



Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE F0RE8TEE 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT. 
1910. 



F. W. RANE, State Forestek. 




BOSTON; 

WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 
1911. 



STAB U»r.ARY OF MA^^i^'^-OoriTS, 
FEB 27 

STATE HOUSE, BOSTON. 



Approved by 
The State Board of Publication. 



®l)e <SommontDealtl) of itlas6Ocl)U0ctt0. 



To the General Court. 

The State Forester takes pleasure in presenting this, his 
seventh annual report, enumerating the activities, accomplish- 
ments and expenditures of the past year, with recommendations 
for the future needs of the department. 

As in the preceding year, the report is divided into two 
parts : — 

Part I. General Forestry. 

Part II. Gypsy and Brown-tail Moth Work. 

This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of 
chapter 409, section 5, Acts of 1904. 

Eespectfully submitted, 

r. W. EA^^E, 

State Forester. 

Dec. 1, 1910. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction, ....... 

Organization, ....... 

Staff, 

Co-operative scientific staff, ..... 
List of forest wardens and local moth superintendents, 
New legislation, ....... 

1. An act to prohibit the use of fire balloons, 

2. An act relative to protection against forest fires, 

3. An act relative to the picking of berries and flowers and to camping 

and picnicking during certain months in the counties of Barnstable 



and Plymouth, ......... 22 

4. An act relative to the appointment of local superintendents for the 

suppression of the gypsy and brown-tail moths, . . . .23 

5. An act to authorize the State Forester to accept bequests or gifts 

on behalf of the Commonwealth, ...... 24 

6. An act making appropriations for the suppression of the gypsy and 

brown-tail moths, ......... 24 

Acknowledgments, ........... 24 

Steam railroad "farming special" train, ....... 25 

Electric railroad "farming special" train, ....... 27 

Publications of the State Forester, ........ 28 

Part I. — General Forestry. 

Examinations of woodlands, ......... 33 

Woodland management, . . . . . . . . . . 35 

Forest working plan for the Burbank Hospital, ...... 37 

Marking for gypsy moth thinning, ........ 39 

Surveying, ............ 40 

Reforestation work, .......... 40 

State plantations, ........... 41 

Planting done under advice of State Forester, ...... 42 

Forest nursery, ........... 42 

Instructions in planting, .......... 43 

Portable steel shacks, . . . . . . . . . .44 

Forest fires of 1910 45 

Forest-fire equipment, .......... 49 

Towns receiving fire-equipment reimbursement, ..... 50 

Forest fire deputies needed , . . . . . . , . ,51 

Disposing of the slashings or brush, ........ 52 

Forest-fire lookouts, .......... 52 

Fire lines and protective moth belts, ....... 53 

Railroad co-operation in forest-fire fighting, ...... 54 

Power sprayers as forest-fire equipment, ....... .55 

Forest fires in Germany, .......... 55 

State subsidy to towns for forest-fire protection, ..... 56 

Public addresses, ........... 56 

Lectures before scientific organizations, ....... 56 

State Firemen's Association, ......... 57 

Thinning bulletin, ........... 57 

Bulletin on reforestation and nursery work, ...... 57 

The chestnut bark disease, ......... 58 



6 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Conference of State foresters and forest wardens, ..... 58 

The Massachusetts forest warden system, ...... 58 

Expenditures and receipts, ......... 59 

Forestry expenditures, . . . . . . . . . .59 

Reforestation account, .......... 60 

Lectures, ............ 60 

Expense incurred in examination work, charged to owners, . . . .61 

Expenses incurred in supervision of managed woodlands, charged to owners, 61 

Expenses incurred in giving instruction in planting, charged to owners, . 61 

Part II. — Gypsy and Brown -tail Moth Suppression. 

Conditions in 1910, 65 

Scouting, ............ 66 

Spraying, ............ 68 

Future work, ........... 72 

Supply store, ........... 73 

Method of ordering supplies, ......... 74 

List of supplies by number, ......... 75 

Supplementary list, Oct. 19, 1910, 77 

Co-operation, ........... 77 

National aid, ........... 78 

North Shore work, . . .82 

Gypsy moth and road work on the North Shore, ..... 82 

Preserving the forest, .......... 82 

How the work was done, ......... 83 

The work accomplished, .......... 84 

Our woods can be preserved, ......... 84 

How the money was secured, ......... 85 

The United States authorities co-operate, ....... 85 

Cost of work, ........... 86 

Expenditures, ........... 86 

Details of cost of work, .......... 86 

Average cost of work, .......... 86 

Parasites, ............ 87 

Our hopes for the future, ......... 88 

Summer residents committees, ........ 88 

Subscription for gypsy moth work on the North Shore, 1910, . . .88 
Gypsy moths spread by the wind, . . . . . . . .90 

Sprajdng not a destroyer of birds, ........ 93 

Parasite work, ........... 94 

Report of Dr. L. O. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, Wash- 
ington, D. C, . 94 

The fungous diseases of the brown-tail and gypsy moths, . . . .98 

The disease of the gypsy moth, ........ 101 

Further studies on the nature of the wilt disease of the gypsy moth larvte, . 101 

Bulletin on parasites, . . . . . . . . . . 105 

Post cards in colors, .......... 106 

Financial statements, .......... 107 

General appropriation, . . . . . . . . .107 

Parasite appropriation, ......... 107 

Expenditures, ........... 108 

Special North Shore fund, 108 

Financial summary, by towns, ........ 108 

Summary of recommendations, ........ 109 

For general forestry, ......... 109 

For moth suppression, ......... 109 



^l)e aTcmmonroealtl) of itlaeaacljueettB* 



SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
FORESTER. 



Introduction^. 

Forestry work during the past year has received its due 
share of interest on the part of our Massachusetts people. It is 
a pleasure to be able to report that in general the forestry and 
moth work have so amalgamated that not only more efficiency 
but greater economy is the result. 

The depredations of insect pests, fungous diseases and forest 
fires must be successfully dealt with and controlled if we are 
to succeed in establishing and maintaining a modern forestry 
system throughout this Commonv/ealth. 

From the first the forestry work has been popular, while the 
moth work, on the other hand, has savored of. unpopularity, for 
many reasons, but chiefly because of the law requiring property 
owners, through taxation, to defray a portion of its expense. 

It has taken time to organize and perfect the work of combat- 
ing the gypsy and brown-tail moths. It is believed to be a con- 
servative estimate when we say that we have increased our 
efficiency toward moth control fully one-third during the past 
season, and without additional appropriations. 

It has been the earnest endeavor of the State Forester, since 
the moth work has been placed under his care, to overcome, if 
possible, anything that has a tendency to create a misunder- 
standing, and also to secure legislation that would meet definite 
requirements and hence general public approval. 

The legislation enacted by the last General Court has already 
proved of great assistance, and it is hoped that our requests as 
outlined at the conclusion of this report will meet with the. 
favorable consideration of your honorable body. 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



It is believed that there are few departments in the State that 
have a more enthusiastic, self-sacrificing and lojal corps of 
employees than has this one. " A live-wire organization " is 
our slogan. 

The demands upon the office of the State Forester for exam- 
inations and advice on forestry matters have been greater than 
ever; also, forestry literature, lectures and demonstrations have 
been constantly requested throughout the year. Fire-warning 
notices and forest-law posters have been generally distributed 
and are in greater use than ever. 

The growing interest in equipping our towns with some 
modern fire-fighting apparatus is certainly encouraging. The 
legislation of last year, whereby the poorer towns receive State 
aid, has been of great assistance. The comparative efficiency 
of towns with and without equipment for fighting forest fires 
during the past season is proverbial. Towns with equipment 
were practically free from fires, while those without such equip- 
ment were largely burned over. 

The reforestation work is extremely popular, and it is be- 
lieved that the State can well aiford to enlarge the appropriation 
for this work, as under our present method the State cannot 
possibly lose. 

The State Forester feels frank to say that the outlook in this 
department was never brighter. 

Orgaj^ization". 

The same general plan of organization as that outlined last 
year has been continued throughout the season. Our constant 
aim has been toward greater efficiency and raising the standard 
of the work. Our purpose is to encourage cities and towns to 
first secure competent forest wardens and moth superintendents, 
and then to desist from constant changes. It takes time to get 
a man well broken into the work, and thereafter he is of the 
greatest value. 

The present organization of the State Forester's staff is as 
follows : — 



1911.1 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Mr. F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.S. 

Mr. L. H. WORTHLEY, 

Mr. H. O. Cook, M.F. 

Mr. R. S. Langdell, 
Mr. H. F. Gould, M.F. 
Mr. J. H. Potts, ^ 
Alden T. Speare, 
Mr. Chas. O. Bailey, 
Miss Elizabeth Hubbard, 
Miss Charlotte Jacobs, 
Mr. Wm. a. Hatch, 



Mr. John W. Enwright, 



Mr. George A. Smith, 



Mr. Frank A. Bates, 



Mr. Francis C. Worthen, . 



Mr. John J. Fitzgerald, 



Mr. Wm. W. Colton, . 



Mr. Clarence W. Parkhurst, 



Mr. Chas. W. Minott, 



Staff. 

State Forester. 

Assistant Forester, in charge of moth work. 
Assistant Forester, in charge of forestry man- 
agement. 

Assistant Forester, in charge of nursery work. 

Assistant Forester. 

Assistant, forest fire work. 

Assistant, moth disease work. 

Secretary. 

Clerk, in charge of accounts. 

Clerk, in charge of mail and office. 

Division Superintendent, Division 1, as fol- 
lows: Danvers, Hamilton, Ipswich, Lynn, 
Lynnfield, Nahant, Peabody, Revere, Salem, 
Swampscott and Wenham. 

Agent, Division 2, as follows: Arlington, Bed- 
ford, Burlington, Carlisle, Everett, Lex- 
ington, Maiden, Melrose, No. Reading, 
Reading, Saugus, Stoneham, Wakefield, 
Wilmington, Winchester and Woburn. 

Agent, Division 3, as follows: Belmont, 
Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, Chelsea, 
Concord, Hyde Park, Lincoln, Medford, 
Natick, Needham, Newton, Somerville, 
Waltham, Watertown, Wayland, Welles- 
ley, Weston and Winthrop. 

Agent, Division 4, as follows: Abington, Avon, 
Braintree, Cohasset, Hingham, Holbrook, 
Hull, Milton, Quincy, Randolph, Rock- 
land, Scituate, Weymouth and Whitman. 

Division Superintendent, Division 5, as fol- 
lows: Amesbury, Boxford, Georgetown, 
Groveland, Merrimac, Middleton, New, 
bury, Newburyport, Rowley, Salisbury- 
Topsfield and West Newbury. 

Division Superintendent, Division 6, as fol- 
lows: Andover, Billerica, Chelmsford, 
Dracut, Haverhill, Lawrence, Lowell, 
Methuen, North Andover and Tewksbury. 

Division Superintendent, Division 7, as fol- 
lows: Ashby, Ashburnham, Ayer, Dun- 
stable, Fitchburg, Groton, Lunenburg, 
Pepperell, Shirley, Townsend, Westford 
and Westminster. 

Division Superintendent, Division 8, as fol- 
lows: Bellingham, Canton, Dedham, Dover, 
Foxborough, Framingham, Franklin, Med- 
field, Medway, Millis, Norfolk, Norwood, 
Plainville, Sharon, Sherborn, Stoughton, 
Walpole, Westwood and Wrentham. 

Agent, Division 9, as follows: Acton, Berlin, 
Bolton, Boxborough, Clinton, Harvard, 
Hudson, Lancaster, Leominster, Littleton, 
Marlborough, Maynard, Sterling, Stowe 
and Sudbury. 



1 Resigned. 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Mr. George A. Sands, . . Division Superintendent, Division 10, as fol- 
lows: Ashland, Blackstone, Grafton, Hol- 
liston, Hopedale, Hopkinton, Mendon, Mil- 
ford, Northborough, Northbridge, South- 
borough, Upton, Uxbridge and Westbor- 
ough. 

Mr. Harry B. Ramsey, . . Agent, Division 11, as follows: Athol, Au- 
burn, Barre, Boylston, Brookfield, Charl- 
ton, Douglas, Dudley, Gardner, Holden, 
Hubbardston, Leicester, Millbury, Orange, 
Oxford, Paxton, Petersham, Phillipston, 
Princeton, Rutland, Royalston, Spencer, 
Sturbridge, Sutton, Templeton, Webster, 
West Boylston, Winchendon and Worces- 
ter. 

Mr. John A. Farley, . . . Agent, Division 12, as follows: Carver, Dux- 
bury, Halifax, Hanover, Hanson, Kingston, 
Marshfield, Norwell, Pembroke, Plymouth 
and Plympton. 

Mr. Lewis W. Hodgkins, . . Agent, Division 13, as follows: Attleborough, 

Bridgewater, Brockton, East Bridgewater, 
Easton, Lakeville, Mansfield, Middlebor- 
ough. North Attleborough, Raynham, 
Taunton and West Bridgewater. 

Mr, John F. Carleton, . . Division Superintendent, Division 14, as fol- 

lov/s: Barnstable, Bourne, Brewster, Den- 
nis, Falmouth, Marion, Mashpee, Orleans, 
Rochester, Sandwich, Truro, Wareham, 
Wellfleet and Yarmouth. 

Mr, Saul Phillips, . . . Division Superintendent, Division 15, as fol- 
lows: Beverly, Essex, Gloucester, Man- 
chester, North Shore Woodlands and Rock- 
port. 

Co-operative Scientific Staff. 

L, O, Howard, Ph.D., . . Chief United States Bureau of Entomology, 

Washington, D. C, Parasites and Predaceous 
Insects. 

Theobald Smith, Ph.B., M.D., . Professor of Comparative Pathology, Harvard 

University, Diseases of Insects. 

Roland Thaxter, Ph.D., . . Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 

University, Fungous Diseases affecting In- 
sects. 

E. L. Mark, Ph.D., LL.D., . . Director of the Zoological Laboratory, Har- 
vard University, Protozoa and Insect Life. 

W. M. Wheeler, Ph.D., . . Professor of Entomology, Harvard University, 

Experimental Entomologist. 

C. H. Fbrnald, Ph.D., . . Professor of Entomology, Massachusetts Ag- 
ricultural College, Consulting Entomologist. 

Frank H. Mosher, . , . Entomologist in charge of laboratory. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by towns.] 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Abington, 


287 


B. E. Wilkes, chief fire department. 


C. Frederick Shaw. 


Acton, . 


181 


Wm. H. Kingsley, ..... 


James O'Neil. 


Acushnet, 


275 


Henry F. Taber 


A. P. R. Gilmore. 


Adams, 


7 






Agawam, 


93 


D L. White, P. 0. Feeding Hills, . 


- 


Alford, . 


24 




- 


Amesbury, . 


228 


James E. Feltham, chief fire department. 


A. L. Stover. 


Amherst, 


67 


G. E. Stone, tree warden. 




Andover, 


212 


J. H. Playdon, tree warden, . 


J. H. Playdon. 


Arlington, 


193 


Walter 11. Pierce, chief fire department, . 


Wm. H. Bradley. 


Ashburnham, 


104 


Arthur H. Skillings, chief fire depart- 


Chas. A. Billings. 










Ashby, . 


158 


Wm. S. Green, 




Ashfield, 


50 


Chas. A. Hall, 


- 


Ashland, 


200 


H. H. Piper, 


Michael Geoghan. 


Athol, . 


105 


Frank P. Hall, chief fire department, . 


Geo. E. Whitney. 


Attleborough, 


265 


Hiram Packard, chief fire department. 


Wm. E. S. Smith. 




3 Hope Street. 




Auburn, 


123 




J. Fred Searle. 


Avon, . 


259 


James W. McCarthy, Pratt Street, 


Willard W. Beals. 


Ayer, 


169 


Chas. E. Perrin 


Daniel W. Mason. 


Barnstable, . 


315 


Henry C. Bacon, P. 0. Hyannis, . 


Harry W. Bodfish. 


Barre, . 


142 


D. H. Rice, 


George R. Simonds. 


Becket, . 


23 


Elmer D. Ballou 


- 


Bedford, 


179 






Belchertown, 


73 


James A. Peeso, constable, 


Nelson Randall. 


Bellingham, . 


326 


L. F. Thayer, 


Henry A. Whitney. 


Belmont, 


194 


John F. Leonard, chief fire department, . 


Chas. H. Houlahan. 


Berkley, 


271 


Gideon H. Babbitt 


J. M. Alexander. 


Berlin, . 


139 


Walter Cole, constable, .... 


Ernest C. Ross. 


Bernardston, 


39 


E. E. Benjamin, 


- 


Beverly, 


220 


Robt. H. Grant, chief fire department, . 


Josiah B. Brown. 


Billerica, 


173 


Geo. C. Crosby, chief engineer fire de- 


Henry E. Marion. 






partment. 




Blackstone, . 


114 






Blandford, 


81 


C. 0. Shultz, 




Bolton, . 


146 


Chas. E. Mace, 


Chas. E. Mace. 


Boston, 1 






D. Henry Sullivan. 


Bourne, 


311 




Stillman B. Wright. 



1 No forest area- 



12 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



ToT\-N OR City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Boxborough, 


182 


M. L. Wetherbee, 


John J. Sherry. 


Boxford, 


218 


Harry L. Cole, 


Chas. Perley. 


Boylston, 


138 


Chas. S. Knight, metropolitan watchman. 


George A. Vickery. 


Braintree, 
Brewster, 
Bridgewater, 


244 
318 
293 


Jas. M. Cutting, special police, P. 0. 

South Braintree. 
T. B. Tubman, highway surveyor. North 

Brewster. 

Edwin S. Rhoades 


Oscar A. Hubbard. 
James E. Eldridge. 
Walter E. Rhodes. 


Brimfield, 


99 




- 


Brockton, 


286 


Harry L. Marston, chief fire department. 


N. S. Souther. 


Brookfield, 


120 






Brookline, 


237 


Geo. H. Johnson, chief fire department, . 


Ernest B. Dane. 


Buckland, 


49 


Wm. Sauer, P. 0. Shelburne FaUs, . 


- 


Burlington, . 


178 


Walter W. Skelton, tree warden. 


Walter W. Skelton. 


Cambridge,^ . 


- 


- - - 


J. F. Donnelly. 


Canton, 
Carlisle, 


249 
171 


Lawrence Horton, fire engineer, P. O. 
Ponkapoag. 


Augustvis Heminway. 
G. G. Wilkins. 


Carver, . 


304 


Herbert F. Atwood, .... 


Herbert F. Atwood. 


Charlemont, 


42 


Fred. D. Legate 


- 


Charlton, 


115 


Carlos Bond, 


John G. Hammond. 


Chatham, 


320 


Geo. W. Ryder, West Chatham, . 


Geo. B. Bassett. 


Chelmsford, . 


172 


Arthur E. Barton, 


M. A. Bean. 


Chelsea, 1 






J. A. O'Brien. 


Cheshire, 


11 


Chas. D. Cummings 




Chester, 


80 


Wm. H. Babb 




Chesterfield, 


63 


Chas. A. Bisbee, P. 0. Bisbee, 


- 


Chicopee, 


87 


John H. Pomphret, chief fire department. 


- 


Chilmark, 


308 




Almon S. Tilton. 


Clarksburg, . 
Clinton, 


3 
145 


Robert Lanfair, R. F. D. No. 1, North 
Adams. 

Wm. Clark 


- 

Wm. McGk)wn. 


Cohasset, 
Colrain, 


246 
37 


Wm. J. Brennock, captain fire depart- 
ment. 

Wm. H. Davenport, .... 


Joseph E. Grassie. 
- 


Concord, 


180 


G. M. Morrell, chief fire department. 


H. P. Richardson. 


Conway, 


51 


Chas. Parsons, tree warden, . 




Cummington, 


60 


W. S. Gabb, P. 0. Swift River, . 




Dalton, 


14 


Alvah K. Cleveland, North Street, 




Dana, . 


147 


Tho3. L. Thayer, P. 0. North Dana, 




Dan vers. 


345 


Thomas E. Tinsley, .... 


Thomas E. Tinsley. 


Dartmouth, . 


278 


Sylvanus P. Hawes, .... 





> No forest area. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 13 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent . 


Dedham, 


241 




George A. Phillips. 


Deerfield, 


52 


Wm. L. Harris 


- 


Dennis, 
Dighton, 


317 
272 


Alpheus P. Baker, constable, P. 0. South 
Dennis. 

Ralph Earle, 


H. H. Sears. 
D. F. Lane. 


Douglas, 


112 


W. L. Church 


Walter E. Carpenter. 


Dover, 


240 


John Breagy, 


Harold McKenzie. 


Dracut, 


163 


Frank H. Gunther, chief fire department. 


Thomas F. Carrick. 


Dudley, 


110 


F. A. Putnam, 


Joseph N. O'Kane. 


Dunstable, . 


161 


Archie W. Swallow, .... 


James A. Davis. 


Duxbury, 


303 


Fred. B. Knapp, 


Henry A. Fish. 


E. Bridgewater, . 
East Longmeadow, 


298 
95 


Loren A. Flagg, chief fire department, 

P. 0. Elmwood. 
E. J. Speight, 


Benjamin Taylor. 


Eastham, 


322 , 


W. Horton Nickerson, road surveyor. 


N. P. Clark. 


Easthampton, 


77 


Frank P. Newkirk, tree warden, 




Easton, 
Edgartown, . 


264 
309 


John Baldwin, chief fire department. 

North Easton. 
Manuel Roberts, 


R. W. Melendy. 
Theodore S. Wim- 


Egremont, 
Enfield, 


29 
74 


Frank W. Bradford, Great Barrington, 

R. F. D. No. 3. 
Chas. W. Felton 


penny. 
- 

- 


Erving, 


46 


Chas. H. Holmes, P. 0. Farley, 


- 


Essex, . 


223 


Otis 0. Storj% tree warden, 


Otis 0. Story. 


Everett,* 






James Davidson. 


Fairhaven, 


276 


Albert C. Aiken, 


Geo. W. King. 


Fall River, . 


280 


William Mulligan, tree warden, 


Wm. Mulligan. 


Falmouth, 


312 


Herbert N. Lawrence, .... 


W. B. Bosworth. 


Fitchbui^, 


157 


Geo. H. Hastings 


Geo. H. Hastings. 


Florida, 
Foxborough, 


5 
261 


E. L. Jeffries, North Adams, R. F. D. 
No. 3. 

Ernest A. White, chief fire department, . 


- 

Samuel J. Johnston. 


Framingham, 


197 


Josiah S. Williams, P. 0. Nobscot, . 


N. I. Bowditch. 


Franklin, 


255 


Ed. S. Cook, dealer in wood and lumber. 


John N. Stobbert. 


Freetown, 


274 


Andrew M. Hathaway, P. 0. Assonet, . 


Gilbert M. Nichols. 


Gardner, 


153 


Geo. S. Hodgman, 


T. W. Danforth. 


Gay Head, 


343 




L. B. Smalley. 


Georgetown, 


224 




Clinton J. Eaton. 


Gill, 


45 






Gloucester, . 


234 


Sydney F. Haskell, Essex Avenue, 


Herbert J. Worth. 


Goshen, 
Gosnold, 


61 
344 


Sydney F. Packard, Williamsburg, R. F. 

D. No. 2. 
Harold S. Veeder, P. 0. Cuttyhunk, 





* No forest area. 



14 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Grafton, 


125 


Sumner F. Leonard, .... 


Chas. K. Despeau. 


Granby, 


79 


C. N. Rust 


- 


Granville, 


91 


Lawrence F. Henry, .... 


- 


Great Barrington,. 


25 


Dan W. Flynn, 54 Russell Street, . 


- 


Greenfield, . 


44 


Wm. A. Ames, tree warden. 


Wm. A. Ames. 


Greenwich, . 


327 


Wm. H. Walker, P. 0. Greenwich Village, 


- 


Groton, 


167 


Jas. B. Harrington, chief fire department. 


Joseph F. Bateman. 


Groveland, . 


225 


Sydney E. Johnson, 311 Center Street, . 


Raymond B. Larive. 


Hadley, 


66 


Edward P. West, tree warden. 




Halifax, 


299 


Edwin H. Vaughn 


Frank D. Lyon. 


Hamilton, 


222 


Fred Berry, P. 0. Essex, R. F. D., 


Erie G. Brewer. 


Hampden, 


97 




- 


Hancock, 


9 


Chas. F. Tucker 


- 


Hanover, 

Hanson, 

Hardwick, 


295 
296 
141 


Chas. E. Damon, P. 0. Box 113, North 
Hanover. 

Albert L. Dame, tree warden, P. 0. South 
Hanson. 

Myron N. Ayers, 


Lyman Russell. 
A. L. Dame. 


Harvard, 


152 


Benjamin J. Priest, .... 


Geo. C. Maynard. 


Harwich, 


319 




John H. Drum. 


Hatfield, 


65 


John M. Strong, P. 0. West Hatfield, 


- 


Haverhill, 


216 


John B. Gordon, chief fire department, . 


Geo. F. Moore. 


Hawley, 
Heath, 


48 
36 


Ernest R. Sears, tree warden, P. 0. Charle- 
mont. 


- 


Hingham, 


289 


Geo. Gushing, chief fire department. 


Arthur W. Young. 


Hinsdale, 


15 


Lewis B. Breague, tree warden. 




Holbrook, 


247 


E. W. Austin, 


Wm. Hay don. 


Holden, 


136 


Henry E. Holt, 


H. E. Holt. 


Holland, 
Holliston, 


101 

202 


0. F. Howlett, P. 0. Southbridge, R. F. 
D. No. 2. 

Waldo E. Coolidge, 


Geo. H. Moody. 


Holyoke, 


85 


Chas. C. Hastings 




Hopedale, 
Hopkinton, . 


328 
201 


Walter F. Durgin, superintendent of 
parks. 


Walter F, Durgin. 


Hubbardston, 


149 


Ernest A. Young, tree warden. 


Ernest A. Young. 


Hudson, 
Hull, . 
Huntington, . 


199 
329 
70 


Fred W. Trowbridge, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Smith F. Sturgis, tree warden, P. O. 
Allerton. 


Frederick P. Hosmer. 
John Knowles. 


Hyde Park, . 


330 


Harry G. Higbee, 


Harry G. Higbee. 


Ipswich, 


223 


Augustus J. Barton, .... 


James A. Morey. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 15 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Kingston, 


301 


Arthur B. Holmes, 


• 

Carl C. Faunce. 


Lakeville, 
Lancaster, 
Lanesborough, 


283 
151 
10 


Nathan F. Washburn, P. 0. Middlebor- 
ough. 

Everett M. Hawkins, chief fire depart- 
ment. 


S. T. Nelson. 
Geo. F. Morse, Jr. 
- 


Lawrence, 


214 


Chas. G. Rutter, chief fire department, . 


Isaac Kelley. 


Lee, 


22 




- 


Leicester, 


122 


Chas. White, P. 0. Cherry Valley, . 


J. H. Woodhead. 


Lenox, 


18 


Geo. W. Fitch, 


- 


Leominster, . 


155 


Fred A. Russell 


S. R. Walker. 


Leverett, 


57 


Orman C. Marvel, 


- 


Lexington, 


188 






Leyden, 


38 


Herma W. Severance, P. 0. Bernardston, 


- 


Lincoln, 


187 


Edwin R. Farrer, tree warden. 


Edw. R. Farrer, 


Littleton, 


170 


A. E. Hopkins, 


Alfred Hopkins. 


Longmeadow, 


94 




- 


Lowell, . 


165 


Edward S. Hosmer, chief fire department. 


Chas. A. Whittet. 


Ludlow, 


88 


Edward E. Chapman 


- 


Lunenburg, . 


156 


Clayton E. Stone 


Myron E. Harvey. 


Lynn, . 


331 


Nathan M. Hawkes, park commissioner. 


Albert C. Doak. 


Lynnfield, 


209 


Thos. E. Cox, P. 0. Wakefield, R. F. D., 


Alfred W. Copeland. 


Maiden, 


191 


Frank Turner, chief fire department. 


George W. Stiles. 


Manchester, . 


236 


Frederick Burnham, .... 


John D. Morrison. 


Mansfield, 


263 




W. 0. Sweet. 


Marblehead, . 


332 


Wm. H. Stevens, 


Wm. H. Stevens, 2d. 


Marion, 


306 


Geo. B. Nye 


James H. Morss. 


Marlborough, 


198 


Chas. H. Andrews, chief fire department. 


Timothy J. Brennan. 


Marshfield, . 


292 






Mashpee, 


313 


Joseph A. Peters, 


Watson F. Hammond. 


Mattapoisett, 


281 


Everett C. Stetson, .... 


Geo. E. Barrows. 


Maynard, 


184 


Arthur J. Coughlan, Maynard's block, . 


Albert Coughlan. 


Medfield, 
Medford, 


252 
192 


Waldo E. Kingsbury, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Chas. Bacon, chief fire department, 


Geo. L. L. Allen. 
Wm. J. Gannon. 


Medway, 


254 


Clyde C. Hunt, captain fire department. 


Frank Hager. 


Melrose, 






John J. McCuUough. 


Mendon, 


119 


Geo. B. Cromb, 


Frank M. Aldrich. 


Merrimac, 


227 


Edgar P. Sargent, 


Chas. R. Ford. 


Methuen, 


213 


Herbert B. Nichols, .... 


Alfred H. Wagland. 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Middleborough, 


284 






Middleneld, . 


342 


Thos. H. Fleming, P. 0. Bancroft, . 




Middleton, . 


211 






Milford, 
Millbury, 


127 
124 


Elbert M. Crockett, chief fire depart- 
ment. 


Patrick F. Fitzgerald. 
Edw. F. Roach. 


Millis, 


253 




r red. rlollana. 


Milton, . 


242 


Nathaniel T. Kidder, park commissioner. 


iNatnaniel i. iviader. 


Monroe, 


34 






Monson, 


98 


Omer E. Bradway, 




Montague, 


53 


Fred W. Lyman, lumber dealer. 




Monterey, 


28 


J. H. Bills 




Montgomery, 


82 


Frank C. Preston, P. 0. Huntington, . 


_ 


Mt. Washington, . 


30 






Nantucket, . 


333 


Albert K. L/omn, ..... 


Geo. M. Winslow. 


Nahant, 






Thomas Roland. 


Natick, 


204 




TT TT TT..»^»>^T,T«11 


Needham, 
JNiew Asmord, 


238 
6 


Howard H. Upham, cniei nre depart- 
ment. 


Ernest E. Riley. 


New Joediord, 


277 


Edward F. Dahill, chief fire department, 


Unas, r . Liawton. 


New Braintree, 


131 






New Marlborough, 


32 


Jas. McLaughlm, P. O. Mill Kiver, . 




New Salem, . 


55 


Rawson King, P. 0. Cooleyville, . 




Newbury, 


231 


Wm. P. Bailey, 


0. B. Tarbox. 


Newburyport, 


230 




Unas. r. Ivelley. 


Newton, 
Norfolk, 


205 
256 


Walter B. Randlett, chief fire department, 
P. O. West Newton. 


Chas. I. Bucknam. 


North Adams, 


4 


H. J. Montgomery, chief fire department, 




North Andover, . 


215 




Peter Holt. 


N. Attleborough, . 


262 


Harvey W. Tufts, chief fire department, . 


F. P. Toner. 


North Brookfield, . 


129 




Samuel D. Colburn. 


North Reading, . 


175 


Irving F, Batchelder 


Geo. E. Eaton. 


Northampton, 


72 


Frederick E. Chase, .... 




Northborough, 


140 




T. P. Haskell. 


Northbridge, 


117 


W. E. Burnap, P. 0. Whitinsville, . 


Arthur F. Whitin. 


Northfield, . 


40 






Norton, 


266 


Alden G. Walker, 


Owen G. Walker. 


Norwell, 


290 




John H. Sparrell. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 17 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town ok City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Norwood, 


250 


J. Fred Boyden, chief fire department, . 


Jl. J:' rank Vvinslow. 


\Ja,K rJluns, 


ool 


J rauK w . v^nase, ..... 


JratriCK Jr. Jriuriey. 


Oakham, 


135 


Chas. H. Trowbridge, .... 


Chas. H. Trowbridge. 


Orange, 


47 


Frank M. Jennison, .... 


F. M. Jennison. 


Orleans, 


321 


<^nas. r . r^oor, ..... 


Albert A. omitn. 


Otis, 


07 


Chester R. Cromwell, .... 




Uxiora, . 


000 


T. M. Harrington, ..... 


Chas. G. Larned. 


Palmer, 
Paxton, 


SO 
130 


James Summers, chief fire department, 

P. 0. Box 333. 
Fred A. Durgin, ..... 


J:!, jxeitn. 
Louis M. Robinson. 


Peabody, 




iViicnael V. Mcv.>artny, rorest otreet. 


James F. Callahan. 


Pelham, 


68 


E. A. Harris, P. 0. Amherst, 




Pembroke, 






Ualvm b. vVesb. 


Pepperell, 


IRfl 
IDU 


ijeo. (ji. larDeii, Jr. \J. xLast Jreppereii, 


John Tune. 


Peru, 


1 A 
ID 






Petersham , 


148 




Frank A. Hathaway. 


i'nillipston, . 
irittsnela, 


lUo 
IS 


Wm. i^owlbecK, Jr. U. AtiiOl, Li. i> , U. 
No. 3. 


Wm. Jl. Li. UoulbecK. 


Jrlainville, 


HQ 


Edward C. Barney, .... 


Unas. JN . onell. 


irlainnelci. 


QflQ 

ouy 






Plymouth, 


302 




Abbott A. Raymond. 


Plympton, 


son 




David Bricknell. 


Prescott, 


AO 

oy 


Waldo ±1. Jrierce, Jr. U. (jreenwicn village, 




Princeton, 


lOU 


W A W^ll^Qmo 


Frank A. Skinner. 


Provincetown, 


325 




John M. Burch. 


Quincy, 


243 


Peter J. Williams, chief fire department. 


Andrew J. Stewart. 


Randolph, 


248 


Chas. A. Wales, chief fire department, . 


James E. Blanche. 


Raynham, 


270 


John V. Festing, chief fire department, . 


(jreo. JVl. Leach. 


Reading, 


176 


Herbert E. Mclntire, .... 


Henry M. Donegan. 


Rehoboth, 


268 


Silas A. Pierce, 


Stephen W. Robinson^ 


Revere,^ 






Geo. P. Babson. 


Kicnmona, . 


17 






Rochester, 


282 


Wm. N. Smellie 


Chester B. Morse. 


Rockland, 


288 


John H. Burke, clerk fire board. 


Frank H. Shaw. 


Rockport, 


235 


A. J. McFarland, P. 0. Box 91, 


Frank A. Babcock. 


Rowe, . 


35 






Rowley, 


232 




Daniel O'Brien. 


Royalston, . 


102 


Willard W. White, P. 0. South Royalston, 


W. W. White. 



1 No forest area. 



18 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Russell, 


OQ 


Sidney F. Shurtleff, highway surveyor, . 




Rutland, 




Henry Converse, chief fire department, . 


u. HiClw. Wneeler. 








Amos Stillman. 


Salisbury, 


229 


Wm. H. Evans, 


Henry C. Rich. 


Sandisfield, . 


33 


Lyman H. Clark, P. 0. New Boston, 




Sandwich, 


314 


tiuiiii J? . v_/cirit;ton, x . \j, opring xiiii. 


x>. X . x-/enison. 


Saugus, 


on? 


Ole C. Christiansen, .... 


xnos. JCi. jtserreit. 


Savoy, . 


o 
o 


Herbert H. Fitzroy, P. 0. Savoy Center, 




Scituate, 
Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


001 
ZD/ 

251 


Ernest R. Seaverns, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

jUxiii xj. xjdrKtJr, ST, kj, AtLieDorougn, xv. 
F. D. No. 4. 


Percival S. Brown. 
Harold F, Thompson. 

T T T.ocirir 


oneineia, 


SI 


/irtiiur xi. X ULLie, ..... 




Shelburne, 


16 


XI. KJ , x isKG, Jr. yj* oneiDurne xRiis, 




Sherborn, 


OHQ 
ZUo 


Milo F. CampbGll, South SliGrbom, 


J. P. Dowse. 


Shirley, 


168 




A. A. A. dams. 


Shrewsbury, 


132 


TTlll. ij. XLlCtJ, ...... 


X'ictllA. XJ. vyLt. 


Shutesbury, . 


Oo 






Somerset, 


336 


vvni. X. vjriiiitiio, oWciiisea, xv. x. jl/.. 


v^llda. xVllcy. 


Somerville,^ 






Asa B. Pritchard. 


ooutn xiaaley, 


7Q 


josepn xjeacn, jr. w. ooutn xiaciiey xaiis, 




Southampton, 


to 






Southborough, 


QQ7 
OOl 


Harry Burnett, tree warden, . 


Harry Burnett. 


Southbridge, 


1 no 

luy 


Aimee Langevin, OIney Avenue, 


Joseph Proulx. 


Southwick, 


92 






Spencer, 


121 


A. F. Howlett, chief fire department. 


Geo. H. Ramer. 


Springfield, . 


86 


Burton Steere, assistant fire chief, . 


wm. X . Liaie. 


Sterling, 


144 


kj. X . xierDert, 


Jos. H. Kilbourn. 


Stockbridge, 


01 


Geo. Schneyer, P. 0. Glendale, 




Stoneham, 


190 


Geo. E. Sturtevant, chief fire department. 


Geo. M. Jefts. 


Stoughton, 


258 




Wm. P. Kennedy. 


Stow, 


183 


Wm. 11. l^arker, ir. U. Uleasonaale, 


Geo. A. Patterson. 


Sturbridge, . 


108 


Chas. M. Clark, P. 0. Fiskdale, . 




Sudbury, 


185 


F. E. Bent, 


Wm. E. Baldwin. 


Sunderland, . 


338 






Sutton, 


116 


R. W. Richardson 


John E. Gifford. 


Swampscott, 


339 


Geo. P. Cahoon, chief fire department, . 


Everett P. Mudge. 


Swansea, 


273 


Thos. L, Mason, R. F. D. No. 2, . 


E. C. Gardner. 



» No forest area. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Wsrcien.. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Taunton, 


269 


Fred. A. Leonard, chief fire department, . 


Alvaro Harnden. 


Tern pie ton, . 


107 


Henry H. Seaver, P. 0. Baldwinville, . 


John B. Wheeler. 


Tewksbury, . 


364 


Herbert W. Pillsbury, .... 


Harris M. Briggs. 


Tisbury, 


310 


Elmer C. Chadwick, .... 


Presbury S. Luce. 


Tolland, 


90 


Eugene M. Moore, 


- 


Topsfield, 


218 


Geo. F. Averill, 


C. W. Floyd. 


Townsend, . 


159 


F. J. Piper, chief fire department, . 


Geo. E. King. 


Truro, . 


324 


Nay lor Hatch, 


Joseph H. Atwood. 


Tyngsborough, 


162 


Otis L. Wright, 


Howard E. Noble. 


Tyringham, . 


26 


Geo. F. Knapp, 


- 


Upton, . 


126 


E. M. Baker, chief fire department. 


Geo. H. Evans. 


Uxbridge, 


113 






Wakefield, . 
Wales, . 


208 
100 


W. W. Eager, 


W. W. Whittredge. 
- 


Walpole, 


340 




Philip R. Allen. 


Waltham, 


195 


Geo. L. Johnson, chief fire department, . 


Warren M. Ryan. 


Ware, . 


75 


L. S. Charbonneau, P. 0. Box 25, . 


Fred E. Zeissig. 


Warehafti, 


305 






Warren, 


119 


Joseph St. George, 


Alfred A. Warriner. 


Warwick, 


41 


Chas. A. Williams, 


- 


Washington, . 


19 


Geo. Messenger, R. F. D., Becket, 


- 


Watertown, . 


206 


John C. Ford, tree warden, 


John C. Ford. 


Wayland, 


196 


Clarence S. Williams, Cochituate, . 


Daniel Graham. 


Webster, 


111 


Arthur G. Pattison, .... 


Carl Klebart. 


Wellesley, 


239 


Fletcher M. Abbott, tree warden, . 


Fletcher M. Abbott. 


Wellfleet, 


323 


Edwin P. Cook, 


Everett S. Jacobs. 


Wendell, 


54 


Geo. A. Lewis, 


- 


Wenham, 


221 


Jacob D. Barnes, tree warden, 


Jacob D. Barnes. 


West Boylston, 
West Bridgewater, 


137 
285 


Frank H. Baldwin, agent Metropolitan 

Water Board. 
Warren P. Laughton 


Chas. H. Baldwin. 
Octave Belmore. 


West Brookfield, . 


128 


J. H. Webb 




West Newbury, 


226 


Silas M. Titcomb, P. 0. Byfield, . 


Robert J. Forsythe. 


West Springfield, . 


341 


A. A. Sibley 




West Stockbridge, 


20 






West Tisbury, 


307 


Wm. J. Rotch 


John Pease. 


Westborough, 
Westfield, 


133 
84 


James H. McDonald, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Geo. H. Byers, chief fire department, 
Arnold Street. 


Walter Sullivan. 



20 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Town or City. 


Badge 
No. 


Forest Warden, 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Westford, 


166 


John A. Healey, P. 0. Graniteville, 


Harry L. Nesmith. 


VVesthampton, 


71 


Levi Burt 


- 


Westminster, 


154 


John C. Goodridge, chief fire depart- 
ment. 

Edward P. Ripley, 


Stillman Whitney. 


Weston, 


186 


Edw. P. Ripley. 


West port, 


279 


Herbert A. Sanford, .... 


Jonathan B. Hicks. 


Westwood, 


251 


Percy R. Dean, 


C. H. Southerland. 


Weymouth, . 


245 


J. R. Walsh, East Weymouth, 


Chas. L. Merritt. 


Whately, 


56 


James A. Wood, 




Whitman, 


297 


Clarence A. Randall, tree warden, . 


Clarence A. Randall. 


Wilbraham, . 


96 


Henry I. Edson, P. 0. North Wilbraham, 


- 


Williamsburg, 


64 


Howard C. Pomeroy, .... 


- 


Williamstown, 


2 


Daniel Hogan, 


- 


Wilmington, . 
Winchendon, 


174 
103 


Joseph M. Hill, chief fire department. 

North Wilmington. 
Arthur L. Brown, chief fire department, . 


Oliver McGrane. 
John G. Folsom. 


Winchester, . 


189 


Irving L. Symmes, chief fire department. 


Samuel S. Symmes. 


Windsor, 


12 


H. W. Ford, 


- 


Winthrop,* . 






Frank W. Tucker. 


Woburn, 


177 


Frank E. Tracy, chief fire department, . 


James H. Kelley. 


Worcester, 


131 


Arthur V. Parker 


Harold J. Neale. 


Worthington, 


62 


Howard C. Brewster, .... 




Wrentham, . 


260 


E. S. Stone, captain fire department. 


Wm. M. Gilmore. 


Yarmouth, . 


316 


Seth Taylor, 


Chas. R. Bassett. 



» No forest area. 



ITew Legislation. 

The following new legislation, relative to forestry matters, 
was enacted by the last General Court. 

As the liberation of fire balloons during seasons of drought 
has been the cause of several extremely damaging forest fires 
during the past few years, and as their continued use would be a 
constant menace to property in the future, it seemed imperative 
that legislation should be enacted which would eliminate this 
danger. The following law was therefore passed : — 



A view of the State Forester's exhibit on the better farming electric train. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



21 



Acts of 1910, Chapter 141. 
An Act to prohibit the Use of Fire Balloons. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

It shall be unlawful within any city or town in this commonwealth 
for any person to liberate or fly fire balloons of any description. Who- 
ever violates this act shall be punished by a fine of not more than one 
hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for not more than one month, or 
by both such fine and imprisonment. [Approved March 2, 1910. 

The enactment of the following law will undoubtedly result 
in lessening the number and size of forest fires, by stimulating 
a desire on the part of many towns to adopt reasonable preven- 
tive measures, and to provide proper apparatus to extinguish 
fires when they do occur. This law is dealt with more in detail 
in the chapter devoted to forest fires. 

Acts of 1910, Chapter 398. 
An Act relative to Protection against Forest Fires. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Every town in the commonwealth with a valuation of one 
million five hundred thousand dollars or less which appropriates and 
expends money, with the approval of the state forester, for apparatus 
to be used in preventing or extinguishing forest fires or for making 
protective belts or zones as a defence against forest fires, shall be enti- 
tled, upon the recommendation of the state forester, approved by the 
governor, to receive from the treasury of the commonwealth a sum 
equal to one half of the said expenditure, but no town shall receive more 
than two hundred and fifty dollars. 

Section 2. A sum not exceeding five thousand dollars in any one 
year may be expended in carrying out the provisions of this act. 

Section 3. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
April 13, 1910. 

So numerous have been forest fires in Barnstable and Plym- 
outh counties within the past few years, the cause of which in 
many cases has been attributed to the carelessness and indiffer- 
ence of berrj pickers and camping parties, that many prominent 
citizens of those counties petitioned for legislation which, if 
properly enforced, would serve to lessen the danger of fire from 
the above-named source. The following law was therefore 
enacted : — 



22 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Acts of 1910, Chapter 478. 
An Act relative to the Picking of Berries and Flowers and to 
Camping and Picnicking during Certain Months in the Coun- 
ties of Barnstable and Plymouth. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any unnaturalized, foreign-born 
person to pick wild berries or flowers, or to camp or picnic, upon any 
land of which he is not the owner, within the counties of Barnstable and 
Plymouth, between the first day of April and the first day of December, 
without first obtaining written permission so to do from the owner or 
owners of the land. The said written permit shall not be transferable, 
and shall be exhibited upon demand to the forest warden, or his depu- 
ties, of the town wherein the land is located, or upon demand of any 
sheriff, constable, police officer or other officer authorized to arrest for 
crime. Failure or refusal to produce said permit upon such demand 
shall be prima facie evidence of a violation of this act, and any forest 
warden or any duly authorized deputy forest warden, police officer, 
sheriff or other officer authorized to arrest for crime, may arrest with- 
out warrant any person who fails or refuses to display for inspection 
the said permit upon the demand of any of the officials named in this 
act. 

Section 2. Whoever violates any provision of this act shall be pun- 
ished by a fine of not more than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment for 
not more than thirty days, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 
[Approved May 3, 1910. 

In response to the suggestion made by Governor Draper in 
his inaugural address, as well as the recommendation contained 
in the annual report of the State Forester, the law relative to 
the suppression of the gypsy and brown-tail moths was so 
amended as to make the office of local moth superintendent 
appointive rather than elective, and the appointees subject to 
the approval of the State Forester. The object of this legis- 
lation was to insure the appointment of thoroughly competent 
men to have charge of this important work in the cities and 
towns of the Commonwealth. The amendment was as fol- 
lows : — 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



23 



Acts of 1910, Chapter 150. 
An Act relative to the Appointment of Local Superintendents 

FOR THE SuPPRilSSION OF THE GyPSY AND BrOWN TaIL MotHS. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. Section four of chapter three hundred and eighty-one 
of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and five, as amended by section 
two of chapter two hundred and sixty-eight of the acts of the year nine- 
teen hundred and six, and by section one of chapter five hundred and 
twenty-one of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven, is hereby 
further amended by striking out at the beginning thereof, the words 

Cities and towns by such public officer or board as they shall designate 
or appoint, shall under the advice and general direction of said super- 
intendent and inserting in place thereof the Avords : — The mayor 
and aldermen in cities and the selectmen in towns shall annually in the 
month of March or April appoint a local superintendent for the sup- 
pression of gypsy and brown tail moths. Said superintendent shalu 
under the advice and general direction of the state forester, — also by 
inserting after the word " herein in the eighth line, the words : — 
The appointment of a local superintendent shall not take effect unless 
approved by the state forester, and when so approved, notice of the 
appointment shall be given by the mayor and aldermen or the selectmen 
to the person so appointed, — so that the first paragraph of said section 
as amended will read as follows : -— Section 4. The mayor and aldermen 
in cities and the selectmen in towns shall annually in the month of 
March or April appoint a local superintendent for the suppression of 
gypsy and brown tail moths. Said superintendents shall, under the 
advice and general direction of the state forester, destroy the eggs, cater- 
pillars, pupae and nests of the gypsy and brown tail moths within their 
limits, except in parks and other property under the control of the com- 
monwealth, and except in private property, save as otherwise provided 
herein. The appointment of a local superintendent shall not take effect 
unless approved by the state forester, and when so approved, notice of 
the appointment shall be given by the mayor and aldermen or the select- 
men to the person so appointed. When any city or town shall have 
expended within its limits city or town funds to an amount in excess 
of five thousand dollars in any one fiscal year, in suppressing gypsy 
or brown tail moths, the commonwealth shall reimburse such city or 
town to the extent of fifty per cent of such excess above said five thou- 
sand dollars. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 2, 1910. 

In order to legalize the acceptance by the State Forester, on 
behalf of the Commonwealth, of bequests or gifts made for the 



24 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



purpose of promoting forestry in Massachusetts, the following 
law was enacted : — 

Acts of 1910, Chapter 153. 

An Act to authorize the State Forester to accept Bequests or 
Gifts on Behalf of the Commonwealth. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The state forester, with the approval of the governor and 
council, is hereby authorized to accept, on behalf of the commonwealth, 
bequests or gifts to be used for the purpose of advancing the forestry 
interests of the commonwealth, under the direction of the governor and 
council, in such manner as to carry out the terms of the bequest or gift. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 3, 19.10. 

An act was passed to provide funds for carrying on the gypsy 
and brown-tail moth work, and for experimenting with parasites 
for destroying said moths, as follows : — 

Acts of 1910, Chapter 234. 
An Act making Appropriations for the Suppression of the Gypsy 
AND Brown Tail Moths. 

Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The sums hereinafter mentioned are appropriated, to be 
paid out of the treasury of the commonwealth from the ordinary reve- 
nue, for the purposes specified, to wit : — 

For the suppression of the gypsy and brown tail moths in the year 
nineteen hundred and ten, and for expenses incidental thereto, a sum 
not exceeding one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, the same to be in 
addition to any amount heretofore appropriated for this purpose. 

For experimenting with parasites or natural enemies for destroying 
said moths, and for expenses incident thereto, a sum not exceeding fif- 
teen thousand dollars, in addition to any unexpended balance of a for- 
mer appropriation for this purpose. 

Section 2. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved 
March 18, 1910. 

Acknowledgments. 
It gives the State Forester great pleasure to acknowledge the 
continued valuable services and loyal support which he has re- 
ceived through his assistants and workers in this department, 
whether it be in the office or field work, throughout the year. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



25 



The work on the part of all has been enthusiastically and will- 
ingly undertaken. All of the members of the staff are entitled 
to the greatest possible credit for their efficient services. 

He also desires to express his great appreciation of the gener- 
ous treatment and kindly assistance rendered him by all citizens, 
boards and officials with whom he has come in contact, and again 
to emphasize the kindly co-operation on the part of the United 
States government through Dr. L. 0. Howard of the Bureau of 
Entomology and Mr. D. M. Eogers, field agent ; also of Harvard 
University, through Dean W. C. Sabine and the departments 
represented on the co-operative scientific staff. 

Steam Raileoad " Farmiistg Special ''^ Traits. 

The needs of better farming methods and a much greater pro- 
duction from farming lands are receiving much attention all 
over this country. Here in our own State this feeling has been 
materially augmented during the past year through the earnest 
endeavors of the State Forester, the State Board of Agriculture 
and the Massachusetts Agricultural College, aided by the Boston 
& Albany Railroad, to exploit the opportunities that exist for 
land owners of the Old Bay State. In line with this movement, 
the Boston & Albany Railroad ran a " Better Farming Special " 
over its road March 30 and 31 and April 1 and 2, consisting of 
five observation cars, fully equipped with exhibits representing 
every branch of agriculture and forestry. 

The ^' Better Farming Special " visited the following cities 
and towns : — 

W ednesday, March 30. — Westfield ; Pittsfield ; Cheshire ; North 
Adams. 

Thursday, March 31. — Chester; Springfield; Enfield; New Salem; 
Athol. 

Friday, April 1. — Templeton; Barre Plains; Ware; Palmer; East 
Brookfield. 

Saturday, April 2. — Worcester ; Westborough ; South Framingham ; 
Milford. 

At each place the special was met by hundreds of farmers, who 
in many instances had driven miles to enjoy the privilege of 



26 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



listening to tlae lectures on the many themes relating to farming, 
as given by the representatives of the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College and the State Board of Agriculture; also, the develop- 
ment of forestry and the work of suppressing the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths, as presented by the State Forester and his 
assistants. At some of the stations were gathered whole schools, 
in charge of their teachers, and great interest was shown by them 
in both the lectures and the exhibits. 

One entire car was devoted to forestry, under the direction 
of the State Forester, and included in the exhibits were the fol- 
lowing : — 

Pine seedhngs, varying in age from one to three years. 
Photographs showing modern and approved methods of forestry 
management and reforestation work. 

Photographs showing fires, and damage done by same. 
Complete equipment for forest-fire fighting. 
Living gypsy moth caterpillars. 
Living brown-tail moth caterpillars. 

Mounted specimens showing the life history of the gypsy and brown- 
tail moths. 

A large collection of parasites, such as have been imported from 
abroad. 

Living Calosoma beetles. 

Several species of native predaceous beetles of the gypsy moth. 
Photographs showing different methods used in moth-suppression 
work. 

Photographs of apparatus used in moth-suppression work. 
Trees showing the proper method of treating cavities by tin patching. 
Oak tree, showing brown-tail moth webs in their winter stage. 
Living egg parasites. 

Specimens of many other insects of economic importance. 

The forest-fire wagon, designed and equipped under the 
direction of the State Forester, attracted much attention and 
received favorable comment from scores of town officials, who 
manifested a great deal of interest in the forest-fire problem. 
Another feature of the State Forester's exhibit which created 
widespread interest was the living specimens of the gypsy and 
brown-tail moth caterpillars, which gave to hundreds of people 
their first opportunity to see these dangerous insect pests. 

Evening meetings were held at l^orth Adams, Athol and 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



27 



Worcester, and large and enthusiastic audiences were addressed 
by leading men on agricultural and allied topics. 

The enterprise from start to finish was declared a pronounced 
success, and without doubt proved to be a valuable factor in 
stimulating and advancing the farming and forestry interests 
of Massachusetts. 

Electric Railroad " Farming Special " Train. 

So marked was the value of the exhibition to the farming in- 
terests of the territory traversed by the Boston & Albany special 
that the officials of the InTcw England Investment and Security 
Company, which controls between nine hundred and one thou- 
sand miles of trolley lines in western Massachusetts, immediately 
tendered the Agricultural College and State department, with- 
out expense, every facility and convenience which they had to 
offer in running a trolley special over their lines in sections of 
the State not covered by the former trip. 

In accordance with this plan, on April 14 four cars, equipped 
in practically the same manner as those of the Boston & Albany 
special, left Amherst on a three-days tour of education. The 
itinerary was as follows : — 

Thursday, April 14. — South Hadley; Russell; Huntington; Spring- 
field. 

Friday, April 15. — North Wilbraham; Brimfield; Sturbridge; Charl- 
ton Center. 

Saturday, April 16. — Oxford; Holden; Sterling; Worcester. 

Much enthusiasm and interest greeted the special at every 
stop. At South Hadley nearly three hundred students of Mt. 
Holyoke College attended the demonstrations and enjoyed the 
lectures. 

A splendid agricultural rally was held at Springfield on the 
evening of the 14th, under the auspices of the Springfield Board 
of Trade, where over five hundred business men listened to an 
address by President Butterfield of the Massachusetts Agricul- 
tural College, in which he impressed upon them the importance 
of co-operation in advancing the interests of commercial farming 
in our State. 



28 . THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan, 

This was undoubtedly the first trolley " farming special " 
ever attempted in this country, and its success proves that a 
grand service can by this means be rendered agricultural educa- 
tion in the future. 

Publications of the State Eorester. 

It has been the aim of the office to publish as rapidly as pos- 
sible such information as our people desire regarding forestry in 
its various phases. As requests came in, the department has 
anticipated the requirements, and has w^ritten bulletins v^hich 
give in a practical and v^orkable v^ay detailed information, 
so that our people v^ill not lack for guidance in actually accom- 
plishing something, if they are so inclined. » 

At present vre have a list of bulletins which cover fairly well 
the general information most likely to be required. By being 
able to furnish a bulletin which goes more into detail than is pos- 
sible in a letter, the State Forester can do himself great justice. 

We do not attempt sending out the whole list of bulletins 
unless specially requested to do so, or unless we feel sure that 
they are likely to be appreciated and used. The department has 
a mailing list of about 3,000 names of those who have shown 
some special interest in forestry. The mailing list is revised 
occasionally by writing and asking if the bulletins are still 
desired. 

Two publications issued by the State Forester were so eagerly 
sought after that the Legislature believed it advisable that they 
be sold at cost; hence they are the only exceptions in the list. 
These are especially valuable in the identification of trees and 
in school work. The list of publications of the department 
follows : — 

*1. Forest Trees of Massachusetts: how you may know them. A 

Pocket Manual. 
*2. The Study of Trees in our Primary Schools. 

3. Massachusetts Wood-using Industries. 

4. The Evergreens. Methods of Study in Public Schools. 

5. Re-forestation in Massachusetts. 

6. How and when to collect White Pine Seed. 

7. Forest mensuration of the White Pine. How to estimate Standing- 

Timber. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



8. How to make Improvement Thinnings. 

9. We must stop Forest Fires in Massachusetts. 

10. Forest fire-fighting Equipment in our Towns. 

11. The Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 

12. The Annual Report of the State Forester. 

13. Laws relating to Forestry, and the Suppression of the Gypsy and 

Brown-tail Moths. 

14. Colored Plates of the Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths and Calosoma 

Beetle. 

15. Suggestions in Regard to Municipal Forests: a Practical Example. 

[Note. — Under the resolves authorizing their publication, the two 
bulletins marked * must be sold by the State Forester at a price not less 
than their cost. Thus, the price of " Forest Trees of Massachusetts : 
how you may know them,^' is 5 cents a copy at the office, 6 Beacon 
Street, Boston, or 2 cents extra by mail ; and of The Study of Trees 
in our Primary Schools," 12 cents a copy, or 8 cents extra by mail. 
Any other bulletins in the list may be obtained at the office, or will be 
mailed upon request without cost.] 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



ExAMIN^ATIONS OF WoODLAND. 

The examination of private woodland for owners requesting 
such examination, one of the oldest branches of our work, has 
been carried on as in former years, and the even distribution 
over the whole year of the applications for such examinations, 
without extra solicitation on the part of this office, seems to 
indicate a steady and healthy interest on the part of the owners 
of this class of land. The work, as was explained last year, 
consists usually of a visit to the land in company with the owner 
or some other interested person, advice as to treatment given 
verbally on the ground, and often a subsequent written report. 

This year an attempt has been made to keep in closer touch 
with examinees and the manner in which the recommendations 
of the office are carried out, by making a personal inspection, 
usually at a time when in the locality on other business. In 
this way owners were made to feel that an interest was being 
taken in their work, and in every case the office has felt well 
repaid by the results. 

It has not been possible to make such inspections in large 
numbers, partly because the work was not begun till well along 
in the year, and partly because only those owners are visited 
where it is felt that enough time has elapsed to make the visit 
profitable. Enough has been done, however, to prove the advan- 
tages of the plan, and it is intended to push the work steadily 
during the coming season. 

The following table gives a list of the examinations made, 
their location and area. A table of costs will be found at the 
end of this section of the report. 



34 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Owner. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Allen, P. R 


Walpole, .... 


5 


Bent, F. E., 


Sudbury, .... 


30 


Borden, N. E 


South Framingham, . 


60 


Boston & Northern Street Railway, 


Groveland 


38 




Somerset, .... 


13 




Attleborough, 


100 




Hopkinton, 


116 


Chandler, J. F 


Tyngsborough, . 


10 






40 




Tyngsborough, . 


10 


Gushing, J. S., 


Norwood, .... 




Dewar, D. W., 


Carlisle, .... 


40 


Eddy, Mary B., . 


Newton 


10 




Norwood, .... 


100 


Fitchburg Water Board, 


Westminster and Fitchburg, 


400 


Forrest, W. P., 


Foxborough, 


22 


Fowle, D. H., 




30 


Fuller, W. A., .... 


Clinton 


49 


Fuller, W. A 




107 


Fuller, W. A., ... 


Bolton, .... 


128 


Gerrish, Isabel F., 


Ashland, .... 


47 ' 


Green, F. C., 


Bourne and Plymouth, 


400 


Harriman, C. S 


North Wilmington, 


4 


Holmes, E. B., 


Abington, .... 


30 


Home, W. N., 


Foxborough, 


32 


Hunnewell, H. H. , 


Natick, .... 


250 


Jones, J. L 


Halifax, .... 


1,400 


Lawrence, I. P., 


Ashburnham, 


200 


Mahoney, T. J 




K 


Main, F. H., 


Lanesborough, . . 


200 


Manning, W., 


Marion, .... 


400 


Massachusetts Agricultural College, branch farm, 


Sandwich 


20 


Minns, Susan, 


Princeton, .... 


127 




Wareham, .... 


50 






20 


Nelson, H. W 


Marshfield, .... 


45 


Pickman, D. L., ....... 


rJediora, .... 


Ann 






800 


Sawyer, A. H., 




30 




Tyngsborough, . 


30 



191 1 .] PUBLIC [DOCUMENT — No. 73. 35 



Owner. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Seavey, H 


Canton, .... 


125 


Simmons, H. F 


Hanover, .... 


10 


Stevens, E, A 


Duxbury, .... 


40 


Stevens, H. H 


Marlborough, 


30 


Tenney, C. H., 


Methuen 


75 


Tracy, Harriet E., 


Peru, 


175 


Webber, F. S., 


South Hadley, . 


10 


White, J. H., 


Bridgewater, 


25 


Waiets, H., 


New Marlborough, 


200 


Total 




6,495 



In all, 17 inspections have been made, with an aggregate area 
of 1,080 acres : — 



OWNEB. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Bird, C. S., 




60 


Bridgman, H. A., 


Shirley, .... 


15 




Fitchburg, . , . . 


400 






50 


Codman, Catherine, 


Dedham, .... 


18 




West Newbury, . 


55 


Fisher, Lewis N 




7 






200 


Holmes, E. B 




30 


Hutchins, C. L 




25 




Oxford 


100 






5 


Plympton, Mrs. A. L 




10 


Prescott, C. W., 




60 




Sudbury, .... 


5 


Thorndike, R. K., 


MiUis 


20 




Walpole, .... 


20 



Woodland 'Management. 
The forestry department wishes to laj especial emphasis on 
another recent development of its work ; namely, management of 
private woodlands by the owner, under the continuous super- 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



vision of this office. Under this plan, several private owners 
are this winter carrying on regular thinning improvement cut- 
ting, fire-line making and other forestry operations, under the 
more or less regular instruction and general supervision of a 
forestry assistant. 

In one instance, that of the Burbank Hospital, treated more 
fully elsewhere, a regular lumbering operation was completed. 

In any case the plan is doubly advantageous, both to the 
owner and the office, in that it is made possible for such owners 
to employ the same men used by the reforestation department in 
its spring planting, thus getting the profit of experienced labor 
at the same price that would have to be paid for inferior work- 
men ; while at the same time the office is pleased to offer its men 
continuous employment, instead of losing all trace of them im- 
mediately at the close of the planting season. The owner, of 
course, pays all cost of the work, including travelling expenses 
of the expert from this office, the assistance only being given 
free. 

In addition to the advantages already indicated, there is the 
far-reaching one of having within the State an ever-increasing 
number of men, and more particularly of competent bosses, who 
understand not only woods work but woods work along practical 
forestry lines ; this body of men to act as a nucleus around which 
to build up an effective force for carrying out the many and 
increasingly difficult forestry problems which are pressing for 
immediate solution. 

Owners and towns where the work described above either is or 
soon will be under way are as follows : — 

R. B. Symmington, Plymouth, has thinned about 5Q acres. 
Francis C. Green, Buzzard's Bay, will make fire lines, thin and pos- 
sibly plant. 

Frederick W. Burnham, Buekland, is clear-cutting and thinning about 
50 acres; will later turn over to State to plant. 

I. P. Lawrence, Ashburnham, is planting 25 acres and may do some 
thinning. 

It is hoped that in future we may be able to report a still 
further increase in this work, and one in keeping with its 
importance. 



Pine trees left standing for reseeding purposes, on the Burbank 
Hospital property, at Fitchburg. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



37 



Forest Working PLAi^r for the Burbai^k Hospital. 

A year ago last spring the trustees of the Burbank Hospital 
asked this office to examine 250 acres of woodland belonging 
to the hospital. Mr. Cook, the assistant forester who made the 
examination, was greatly impressed with the evidence of present 
and future value in the land, and convinced the trustees that 
they should have a working plan made for the place. This was 
done in the fall of the same year. In this plan each type of 
land was carefully mapped out, and the treatment to be accorded 
each type was explained. In general, the report recommended 
the cutting of mature growth, the thinning and improving of 
growing stands, and the planting of such vacant land as was not 
needed for pasturing cattle. 

Three lots were selected for immediate cutting. The first 
was covered with a growth of mixed hard woods, — chestnut, 
birch, pine, beech, oak, maple and hemlock. From the standpoint 
of merchantable volume, chestnut and white pine were the most 
prominent trees, and ranged in size from 7 to 25 inches, the 
average being from 12 to 16 inches. The plan for cutting 
called for the removal of all trees over 7 inches in diameter, 
breast high, except a few pines which were to be left to seed 
the cut-over land. The merchantable trees were to be left un- 
injured as far as possible, limbs and tops were to be worked up 
into cord wood, and the rest of the slash piled and burned. 
Practically all the chestnut, oak, pine, birch and hemlock trees 
were of merchantable size, whereas the maple and beech were 
very generally below it. The reason for selecting this lot for 
immediate cutting was that it had been more or less severely 
injured by fire in past years, and it was feared that the trees 
were slowly dying. 

The second lot was 4 acres of heavy white pine, nearly pure. 
The trees averaged 15 inches in diameter, breast high, and 70 
feet in height. It was estimated to run 35,000 feet to the acre, 
but turned out to contain much more. This lot was cut clean, 
with the exception of a few of the large, limby trees, which were 
left to seed the cut-over land. About 8 trees to the acre, and 
placed as evenly as possible over the cut area, were selected for 
this purpose. The spreading, bushy specimens were selected as 



38 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



seed trees, because they produce the most seed and at the same 
time are the least valuable as lumber. Here, as on the other lot, 
the slash was piled and burned. 

The third bunch of timber covered only 1% acres, and was 
made up almost entirely of sprout chestnut. This lot was 
selected because the trees were over-mature, had decayed butts 
and were going back. 

The method of handling this work, as agreed upon by Dr. 
Tower, superintendent of the hospital, and Mr. Cook, was 
briefly as follows : — 

The chopping was to be done under the direct supervision of 
this office, and Mr. Winifred Eaton, one of our most trusted 
employees, was made foreman of the chopping gang. This 
arrangement was made because it was felt that the ordinary 
choppers could not be depended on to carry out the provisions 
of the working plan. This office looked on the job as an ex- 
periment in conservative logging, and was therefore anxious 
that everything be done in good faith. The sawing and sticking 
was done under contract by a Mr. Spencer, a portable-mill man. 
The hauling of the logs was done by the men and horses belong- 
ing to the hospital farm. Partly because these men were not 
experienced in this work, and partly because they had to pile 
the logs on skids, to remain until the mill was set up, the cost 
of logging was higher than is usual in this kind of work. 

The following table shows the cost of the above operation : — 



Operation. 


Total. 


Per 1,000 Feet. 


Camp, material and tools, 


$59 


50 


$0 


19 




15 


70 




05 




12 


00 




04 


Chopping 95 cords pine, at 90 cents per cord, .... 


85 


50 




901 


Chopping 110 cords hard woods, at $1.10 per cord, . 


121 


00 


1 


101 


Lumber, 303,000 feet, 


463 


50 


1 


53 




695 


75 


2 


30 




47 


60 




16 




888 


70 


2 


93 




$2,182 75 


$7 20 



1 Per cord. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 39 



The total product was made up of both timber logs (303,000 
feet) and cord wood (205 cords). In order to get at the cost 
of chopping the lumber, we deducted the value of the cord wood 
chopping, allowing 90 cents for each of the 95 cords of pine 
and $1.10 for each of the 110 cords of hard wood, these being 
the prices current for that work in that vicinity. The cost of 
chopping is somewhat higher than the average for that kind of 
work, — approximately 30 cents per 1,000 feet more ; but the 
most of this difference can be laid to the labor of piling 
the brush for burning, and some to necessity for caring for the 
smaller trees. 

Owing to 'the fact that a large number of timber lots were 
cut off in the neighborhood of Fitchburg last winter, the lum- 
ber market there experienced a slump, so that the hospital 
superintendent was unable to dispose of his supply at a price 
equal to what we had hoped for. For the 175,000 feet of 
round-edge pine he received $15 per 1,000 feet as it lay stacked 
on the lot; for the 53,000 feet of square-edge pine, $21; and 
for the 75,000 feet of mixed hard woods, only $14. The 
gross returns were $4,788, — an average price of $15.80 per 
1,000 feet. Deducting from this amount $2,182, the cost of log- 
ging, sawing, etc., the net returns were $2,606, or $8.60 per 
1,000 feet. This sum is somewhat more than they would have 
received had they sold the stumpage outright to a lumberman, 
because an offer of $8 per 1,000 feet was made for it. Also, 
under such circumstances the cutting would have been carried 
out without any regard for the future of the land, and the slash 
left in such a condition that a bad fire would have been un- 
avoidable. We should estimate that the total extra cost of 
disposing of the slash on this job was about 40 cents per 1,000 
feet of lumber cut. 

MARKmG FOR Gypsy Moth Thini^ing. 
In addition to examinations for private owners, and the 
marking entailed thereby, the work of the forestry assistants 
was extended over numerous areas in the eastern section of the 
State for thinning done by the gypsy moth employees. It was 
felt that the men, after cutting an area so marked, would soon 



40 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



be able to combine a working knowledge of forestry methods 
with their already excellent acquaintance with gypsy moth 
requirements. 

A total area of about 490 acres was marked for this sort of 
thinning, about 425 acres of which lay on the north shore of 
Massachusetts Bay, in the towns of Beverly, Manchester, 
Gloucester, Wenham and Essex. About one-half of the cut- 
ting done on the north shore was marked for by the forestry 
assistants, and it is now felt that the men are quite familiar 
with their methods of work. 

Other localities in which marking was done or advice given 
were Tyngsborough, Tewksbury, Wareham, Hingham, Mashpee 
and Newton. In the latter place, where a particular effort 
was made to sell the cord wood product, the amount realized 
not only paid the cost of cutting, but also of cleaning up the 
brush, leaving a slight margin of profit. 

Surveying. 

Considerable surveying has been done by the forestry de- 
partment during the year, including nearly all the unsurveyed 
lots taken under the reforestation act. These lots, by towns, 
are as follows: Buckland, 165 acres; Wellfleet, 52 acres; Har- 
wich, 14 acres; Peru, 80 acres; Colrain, 12 acres; Oakham, 
100 acres ; a total of 449 acres. 

Maps have been or are being made for all these lots. Besides 
this ordinary surveying and mapping, one topographic and 
forest map (in colors) has been made of a tract of land taken 
by the State under the reforestation act, and planted and 
managed by this office, known as the Lowe farm. This land 
lies in Colrain, has an area of 580 acres, and is the largest of 
the State plantations. 

Reforestation Work. 
The reforestation work has been carried on this year under 
the policy already established, and gives great promise of awak- 
ening the interest of mill owners, lumbermen and land ovmers 
to the necessity of replanting cut-over and waste lands. The 
lots planted last year, after being inspected this fall in some 
cases show as high as 97 per cent, of healthy growing trees, and 




A portable steel shack, — one of those in use by the State Forester's department. Size, 
ten by twelve feet; capable of handling twelve men. 




The State Forester's nursery at Amherst. White pine transplants in the foreground. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



41 



in no case has more than 40 per cent, died out. Even at this 
early date some of these lots have started to fill their mission of 
demonstrating, and influencing land owners to undertake forest 
planting. One party not owning land suitable for reforestation 
bought over 200 acres of cheap waste land, and intends plant- 
ing it in the coming spring. Another party, owning 50 acres of 
run-out pasture land, became interested through looking over 
one of these plantations where young pine had been planted on 
land similar to his own. Many other parties, becoming inter- 
ested, set out smaller areas. 

Deeds for 921 acres have been recorded and the land planted 
last spring. In order to carry on the work, five galvanized-iron 
shacks were constructed, which will accommodate from eight to 
ten men, these shacks enabling the men to live on the lot during 
the planting season, and doing away with the necessity of trans- 
porting the men to and from work, as had been the case when 
the lot was a number of miles from any town. The average cost 
of planting was brought to a slightly lower cost through the use 
of these shacks and other economical methods. 



State Plantations, 1910. 



Town. 


Acres. 


Type of Land. 


Variety planted. 


Colrain, 


80 


Run-out pasture. 


Norway spruce. 


Colrain, 


80 


Run-out pasture, 


Norway spruce. 


Belchertown, 


10 


Run-out pasture, 


White pine. 


Colrain, 


169 


Run-out pasture. 


White pine. 


Colrain, 


52 


Run-out pasture. 


Norway spruce. 


Sandwich, . 


38 


Burnt-over land. 


Pitch and Scotch pine and Nor- 


Peru, .... 






way spruce. 


68 


Run-out pasture. 


Norway spruce and white pine. 


Peru 


12 


Run-out pasture, 


Norway spruce and white pine. 


Shirley, 


14 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, 


100 


Cut^over land, . 


White pine. 


Spencer, 


14 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Paxton, 


54 


Cut-over land. . 


White pine. 


Brookfield, . 


70 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Oakham, 


100 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


West Brookfield, . 


30 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Carlisle, 


30 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Total area, . 


921 







42 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Planting done under Advice of State Forester. 



Name. 


Town. 


Variety. 


No. of Trees. 


Amherst Water Company, 


Amherst, 


White pine, 


15,000 


N. D. BUI 


South Worthington, 


White pine, . 


300,000 


Needham Water Company, . 


Needham, 


White pine, 


5,000 


Leominster Water Company, 


Leominster, . 


White pine. 


7,000 


Long Island Almshouse, 


Long Island, . 


White pine, 


45,000 




Oxford, . 


Norway spruce, 


5,000 


Brown Bros, and John Folsom, 


Winchendon, . 


White pine. 


150,000 


Fred Barclay 


Spencer, . 


White pine. 


20,000 




Ashburnham, 


White pine. 


20,000 


Wo 1 tor Plarlr 


Paxton, . . . 


^^hite pine, 


10 000 


State Colony for Insane, 


East Gardner, 


White pine. 


14,000 


Faunce demonstration farm, 


Sandwich, 


White pine, etc.. 


500 


W. R. Rich 


Truro, . 


Pitch pine. 


1,000 


F. P. Stratton, .... 


Concord, 


Norway spruce. 


1,000 


Henry Pike, 


Paxton, . 


White pine. 


1.300 



Forest ISTursery. 
The State forest nursery at Amherst will have about 2,000,000 
two-jear-old v^hite pine seedlings fit for planting next spring. 
A large part of them should be transplanted in the nursery, 
if arrangement can be made for sufficient ground. Last spring 
we were able to use about 900,000 in the reforestation work, 
and transplanted at the nursery 250,000, that we might have 
trees which when planted in the most exposed places will grow 
sucessfully. We have also a good stand of one-year-old white 
pine and E'orway spruce. The following table gives the esti- 
mated stock on hand at the nursery : — 





Variety. 


Age (Years). 


No. of Trees. 




2 


2,000,000 




1 


2,500,000 




2 


25,000 




1 


25,000 




2 


5,000 




1 


20.000 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



43 



Vaeiety. 


Age (Years). 


No. of Trees. 


Scotcii pin© s66ciliiisS) 


1 


40,000 




1 


500,000 


IBSflsBtiii fir S66clliiigs 


2 


5,000 




2 


5,000 


Red spruce seedlings, 


2 


2,000 




1 


20,000 


Catalpa speciosa seedlings, 


1 


5,000 


Total, 




5,152,000 




Variety. 


Age (Years). 


No. of Trees. 


White pine transplants, 


4 


25,000 




3 


250,000 


Norway spruce transplants, 


3 


25,000 


Black locust transplants, 


2 


2,000 




2 


2,000 


Total 




304,000 



Since the planting of last spring, the large number of appli- 
cations by land owners to reforest tbeir waste land under the 
reforestation act make it plain that it will be impossible to 
replant all the land which would be turned over to the State, 
unless the present limited appropriation is increased. At this 
time last year only about 500 acres of land had been offered 
under the act, the balance for last spring's work being taken 
over during the winter; this year already over 1,200 acres 
have been offered. i^Tever before has such interest been taken 
in the work, and the outlook for the coming months is that 
many more tracts will be offered; and as under the present 
appropriation only about 1,000 acres can be planted, steps 
should be taken by the coming Legislature to meet the situation. 

Instruction in Planting. 
While the planting on State land occupies most of our atten- 
tion during the spring, to the partial exclusion of other work, 
an attempt was made last year to give practical assistance on 
the ground to owners inexperienced in forest planting, who 



44 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



were for the first time trying the experiment on a large scale. 
Advice of this nature was given to the following owners : — 

Faunce demonstration farm, Sandwich, set out 500 seedlings. 
Long- Island Hospital, Boston harbor, set out 45,000 seedlings. 
Fitchburg Water Board, Westminster, started a forest nursery. 
E. P. Joslin, Oxford, set out 5,000 seedhngs. 
Needham Water Board, Needham, set out 5,000 seedling-s. 
I. P. Lawrence, Ashburnham, set out 25,000 seedlings; also set out 
15,000 in a nursery. 

State Colony for Insane, Gardner, set out 14,000 seedlings. 

Reports from some of this work seem to indicate as good 
results as can be expected in the short time that has elapsed. 

The seedlings at Long Island are in good condition, and it 
only remains to be seen how they will endure the coming winter. 

The stock on the farm at Sandwich is in good shape, and it 
will be put to a rigid test this winter, having been planted as a 
windbreak against the heavy gales so prevalent on the Cape. 

Portable Steel Shacks. 

In the reforestation work of the past few years we have had 
difficulty in keeping the expense of planting uniform. There 
are many conditions that are accountable for it, such as the 
size and condition of the area, — as a larger tract can be han- 
dled more cheaply per acre than a smaller one; price of seed- 
lings, etc. ; but the greatest factor to be reckoned with has been 
the question of caring for the laborers. In some cases it was 
necessary to transport the men night and morning to and from 
the field, which was an extra expense. In order to overcome 
this, the department has constructed several portable steel 
shacks (see accompanying photograph), which are used to 
house and board the labor on the ground. These shacks were 
constructed in the State Forester's warehouse. The whole con- 
struction is of galvanized-iron sheets, which are held together 
with bolts and clasps. The only wooden parts are the door and 
two window sashes, one on each side. Twelve men can thus be 
accommodated. The following outline gives the size of the 
shack, equipment for setting it up, cooking utensils and plant- 
ing tools used in the work ; the approximate cost is also given. 

With this device the whole environment of the work is im- 



A natural seeding-in of pitch pine on the Cape, The land in the foreground is to be 
planted by the State Forester. 




The beginning of a nursery at East Sandwich, Cape Cod, 1910. Four-year-old white 
pine transplants on left, set last spring; seed boxes of Scotch and Austrian pine 
on right. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



45 



proved, and the results, from an economic standpoint, are far 
more satisfactory. These shacks are used only when the plant- 
ings are in a locality where it is difficult to get board and room 
for the men, or where the work is at a distance from boarding 
places. 

Cost of Steel Shack and Equipment. 
Shack. 

Size, 12 feet by 12 feet square ; height, 9 feet front, 7 feet 

back, I 

1 shding window on each side, I 

1 door in center of front, 

6 double bunks, 4 feet wide, 2 feet 4 inches between 
each, 

Equipment. 

1 cook stove, $5 00 

2 lanterns, 2 00 



1 kerosene can, 

1 hammer, axe and saw, 

1 pair wire cutters, 

2 shovels, 
1 chisel, 



25 
2 50 

45 
1 20 

75 



$12 15 



Cooking Utensils. 

1 large coffee pot, 

3 large kettles and covers, 

1 small kettle and cover, 

2 large frying pans, 

1 bean pot, 

3 large spoons, 

2 large knives, 

2 small knives, 

12 cups, plates, knives, forks and spoons, .... 

1 dipper, 

1 dish pan, 



$4 00 



Planting Tools. 



6 grub hoes, 
12 pails, 



$3 00 
2 50 



55 50 



1 chest for carrying equipment. 
The bedding is furnished by the men. 



Forest Fires of 1910. 
It is with considerable reluctance that each year we include 
in our annual report a chapter on this painful subject, — pain- 



46 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ful, because forest fires are the greatest obstacle to the advance- 
ment of practical forestry in this Commonwealth, and because 
they form one of the most difiicult problems with which we are 
obliged to deal; yet for these very reasons this chapter cannot 
be omitted from this book. 

The subject of forest fires has been most vividly presented 
to the people of the United States during the past summer by 
the disastrous fires which raged in the northwest. We in our 
little State cannot experience such enormous conflagrations as 
these; yet the fire demon each year lays its insidious claws on 
a valuable portion of our natural heritage. 

Last year 215 of the 354 towns and cities of the Common- 
wealth reported that they had 1,385 forest fires; 28, or 8.6 
per cent., said that they had none; and 92, or 27.7 per cent., 
failed to report. There are 18 towns and cities which have little 
or no forest land, and therefore do not appoint forest wardens. 
On account of the large number of towns not reporting, we 
may be sure that the figures which we have are very conserva- 
tive. The wardens reported that these fires damaged the wood- 
land to the extent of $205,383. As we have emphasized in our 
previous reports, the figures for money damage are very inade- 
quate, as many wardens will not report the damage, because 
they feel incapable of estimating it; and even when they try, 
they cannot set a value on the young growth killed and the 
gradual deterioration of the soil. In the cost of fighting fires, we 
have data which is not a matter of guesswork, although this is in- 
complete, because in towns and cities having an organized fire 
department, where the members are paid a regular salary, the 
cost of fighting woodland fires of course cannot be obtained. 
In 1905 the State Forester made a careful canvass of all the 
towns, and came to the conclusion that the annual cost of fight- 
ing fires was about $30,000. Our figures would seem to indicate 
that this conclusion was correct. When we spread this sum 
over the 300 towns in the State, it does not make a very large 
sum for each individual community; but it must be remem- 
bered that this expense is borne in large part by a few towns, 
and usually the poorest and least able to bear it. An annual 
bill of $1,000 for forest-fire fighting is a serious burden on a 
town whose entire yearly expenditure may not amount to more 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



than $15,000. This forest-fire menace is a two-edged sword, 
for, while it cuts its waj into the town treasury, it is at the 
same time destroying the property which supplies the revenue 
to that treasury. 

The present system of collecting fire reports in this ofiice was 
inaugurated three years ago, and we thought that it would give 
opportunity for an interesting study if the data for 1908, 1909 
and 1910 were placed side by side. Perhaps the most striking 
feature is the similarity in the totals for number of fires, acres 
burned and damage done. Looking at the table more closely, 
we find some interesting variations. For instance, the figures 
for March, 1910, greatly exceed those for March, 1908 and 
1909. Spring came early last year, and the season of spring 
fires was present sooner than usual. There were comparatively 
few fires during the summer, although it was accounted a dry 
one. On the Cape, where most of the summer fires occur, they 
had considerable rainfall during July and August. The drought 
in October is reflected in the fire data for that month. The 
October fires were very severe, in that they burned in the peat 
and humus, many of them for weeks, and only severe rains 
extinguished them. 

We find in the table of causes comparisons of more impor- 
tance and interest. We find, for instance, that the number of 
fires caused by the railroads has steadily decreased, and we 
feel that this represents real progress on their part, although 
plenty of room is left for improvement. The number of fires 
caused by the burning of brush materially increased, and this 
would seem to be a cause for disappointment, in view of the 
general adoption of the present law ; but owing to the provisions 
of this very law, which make it easier to place responsibility, 
it is the number of fires reported with this cause, and not the 
actual number of fires caused by burning brush, which have 
increased. 

Fires caused by the careless use of matches in the hands of 
boys, fishermen, hunters, berry pickers, etc., have been the 
cause of more concern during the past year than ever before. 
Although the number under this head is not large, there is no 
doubt that most of the fires labelled " Unknown " would be 
placed in this column if they could be traced out; so that we 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



feel sure that they cause as many fires as the railroads, and 
are more dangerous, because the smoke is everywhere, while 
the railroad fire is confined to a certain district, and can be 
more or less anticipated. The time has not arrived when we 
can get a sweeping injunction prohibiting all smoking in the 
woods; but there is no doubt that by the necessary gradual 
posting of all private land against trespassing this condition 
will come in time. 

As long as we have forest fires, there will be problems con- 
nected with them, and their solution will not come all at once ; 
but there are certain features which can and should have imme- 
diate attention. In the first place, the office should have the 
services of a man whose entire time can be spent on forest-fire 
work. An assistant or chief forest warden, so called, would find 
a very considerable portion of his time taken up in carrying out 
the provisions of the fire-equipment reimbursement act ; another 
portion would be well occupied in the collecting and listing of 
reports; and the remainder could be well used in visiting and 
assisting whatever forest wardens seemed to require such aid. 
If the Legislature should add to the authority of the State 
Forester other duties in the line of fighting fires and making 
arrests, this assistant would be a very busy man indeed. 



Forest Fires of 1910. 





Months. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Cost to put out. 


Xo. 


February, 


5 






2 




12,666 


$57,740 


$3,839 


438 


April, 


13,782 


68,867 


5,125 


413 


May, 


4,236 


13,957 


1,738 


116 




137 


980 


490 


23 


July, 


1,041 


6,509 


1,627 


76 


August, 


165 


1,275 


763 


44 




2,900 


15,035 


1,456 


25 




7,068 


40,064 


7,885 


196 


November 


107 


400 


427 


24 


No date given, .... 


114 


556 


125 


28 


Totals, . . . . 


42,221 


$205,383 


$23,475 


1,385 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 49 



Comparative Causes of Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 





Causes. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


No. 


Per Cent. 


No. 


Per Cent. 


No. 


Per Cent. 


Unknown, ...... 


314 


24.4 


360 


25.1 


413 


32.9 


Railroad, ...... 


494 


38.3 


497 


34.7 


362 


28.8 


Burning brush, 


119 


9.0 


149 


10.4 


203 


16.2 


Smokers, hunters, berry pickers, etc.. 


161 


12.0 


140 


9.7 


124 


9.9 


Steam saw-mills, .... 


12 


1.2 


5 


.5 


1 




Children, 


71 


6.0 


92 


6.4 


75 


5.9 


Miscellaneous, 


118 


9.1 


190 


13.2 


78 


6.2 


Too late for tabulation. 






63 




129 




Totals 


1,289 


100 


1,496 


100 


1,.385 


100 



Comparative Damages by Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 



Months. 


1908. 


1909. 


1910. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


January 






13 








February 






12 




5 




March, 


236 


$420 


1,577 


84,763 


12,666 


$57,740 


April, 


16,262 


52,731 


12,515 


72,195 


13,782 


68,867 


May, 


5,856 


48,506 


4,322 


38,080 


4,236 


13,957 


June, 


1,195 


17,824 


405 


11,870 


137 


980 


July 


6,109 


28,783 


11,992 


26,396 


1,041 


6,509 


August, 


1,567 


22,320 


1,940 


10,833 


165 


1,275 


September, .... 


1,062 


3,140 


1,092 


21,413 


2,900 


15,035 


October, . .... 


7,084 


29,960 


384 


1,805 


7,068 


40,064 


November, .... 


301 


1,468 


585 


612 


107 


400 


No date given 






246 


1,515 


114 


556 


Totals 


39,672 


$205,152 


35,083 


$189,482 


42,221 


$205,383 





Forest-fire Equipment. 

The Legislature last spring passed an act authorizing the 
State Treasurer to reimburse towns, having a valuation of one 
and a half millions or less, 50 per cent, of whatever sum they 
might spend for forest-fire-fighting equipment, provided this 
sum does not exceed $500, and provided also that the equip- 



50 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



ment purchased has the approval of the State Forester. As the 
law was not passed until after the time of the annual town meet- 
ings, only a few places have been able to avail themselves of its 
provisions, and but a small part of the appropriation of $5,000 
was therefore expended. This appropriation, however, is a 
continuing one, and the same sum will be available next year. 
It is expected that many towns will vote this spring to spend 
money for this purpose. Wardens and selectmen of 17 towns 
have already assured this office that they will urge the matter 
at the next annual meeting. The following table contains the 
names of the tovnis that have received reimbursement, the 
amount thereof, and the kind of equipment purchased : — 



Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement, 



Towns. 


Amount of 

Reim- 
bursement. 


Nature of Equipment. 


Ashland, 


S15 75 


Johnson pumps and pails. 


Boxford, 


45 60 


Chemical extinguishers. 


Dighton, 


58 67 


Extinguishers and cans. 


Georgetown, 


39 39 


Extinguishers, cans and shovels. 


Greenwich, 


25 95 


Chemical extinguishers. 


Hanson 


100 77 


Wagon and other equipment. 


Mashpee, 


34 55 


Extinguishers and shovels. 


Middleton, 


49 50 


Extinguishers. 


Norwell, 


50 00 


Extinguishers. 


Oakham 


138 00 


Extinguishers. 


Pembroke, 


203 75 


Wagon, extinguishers, etc. 


Phillipston, 


48 65 


Extinguishers. 


Prescott, 


48 16 


Extinguishers. 


Raynham , 


50 00 


Extinguishers. 


Westminster, 


55 91 


Extinguishers and cans. 


West Newbury, 


24 00 


Extinguishers. 



In addition to the above list, the towns of Bedford, Charlton, 
Hanson, North Reading, Tewksbury, Sterling, Sandwich and 
Wrentham have already purchased equipment, the reimburse- 
ment on which will amount to $1,600 ; but, as their accounts 
were not received before ISTovember 30, we were not able to list 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



51 



them in our table. All of these towns except Charlton purchased 
a full wagon equipment. 

In this connection it is pertinent for us to call attention to our 
two model forest-fire wagons. These were built by the State 
Forester in order that the officials of the towns wishing to pur- 
chase forest-fire equipment may see what we consider an ideal 
form of apparatus. The plan of this outfit was made up only 
after a careful study had been made of existing forest-fire appa- 
ratus in several towns. 

The larger wagon is intended for two horses, and costs, all 
equipped, about $450. The equipment consists of fourteen 
chemical extinguishers ; fourteen galvanized cans, each holding 
two extra charges of water and chemicals ; shovels ; rakes ; mat- 
tocks; and spare chemical charges. This equipment is carried 
in racks and cases, not only so that it will ride safely, but also 
so that it can be conveniently carried into the woods. Eight men 
can find accommodation on this wagon. 

The smaller wagon, drawn by one horse, has all the equip- 
ment of the larger, but less in amount. It will carry four men, 
and costs, all equipped, about $300. These two wagons were 
exhibited this fall at the Marshfield, Barnstable, Worcester, 
Clinton, Barre and Palmer fairs, where they attracted general 
interest. The l^ew Haven, Boston & Maine and 'New York 
Central railroads aided us in this exhibition work by transport- 
ing the wagons over their lines without charge. A small pam- 
phlet describing these wagons has been published by this office, 
and may be had on application. 

Forest-fire Deputies needed. 
The State Forester wishes to repeat what was suggested last 
year under this head : — 

The forest warden law has undoubtedly been tested far enough to be 
pronounced a success as another step in perfecting our organized efforts 
against forest fires. I now propose the idea of empowering the State 
Forester to appoint deputies at large to assist him. Many of our forest 
wardens need instruction and co-operation in getting their work well in 
hand. The best way to teach these men just how to accomplish results 
in fighting forest fires is to confer with them right on the ground, and 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



demonstrate what can be accomplished and how it can be done. There 
are experienced men whom the State Forester could in times of emer- 
gency delegate to assist, and, if need be, with authority to take charge. 

In the case of the gypsy and brown-tail moth agents, these men are 
at present mounted on motor cycles, and hence are familiar with the 
country. They are already State employees, and men interested in the 
preservation of the forests. They will gladly acquaint themselves with 
modern methods of fighting forest fires, and, were they appointed 
deputies authorized to assume responsibility, the State would have their 
services at no extra compensation. Of course this would apply only 
throughout the moth-infested territory, but other plans could be worked 
out for the remainder of the State at a minimum cost. 

Disposing of the Slashings or Brush. 
As a result of the discussion of this matter in the last annual 
report, the State Forester has had many inquiries and has dis- 
cussed the matter with practical men. That the slashings left 
from limbing are a great menace, and one of the basal dangers 
causing forest fires, there can be little question. At the present 
time this office is carrying on some experiments to determine 
the expense of handling the slash, and the results are looked 
forward to with much interest. 'No one desires to hinder the 
wood-lot operator, or to cause him any extra expense ; but when 
the expense of piling and burning the brush is once determined, 
it can be dealt with as a part of the business transaction. We 
must conserve for the future welfare of the town and Common- 
wealth, as well as for the present. It is high time, therefore, 
that some reasonable State regulations should be made. 

FoREST-FIRE LoOKOUTS. 

Last year attention was called to the value of forest-fire look- 
outs, and the advisability of our experimenting somewhat, to 
determine whether their use would be applicable to our condi- 
tions. We were unable to spare any of our regular appropria- 
tion for doing anything in this line ; and hence, with the excep- 
tion of the Plymouth tower, which was erected by the town of 
Plymouth a few years ago, there are no others in the State. 

Since our last report New Hampshire has established several 
lookout stations, and the results derived from their first season's 
use are very satisfactx)ry. 



The slash remaining following the lumbering of a pine lot at Concord. Here is 
where we must guard against fire. 




The brush or slash conditions following lumbering of a mixed growth at Petersham. 
This is typical of most sections, and forms the base or tinder-box that causes 
our destructive forest fires. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



53 



Maine has a number of these lookouts scattered throughout 
the so-called wild or forest lands, and the State makes an annual 
appropriation of $60,000 a year for these stations and for fire- 
patrol work. The work of the Forest Commissioner of Maine is 
primarily that of forest-fire protection. 

'New York has forest-fire lookout stations established through- 
out the Adirondacks, and values them very highly. 

The point may be raised that the States named have a much 
larger forested area than has Massachusetts. This is true; 
but this State it quite thickly populated, and the dangers 
from fires are therefore proportionately greater, as man him- 
self seems to be the destructive force. There is no doubt that 
the small outlay required for the services of men to attend a 
few lookouts at high points in this State, together with the in- 
stallation of telephones, would have been repaid many times 
over during the past season in the saving of forest values by 
stopping fires in their incipiency. There is nothing like having 
a system for getting results. If this outlook plan could be 
added to the present forest warden system, it is believed that it 
would be an economic step in the right direction. 

Fire Lines and Protective Moth Belts. 

Each forest warden should plan to interest his town in doing 
something in the way of making fire lines. By making a begin- 
ning and doing a little each year the importance and value of the 
work will demonstrate itself. The widening of all wood roads 
or cleaning a strip and running plowed furrows, together with 
separating the debris, etc., if done in advance, precludes the 
danger from fires, so common at present. This winter this de- 
partment has been fortunate in finding enough of this sort of 
work, largely on private estates, to employ a number of our men 
in making fire lines. By finding the men employment at this 
season, we shall be able to keep them the year round. Men 
familiar with the work and understanding modern methods 
accomplish much more than inexperienced men. 

These fire lines may be utilized for operating the lots, as occa- 
sion demands ; also, they enable one to combat the dreaded moth 
pests. 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Railroaj:) Co-operation in Foeest-fire Fighting. 

During the past season there have been many evidences of 
co-operative assistance on behalf of the railroads with the State 
Forester and the forest wardens in preventing and fighting 
forest fires. Invariably when assistance has been asked from the 
main office of the railroads or the local section men, it has been 
furnished. In one instance of a fire which had not been set by 
the railroad, a forest warden reported that twenty-five men in 
the employ of the railroad came to his assistance without making 
any charge to the town for their services. 

There were many instances where engines were reported as 
evidently having inefficient spark-arresters, and hence they were 
throwing out cinders and setting fires ; but it is believed that in 
each case they were overhauled and improved. 

Certainly there is already a great difference in the feeling of 
our rural people towards the railroads ; and this is equally true, 
we are inclined to believe, of the railroad people as regards the 
protection of our woodlands and forests. 

When the State Forester came to Massachusetts, in 1906, it 
was the consensus of opinion that the railroads were the great 
offenders in burning up our forests. If there was a railroad in 
the vicinity of the fire, it was always held responsible. Since 
our forest warden and permit laws were enacted, and we have 
been enabled to get at the real causes of forest fires, it is plainly 
shown that there are many causes for forest fires other than the 
railroads. The railroad fires, however, are still very numerous, 
and there are great opportunities for improvement ; but let our 
forest wardens in each town co-operate and work harmoniously 
with all forces toward getting better results in checking and elim- 
inating forest fires. All we desire is to get the exact facts, and 
then w^e shall be in a position to better the conditions. 

The railroad vofficials are business men, and can be convinced 
of their duties as readily as any class of people. Instead of a 
forest warden finding fault and getting disgusted over railroad 
fires, the thing to do is to get direct proof and evidence, by hav- 
ing the number of the engine, the time of day, the date, etc., and 
then taking it up with the proper authorities. One warden has 
succeeded in getting the railroad people to keep some barrels 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



55 



filled with water on the right of way upon a bad up-grade which 
runs through w^oodland in his town. This same road has also 
supplied the section men on this section with two three-gallon 
hand extinguishers. Forest wardens little realize what they can 
accomplish until they try. 

Power Sprayers as Forest-fire Equipment. 
Attention was called in last year's report to the use of power 
sprayers in putting out forest fires. From our experience with 
the modern sprayers, which can be turned around in a small 
space, and hence may be readily handled, even in wood roads^ 
they should be used more often. These machines can be ad- 
justed to spray directly from the brook, pond or tank, so that 
they are adaptable for service when other equipment would be 
useless. If for no other purpose than to carry water, they can 
be made very serviceable, as they can be filled by their own 
power in about five minutes. The capacity of the tank is usually 
400 gallons. As these sprayers are capable of throwing a stream 
to the top of the tallest trees, it is readily seen what a radius of 
fire could be reached and deadened by them. They have suffi- 
cient power to maintain a 300-pound pressure at the end of a 
1,500-foot length of 1-inch hose. These same machines could 
also be used to great advantage for house fires in the country. 
As our towns need such a device for the protection of their trees, 
why not get all the good possible out of them ? 

Forest Fires in Germany. 
A recent letter from Mr. F. B. Knapp, a Massachusetts man 
who is spending the year abroad with the Biltmore Forestry 
Schools, says : — 

They have practically no forest-fire problem here, and I should say 
that it is chiefly due to respect for law and order. 

The State Forester appreciates the above statement, for it 
comes from a man who has shown much interest at home in 
' these matters ; in fact, he is the forest warden of Duxbury, 
where good work has been done. 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



State Subsidy to Towns for Forest-fike Protection. 

The law enacted last winter, which assists all towns having a 
valuation of one and one-half millions or less in purchasing fire 
equipment to the extent of 50 per cent., or an amount not exceed- 
ing $500, was passed too late to be taken advantage of bj most 
towns, as their annual town meeting had been held. 

At the coming spring tovm meetings it is believed that many- 
will accept the assistance. The State Forester has a brief pam- 
phlet in press that will be sent to all towns in time for their con- 
sideration before the spring meetings. 

Public Addresses. 

As many engagements have been filled throughout the year 
as the State Forester could accept, and at the same time con- 
sistently carry on his other duties. The custom of placing the 
responsibility upon organizations of securing an audience of 
at least one hundred has made our efforts more effective and 
better appreciated. It has been practically impossible to meet 
all the demands from local clubs and private organizations; 
itence we have invariably requested that, in so far as possible, 
these meetings be thrown open to the public. 

The usual course of lectures was given at the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College during January. 

Lectures before Scientific Organizations. 
The State Forester has had several requests to lecture outside 
the State, as well as at home, and the following were accepted : 
Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa., in their special lecture 
course on forestry; the 'New Hampshire Horticultural Society, 
annual meeting at Manchester ; the Society for the Promotion of 
Agricultural Science, annual meeting at Washington, D. C. ; 
the American Society of Economic Entomologists, annual meet- 
ing at Boston; the Economic Club: Williams College, at Wil- 
liamstown ; the Massachusetts Reform Club ; High School Prin- 
cipals Association ; the Society for the Protection of New Hamp- 
shire Forests, at Bretton Woods, N. H. ; etc. 




A plantation of white pine, thirty years old, at South 
Orleans, on the Cape. Who says white pine will 
not grow on the lower Cape? 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



57 



State Firemen's Association. 
The annual meeting of the State Firemen's Association was 
held at Lowell during the week beginning September 19, and 
the State Forester addressed the organization on Thursday even- 
ing, September 22, on the subject, Forestry, and Fire Menace 
of the Same." 

This organization has been ready to co-operate and assist the 
department at all times, and their good offices have been highly 
appreciated. 

During the past summer, at a meeting of the officials of the 
above association and the State Forester, it was agreed that the 
fire-permit act should apply to cities as well as to towns. 

Thinning Bulletin. 

The bulletin by the State Forester's assistant, Mr. H. O. 
Cook, on " Thinning," referred to as being in press last year, 
was received from the press early in the year, and has proved of 
great value in assisting us in getting this information into the 
hands of those who contemplate improving their woodlands. 

This bulletin is opportune, as it meets a definite place in the 
handling of woodlands in the worst moth-infested sections ; and it 
helps not only in making better forestry conditions, but, with the 
poorer trees and dead wood removed, the work of spraying and 
treating woodlands is greatly simplified. 

Bulletin on Reforestation and ^Nursery Work. 
Reforestation and the growing of young trees is at present a 
subject of great interest to our people. In order to give detailed 
and exact knowledge, the bulletin was carefully planned and 
published, and we have every reason to believe that it covers the 
subject as clearly and as practically as any publication available. 
It was written by Mr. R. S. Langdell, assistant in charge of the 
State nursery at Amherst, who also has charge of the reforesta- 
tion work throughout the State. We believe it hits the nail on 
the head, and is of great assistance in the State work. 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The Chestnut Bark Disease. 
This disease, as reported last year, does not seem to have 
caused any great amount of damage as yet in this State. We 
had received but one direct notice of its appearance here, when 
a letter came from Dr. Haven Metcalf, stating that he had 
reports of four outbreaks in Massachusetts. The State Forester 
has taken the matter up with Dr. Metcalf , and has also written 
to Prof. George Stone of the Agricultural College at Amherst. 
If occasion demands, further notice will be given, calling atten- 
tion to the disease and showing how the infested trees should be 
treated. 

The precaution mentioned last year will apply not only to the 
chestnut, but to all trees ; namely, that any tree that becomes un- 
healthy, particularly in the woodlands or forest, should be re- 
moved, thus minimizing the danger. 

Conference of State Foresters and Forest Wardens. 

A meeting was held at Bretton Woods, IT. H., during the first 
week in August, under the auspices of the Society for the Pro- 
tection of 'New Hampshire Forests, at which various State for- 
esters and forest wardens held a conference. The State Forester 
and many other Massachusetts people attended, including Mr. 
Guild, secretary of the Massachusetts Forestry Association, Con- 
gressman Peters, Forest Warden Knapp of Duxbury, etc. The 
meeting proved a very interesting and instructive one. The 
following paper was presented by the writer : — 

The Massachusetts Forest Warden System. 

Massachusetts has had the town forest warden system in practice 
long enough to feel that it is a pronounced success. The idea of hav- 
ing an authorized town, and, in a sense, a State official in each town 
who is clothed with sufficient power to get results in a broad forestry 
movement, makes a splendid nucleus for better future results. 

It is the aim of the State Forester to secure for these positions public- 
spirited citizens who have their town interests as regards forestry mat- 
ters at heart, and then get them all the assistance possible. When a 
man is broken in, the aim of the State is to retain him in the work. 

The duties of the forest warden in Massachusetts are multitudinous, 
and he will never lack for things to do. The following are some of the 
forest warden's main duties : — 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



59 



Interest in all forestry matters. Appointed by selectmen, subject to 
the approval of the State Forester, he has the power to appoint and 
discharge deputies. State Forester's power to hold meetings for edu- 
cating forest wardens. Forest w^arden chief forest fire fighter in the 
town. Forest warden source of information on reforestation in the 
town. Forest warden, ideas on thinning and pruning trees. Forest 
warden read or have read fire laws in schools. Forest warden post fire 
laws and warnings. Forest warden deal with railroads in his town. 
Forest warden have ideas on forest taxation. Forest warden assist 
State Forester on forest data, maps, etc. Forest warden tell when seed 
and seedlings are plenty. Forest warden start a town nursery. Forest 
warden, amount, kind and price of cheap lands. Forest warden, town 
lands accepted and planted. Forest warden encourage forestry in town 
schools, grange, farmer's clubs, woman's clubs, etc. Forest warden 
handle town insect troubles. Forest warden assist in encouraging bene- 
ficial birds. Forest warden plan fire campaign, fire belts, have fire 
extinguishers well placed, telephone calls, etc. Forest warden, power 
to arrest without a warrant within certain restrictions, etc. 

The whole purpose, as I see it, is to adopt modern ideas and sys- 
tematize our efforts along well-defined channels, whereby results are 
made possible. The working out of a forest warden system in a thickly 
settled State like Massachusetts might not adapt itself to some sections 
of Maine and northern New Hampshire, but with modifications it could 
be made to do so. In Massachusetts about 5 per cent, of the forest 
products used are grown in the State; hence we have a good market, 
and with modern methods of forestry management, made possible 
through local and State officials, the value from possible forest products 
can be made very great. What is true of Massachusetts is equally true 
in other New England States in more or less degree. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
In accordance with section 6 of chapter 409 of Acts of 1904, 
as amended by Acts of 1907, chapter 473, section 2, the follow- 
ing statement is given of the forestry expenditures for the year 
ending Nov. 30, 1910: — 

Forestry Expenditures. 



Salaries of assistants, $5,346 47 

Travelling expenses, 1,001 78 

Stationery, postage and other office supplies, . . . 369 37 

Printing, 960 37 

Instruments, 48 55 

Forest warden account, 499 92 

Nursery, " . . 2,222 15 

Sundries, 143 13 



$10,591 74 



60 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Reforestation Account. 

Seedlings, $2,204 70 

Land, 1,035 00 

Labor, . . . . ' .* 5,124 68 

Equipment, 694 63 

Travelling, 670 83 

Express, 311 21 

Sundries, 57 74 



$10,098 79 

Turned over to the treasurer for publications, . . . $102 60 

Turned over to the treasurer for seedlings, .... 243 50 

Turned over to the treasurer for cord wood, .... 118 13 



$464 23 

Reimbursement to towns for fire-fighting apparatus, . . $1,469 56 
Unexpended balance, 3,530 44 



Total appropriation, $5,000 00 



In accordance with section 5 of the above-named chapter, the 
following statement is given of the receipts for travelling and 
subsistence : — 

Lectures. 



Mansfield Men's Club, 


$1 


00 


Hingham Association, . 


$1 


70 


Andover Grange, 


1 


20 


Massachusetts Board of Agricul- 






Newburyport Neighborhood Club, 




30 


ture, ..... 


5 


69 


Rockport Men's Club, . 




90 


Cornell Club 


1 


50 


Saugus Laj'men's League, . 


1 


10 


American Forestry Association, . 


25 


00 


Littleton Women's Club, 


1 


42 


Course of Lectures, M. A. C, 




. 1 


Maiden Board of Trade, 


2 


00 


Woronoco Club, Westfield, . 


5 


40 


Somerville Board of Trade, . 




20 


Newburyport Club, 


3 


00 


Bellingham Pomona Grange, 


1 


40 


Pilgrims' Club, New Bedford, 


2 


50 


Foxborough Grange, . 


3 


15 


Williams College, 


11 


34 


Boston Public Library, Field and 






Middlesex Sportsman's Show, 


1 


04 


Forest Club, .... 


3 


00 


Newton High School, . 




75 


Quincy Men's Club, 


5 


00 


Winchester Unitarian News Club, 


1 


96 


Buzzards Bay, .... 


2 


40 


South Bristol Farmers' Club, 


3 


00 


Athol Improvement Society, 


4 


04 


Worcester Horticultural. Society, 




. 1 


Bolton Pomona Grange, 


1 


50 


Heptorean Club, .... 


1 


50 


Boylston Grange, 


2 


50 


Phi Delta Theta Club, . 


2 


25 


Fitchburg Pomona Grange, . 


2 


28 


Farmers' Week, M. A. C, . 




1 


Harvard Grange, 


1 


84 


Fish and Game Association, 




a 


Phillipston Grange, 


3 


50 


Palmer's Woman's Club, 


4 


00 


Amesbury Improvement Society, . 




40 


Winchendon Board of Trade, 


5 


00 


Hatfield Men's Club, : 


5 


00 


Winchester High School, 


1 


21 


Bristol County Academy of 






Barre Library Association, . 


4 


48 


Science, ..... 


2 


00 


Danvers Bird Club and Grange, 


1 


25 



Paid. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 61 



Lectures — 



Wellesley Grange, . . . $3 00 

Massachusetts Reform Club, . 1 22 

Pepperell Woman's Club, . . 2 00 

Lehigh University, . . . 24 31 

Pierce School 1 07 

Institute State Board of Agri- 
culture, . . . . . 7 45 
Grange field day, West Newton 

and Yarmouth, . . , 10 59 

Montwait Chautauqua, . . 1 15 

Cape Cod Cranberry Association, 2 20 

Franklin County Pomona Grange, 8 11 

State Prison teachers, . . . 1 30 



Concluded. 

State Fireman's Association, . $3 50 
Hanover Fireman Muster, . . 1 50 
New Hampshire Horticultural So- 
ciety, . . . . . 5 50 
Springfield Board of Trade, . 5 00 
Roxbury Woman's Club, . . 2 00 
Massachusetts Forestry Associa- 
tion, . . . . . - ^ 
Society for the Protection of New 

Hampshire Forests, . . . 25 10 
American Association of Economic 

Entomologists, . . . . 2 00 



1 Paid. 



Expenses incurred in Examination Work, charged to Owners. 



Allen, P. R 


$0 


70 


Main, F. H., . 


$5 


44 


Bent, F. E., 




50 


Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 






Borden, N. E., . 




74 


lege, Faunce demonstration 






Boston & Northern Street Rail- 






farm, ..... 


5 


00 


way, ..... 


1 


32 


Minns, Susan, .... 


2 


50 


Brayton, A. P., . 


2 


00 


Minot, W., 


2 


00 


Brochu, J. E., . 


1 


40 


Morey, E., . 


1 


00 


Burnett, H., trustee, . 




70 


Nelson, H. W 


1 


20 


Chandler, F. F. 




62 


Pickman, D. L., . 


1 


50 


Cummings, W. 0., . 




62 


Robinson, C. E., . 


2 


85 


Gushing, J. S., . 




50 


Sawyer, A. H., .... 


1 


50 


Dewar, D. W., . 


1 


25 


Sears, Julia M., .... 


1 


40 


Eddy, Mary B 




15 


Seavey, H., .... 




50 


Emerson, Dr. N. W., . 




18 


Simmons, H. F., . 


1 


25 


Forrest, W. P 


1 


00 


Stevens, E. A., . 


1 


50 


Fowle, D. H., . 


1 


80 


Stevens, H. H., . 


1 


14 


Fuller, W. A., . 


1 


50 


Stone, G. (W. Manning), . 


2 


35 


Gerrish, Isabel F., . 


1 


00 


Tenney, C. H., . 


1 


16 


Green, F. C. 


2 


40 


Tracy, Harriet E., 


2 


85 


Harriman, C. S., . . , 




68 


Webber, F. S., . 


3 


05 


Horne, W. N., . 




90 


White, J. H., . 


1 


20 


Hunnewell, H. H., 




50 


Fitchburg Water Board, 


2 


00 


Jones, J. L., . 


1 


20 








Lawrence, I. P., . 


6 


50 


Total, 


$71 


37 


Mahoney, T. J., . 


1 


82 









Expenses incurred in Supervision of Managed Woodlands, charged to 

Owners. 

F. 0. Green, $4 80 

R. B. Symmington, . , . . . . . . . . . 20 00 



$24 80 



Expenses incurred in giving Instruction in Planting, charged to Owners. 

E. P. Joselin, $2 35 

Long Island, transportation furnished, ........ — 

Fitchburg Water Board, . . . . . . . . . . 4 85 

Needham Water Board, no expense, ........ — 



Part II. 



GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH 
SUPPRESSION. 



Part II. 



GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH 
SUPPRESSION. 



Conditions m 1910. 
The moth work during the past season has gone forward with 
more precision and earnestness than ever. The year's results 
have heen very encouraging, in spite of many negative con- 
ditions. 

First, in January there was a heavy fall of snow over all the 
infested territory, which lasted in many localities, especially on 
some private estates, until late in the spring. In these places, 
where the cleaning had not been done previous to the snowfall, 
it was impossible to do thorough work before the caterpillars 
began to hatch. These conditions prevailed where property 
owners had neglected to care for their property. Next, in the 
spraying season the work was hampered to a great extent by 
cold and rainy weather in June. The growth of the foliage 
was practically at a standstill, while the caterpillars continued 
to develop. Much good and effective work was done, however, 
and the results were better than the climatic conditions gave us 
cause to expect. 

Burlap and tanglefoot were not used as much during the 
summer of 1910 as previously, but the results obtained have 
been nearly as good. While it may seem in looking over the 
territory that the infestation was more severe than in 1909, 
because no burlapping was done, yet, setting against the expense 
of the burlap, putting it on and tending it, the expense of treat- 
ing the egg clusters left in the winter, the cost of caring for an 
infested area will be seen to be considerably less, the infestation 
in nearly all residential sections being now very light. 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Where spraying is done effectively on street trees and on 
contiguous property, it is not economical to burlap also. If 
burlap could be used, and only turned once or twice, say about 
the time caterpillars are pupating, the results might pay; but 
where they are tended during the whole caterpillar season, the 
results do not warrant the expense. Tanglefoot has been used 
mostly in orchards, small wooded areas or in protective belts, 
and is economical thus used. 

Spraying in residential sections against the gypsy and brown- 
tail moths has been confined mostly to wooded roadsides, private 
property and small wooded areas, where the infestation menaced 
orchards or shade trees. The greater part of the spraying Avhich 
has been done on street trees this year has been done against 
the elm-leaf beetle, and paid for locally out of appropriations 
for the purpose ; the moth department allowing cities and towns 
to use apparatus belonging to them in the fight against the 
beetle, as we believed that some benefit to the moth work might 
accrue in the spraying of the trees. This was where the gypsy 
moth infestation was so slight as not to warrant spraying for it 
alone. 

Scouting. 

In the known infested district the scouting for gypsy and 
brown-tail moths has been mostly done by the city and town 
gangs. But little scouting was done except in towns where the 
infestation was light. In the new territory, that is, in towns 
bordering on those known infestations, scouting has been done 
by the government employees. This work has been of great 
help to this ofiice and to the moth work in general. 

Scouting done by town or city gangs in newly infested places 
is not apt to be very thorough, as the men are for the most part 
inexperienced, have seen but few gypsy moth egg clusters, and 
are liable to miss infestations, which thus remain unknown 
until they become severe enough to attract the attention of the 
novice. If this work is done by experienced men, much better 
results are obtained. 

In towns where the infestation is very light, it requires but 
a part of the year to do the necessary work; therefore, there is 
no permanent employment for a gang of men, and it is not 



Before thinning, at Manchester-by-tlie-Sea. Imagine the difficulty in treating this 
woodland for gy])sy moths as it is. 




After thinning, at Manchester-by-the-Sea. Not only are the conditions better for 
combating moths, but the improved forestry conditions are evident. Further, 
the cordwood helps to meet the expense. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



67 



possible to train them and have an experienced force. If the 
law under which we are now working were so amended that the 
State Forester might carry on the work in several towns adjoin- 
ing each other, where the infestation is of a similar character, 
and employ a steady force of men to do the necessary work, 
much better results could be obtained. In order to employ good, 
steady, faithful men, they must be given fairly permanent 
employment ; and in any business where good results are to be 
obtained, experienced men must be employed. The infestation 
in nearly all of our towns — we will say, for instance, a greater 
part of the towns in Worcester County — has started with col- 
onies of but one or two egg clusters, and these have gradually 
increased, until in some of them hundreds and thousands and 
tens of thousands of egg clusters are now found. This should 
not have happened, and if the work might have been directed 
by, or taken up under the personal supervision of, this office, 
much better results would have been obtained. Until the 
infestation in cities and towns in what is known as the outer 
district becomes severe, so that the men employed in the work 
become better acquainted with the habits and appearance of 
the gypsy moth, efficient work, as a rule, is not accomplished. 
The agents and division superintendents who are employed by 
this office experience a great deal of difficulty in controlling the 
methods and plans of doing the work in such towns as men- 
tioned above. But if a gang of men, for instance, were employed 
to do the work in five towns, the agents and division superin- 
tendents would only have to look after one town at a time, 
instead of five, and in this way supervision would be made 
easier. The best arrangement for this would be to have it 
optional with the State Forester as to the towns in which it 
would be necessary to do the work in this manner, and have 
it understood that the cities and towns where the work is to be 
done should be assessed for the work to the extent of their legal 
liability, payment to be made every sixty days. In most cases 
in sixty days all the necessary work could be done, generally in 
the fall and winter months ; it would be necessary to make some 
expenditures in doing summer work, but not on as large a scale 
as in the months when the gypsy moth is dormant. On the 



68 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



other hand, where this scouting is done hj local inexperienced 
forces, the work must be inspected after them, and it means a 
double expenditure, — one by the town, and one by the State. 
This seems to us unnecessary. 

If this work is done in the first place by competent men, very 
little inspection is necessary, — not more than an experienced 
foreman would be able to give to the work of the scouting gang. 

The scouting done by the federal forces has disclosed new 
infestations in several towns. The following towns were scouted 
by them, and those marked with an asterisk were found to be 
infested : — 



Ashburnham.* 


Ludlow. 


Warwick.* 


Athol.* 


Palmer. 


Webster.* 


Barre.* 


Petersham.* 


Winchendon.* 


Brookfield.* 


Rutland.* 


Gardner.* 


Charlton.* 


Spencer.* 


Orange.* 


Dana. 


Sturbridge.* 


Paxton.* 


Douglas.* 


Uxbridge.* 


Royalston.* 


Dudley.* 








Spbayixg. 





Spraying with arsenate of lead during the season of 1910 
was done on a larger scale than ever before, nearly all residen- 
tial sections being sprayed, the greater part of the infested pri- 
vate property, and more woodland than in any previous year, 
and the results obtained were satisfactory in nearly all places. 
More territory was covered in a shorter space of time than in 
any previous year. This was principally due to two causes : 
first, city and town forces were generally more experienced, and 
educational work could be eliminated ; second, improved appa- 
ratus was generally used. It was mentioned in our last report 
that this office was conducting some experimental work in spray- 
ing apparatus, and the results of this work proved to be very 
helpful. The spraying machines which were designed by us 
were far superior to anything previously used. They were 
much lighter, and capable of maintaining more pressure than 
those used in the past seasons, and break-downs were so few 
that no inconvenience worth mentioning was experienced. The 
fact that these machines can easily be filled from ponds or 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



69 



brooks was a feature of great importance, as much less time 
was wasted in this operation, — five to six minutes being about 
the usual filling time. Several times it was noticed that from 
the time of filling to the time when the gang began spraying 
again it was only eight or nine minutes, while in previous years 
the time of filling was eighteen to twenty minutes, and about 
twenty to twenty-five minutes was the usual loss of time in fill- 
ing. Taking into consideration that from eight to eleven men 
were employed on each machine, and about twenty machines 
were used in the State, the saving with improved apparatus, in 
time alone, was a considerable one. 

In discharging, some time was also saved, the usual time 
being twelve to fourteen minutes, although it was necessary for 
the men to work much faster than with the old apparatus. 
Twenty-three and one-half acres have been thoroughly covered 
in one day, and this was in heavy, high growth. In designing 
these machines, as they were costing us a high price, we were 
very particular that we should have good material in the 
apparatus. We bought extra good caravan running gears with 
wide tires, circular rocker plate, and cut under, so that the 
machines could be turned in their own length. 'No trouble was 
experienced during the whole year with any part of the running 
gear. Some were fitted with brakes, and some were without; 
but it has been decided that the brakes on the running gear are 
much needed in the general work. The pumps were formerly 
of cast iron and brass, but phosphur bronze was used in the new 
ones, which is a much harder metal. It will stand higher pres- 
sure, and therefore it is not necessary to have such large, bulky 
pumps, and this eliminates a large number of pounds in weight. 
Metal valve seats were used, instead of rubber. The four- 
cylinder engine was found much more effective, as it did the 
work more easily than the two-cylinder engine. A safe com- 
parison is the difference between one horse drawing a two- 
horse load, or two horses drawing the same load. In the coming 
season it has been decided to use mechanical oilers, as the ones 
previously used were neglected by the engineers, and caused 
some trouble when engines were being started, as the crank base 
would have an over-supply of oil. Also magnetos will be used 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



in place of batteries, as about the only trouble we experienced in 
the past season was in adjusting vibrating coils, which were 
connected with the batteries. In using magnetos we feel that 
all trouble of this kind will be eliminated, and also the wiring, 
to a great extent. Batteries are liable to get wet, where so much 
water is being used, and in this way lose their strength. 

The nozzle, which was also mentioned in the last report, has 
proved to be probably the largest money saver of any piece of 
improved apparatus which has been used in the field since the 
work began. When the machines are running all right, climb- 
ing the trees in order to spray the tops is not necessary ; and in 
some cases all the street trees in a town or city were sprayed 
without any climbing whatever, by using a long nozzle. In the 
spraying of 3,000 acres of woodland, which was done under the 
supervision of this office, a saving of from $5,000 to $6,000 was 
made by the use of the new nozzle. Much better results were 
obtained, as in using an old nozzle oftentimes climbing was not 
done when it should have been, and the tops of the trees were 
not covered with poison. Later in the season this was very 
noticeable, as the caterpillars ate the unsprayed parts first. 
This was practically eliminated this year. Some difficulty was 
experienced in getting enough nozzles to cover the entire field at 
the proper time; but next season we hope to have enough on 
hand so that every power sprayer will be properly fitted with a 
new nozzle. In some towns towers on sprayers were also used 
in spraying street trees, but we do not find them as satisfactory 
as we hoped. Where there are trolley wires, especially, with 
these towers, it is necessary for the spray team to go very near 
the trees ; and the force of the water goes too directly on to the 
leaves, and a strength of poison sufficient to kill the caterpillars 
does not remain. This fact has been noted several times in the 
solid-stream spraying; but in looking over the field during the 
past season we find that the same trouble still exists in some 
cases. It must be borne in mind at all times, when spraying 
is being done with solid stream, that the operator of the nozzle 
must stand a sufficient distance from the tree so that the solution 
v/ill reach the foliage in as near a mist form as possible. 

In a greater part of the district nearly all spraying is now 
being done with the solid stream, although some cities and towns 



Our new power sprayer complete. This outfit was planued and built by the State 
Forester's department. Four-cylinder engine, triplex bronze pump, 300 pounds 
pressure capacity, weight 3,000 pounds. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



still believe that it is necessary to use the mist spray and small 
hose, and climb trees. This method of work should be elimi- 
nated as fast as possible, as it has been proved conclusively that 
in a very large part of the street tree and orchard v^ork solid- 
stream spraying is more effective^ more economical, and larger 
areas are covered in less time, — time being one of the chief 
assets in the spraying season. 

Another feature connected w^ith spraying which must be 
guarded against in the future is the mixing of arsenate of lead 
in the barrel. When it is first opened, that is, before any of 
the material is weighed previous to putting it in the tank, it 
should be properly stirred and equally mixed. We have found 
it to be a fact that there is a much weaker solution at the top of 
the barrel than at the bottom; and if the poison is not stirred 
in the barrel, before using, the results are poor, from the use 
of the weaker poison. This insufficient mixing of the arsenate 
of lead is often the cause of uneven results of spraying ; and it 
is hoped that before another caterpillar season some mechanical 
method may be applied to mixing the poison. However, if this 
should not be perfected at that time, more care must be used 
in stirring the poison by hand. 

The fullway coupling, which we used this last season, did 
not prove as good as we hoped. The marline cover would not 
hold in under the coupling, although we received the benefit of 
the waterway, and do not feel that anything was lost by the use 
of this coupling. Probably with the improved sprayer in the 
coming season better agitation will also be possible, as new 
agitators will be used. We hope that those in charge of the 
work will be in readiness to start next year with the spraying 
apparatus in perfect condition, so that no break-downs or 
obstacles of any kind may hinder early spraying; as we find 
that it is much more effective when done early than when it is 
done late in the season, when the caterpillars are larger, as they 
then do not confine their eating to one place as steadily as when 
young. 

This office not being able to furnish all towns with power 
sprayers during the season of 1910, the use of travelling 
sprayers belonging to this office was introduced, and excellent 
results were obtained. The worst infestations in different 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



towns and cities were sprayed, and it is hoped that during the 
season of 1911 several more sprayers will be added to the num- 
ber. In the following cities and towns the travelling sprayers 
were used: Maiden, Melrose (Pine Banks Park), Woburn, Bur- 
lington, Billerica, Hamilton, Ipswich, Topsfield, Boxford, 
Georgetown, Rowley, I^ewbury, Andover, Tewksbury, Methuen, 
Wayland, IsTatick, Sudbury, Acton, Littleton, Westford, Tyngs- 
borough, Townsend, Marshfield, Kingston, Carver, Middle- 
borough, Cohasset, IN'orwell, Scituate and Waltham. They were 
also used on the E^orth Shore at the last of the season. 

Future Work. 
In view of the fact that so much good work has been accom- 
plished in the thickly settled sections, and conditions are much 
improved, it will be necessary in the future to eliminate some 
of the methods previously used in such sections, and use the 
money thus saved in other districts. The creosoting of gypsy 
moth egg clusters must be generally done the same as before, 
and the removing of brown-tail webs where absolutely necessary ; 
but in some sections, where conditions are good, spraying may 
be omitted. By this method, towns and cities will be able to do 
work in other sections where it has not been possible in the- 
past to do thorough work. Some of these sections are as fol- 
lows: brush near stone walls on roadsides, where a continual 
infestation is found on the street trees in the vicinity. This 
does not apply to wooded roadsides, but to open country. 
Decayed orchards, where tinning is needed and worthless trees 
are to be removed. This work will prove very beneficial in the 
future, as it will help make the work done on private property 
of more effect, preventing reinfestation. Also, work should be 
done on some small wooded areas, which are a menace to adjoin- 
ing property; here creosoting and spraying should be done. 
When spraying is being done in places which have been cleaned 
thoroughly in the past, especially in orchards, arrangements 
should be made with the owners to have the same paid for, owing 
to the great amount of benefit to the orchard, not only by the 
destruction of the gypsy and brown-tail moths, but by the 
improvement in the fruit in general, its marketable price 
advancing enough to more than pay for the spraying. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



73 



Supply Store. 

Oil Dec. 1, 1909, this office opened a supply store, and such 
supplies as are used in the moth work were furnished cities and 
towns receiving reimbursement from the State. With few 
exceptions, it has received the highest commendation from those 
engaged in the work. The matter was also gone over with the 
State supervisor of accounts and State Auditor, and met with 
their complete approval. All supplies were purchased through 
public estimate, and the lowest prices were obtained. Arrange- 
ments were made with the successful concerns, that such sup- 
plies as might be needed during the season would be furnished 
at a uniform rate. Supplies to the amount of about $86,000 
have been purchased, of which $68,103.58 has been furnished 
cities and towns. The average saving in general supplies has 
been $12,028.72, this being a very conservative estimate. The 
general saving has been about 17 per cent. 

l^ot only has our supply store been used for the supply busi- 
ness, but it has been used in assembling power sprayers and 
power pumps and storing fire wagons, and, as it is centrally 
located, it has been convenient for parties wishing to examine 
wagons. The supply store has been one of the many advances 
made in this year's work, not only from a financial standpoint, 
but in efficiency of the work. In nearly all lines better material 
has been furnished. Previously, a great many towns doing 
moth work did not have the necessary tools, and were continually 
getting out of supplies, thus necessitating that the local superin- 
tendent spend some time in purchasing supplies, and, in a great 
part of the towns, visit Boston for the same, not only losing his 
time in the field, but having the additional expense of car fares. 
This has been practically eliminated; also, the local dealers 
did not always carry in stock such supplies as were needed, and 
long delays were occasioned. This very rarely happens under 
the new system. 



74 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Method of Ordering Supplies. 
The local superintendent of each town is furnished with a 
catalogue, also with duplicate order blanks. He makes out 
orders and forwards them to the agent or division superintendent 
in charge of his district, for his approval. The agent then for- 
wards the order to the supply store, where it receives immediate 
attention. The improvement in the equipment in the field is 
very noticeable, particularly in the increased use of hand carts. 
There are five times as many in the field as a year ago, making 
a large saving in horse hire, this having been a large item in the 
past. It has been our aim to furnish first-class material, and 
whenever supplies have not been satisfactory, the matter has 
been investigated at once, and such things as were needed have 
been procured. The saving which has been made in the new 
system has enabled us to do more work in towns which are being 
reimbursed. Another feature of the supply store is that it has 
been used for repairing motor cycles, where a considerable saving 
has been made, approximately SSYz per cent. We have several 
mechanics employed in assembling power sprayers and repair- 
ing sprayers in the field. This has proved very helpful and very 
economical. E'early all of the power outfits in towns will, be 
overhauled this winter by these men, that they may be in readi- 
ness for work when needed next season. A large per cent, of 
saving will be made next season, owing to this year's experience, 
as we have been able to discover several ways where money may 
be saved. We hope that whenever the town or city ofiicials have 
suggestions to make, they will make them to this ofiice at once, 
that we may consider them and see if they may be of use to us. 
When tools or supplies are not satisfactory, the fact should be 
brought to the attention of this office at once. In making out 
orders, it is hoped that local superintendents will be careful not 
to make mistakes, as the inconvenience is not only to them in the 
field work, but also to the supply store. The following is the 
list of supplies carried in our supply store. These supplies are 
furnished to towns receiving reimbursement only, nothing being 
sold to other towns or cities, or to the general public. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 75 



List of Supp] 

No. 

1. Arsenate of lead, 600 lb. barrel. 

2. Arsenate of lead, 100 lb. kegs. 

3. Axes, handled, 31" handle, SVi lb. 

4. Axes, with handle, 31" handle, BVz 

lb. 

5. Axes, with handle, 31" handle, S% 

lb. 

6. Axe handles, Hopkins, oak 31". 

7. Axe wedges, malleable iron. 

8. Bolts for Waters pruners. 

9. Brushes, extra, for poles. 
10. Brushes, hand. 

Brushes, wire, for crushing cater- 





pillars : — 


11. 


No. 


1 Brophy improved. 


12. 


No. 


2 Lexington. 


13. 


No. 


3 Stoneham. 


14. 


No. 


4 Fells. 


15. 


No. 


5 Brophy. 


16. 


No. 


6 McCullough. 


17. 


No. 


7 Reading. 



18. Brushes, pole, 12'. 

19. Brushes, pole, 16'. 

20. Burlap, 8". 

21. Burlap, 10". 

22. Bush hook handles, hickory, 32". 

23. Bush hooks, handled. 

24. Bush scythes, heavy. 

25. Bush scythe loops and nuts. 

26. Bush scythe snaths, heavy. 

27. Bush scythe wrenches. 

28. Cans, pt., twin brush. 

29. Cans, pint, brush. 

30. Cans, varnish (nozzle top), 1 gal. 

31. Cans, oil, 1 gal. 

32. Cans, gasolene, 5 gals. 

33. Cans, creosote, 5 gals. 

34. Cement. 

35. Chains, 6' stake. 

36. Chisels, heavy, IV2" socket firmer, 

plain edge. 

37. Chisel handles, extra. 

38. Climbing irons, Dicky, 16". 

39. Climbing irons, Donnelly, 16". 

40. Climbing irons. Lineman, 16". 

41. Climbing iron pads. 

42. Climbing iron plugs and rivets. 

43. Climbing iron straps with buckles. 

44. Coal tar. 

45. Cotton waste. 

46. Cork stoppers for pint cans. 

47. Coupling, full-way, for 1" hose. 

48. Coupling, long-tailed, for %" hose. 

49. Coupling, long-tailed, for %" hose. 

50. Coupling, long-tailed, for 1" hose. 

51. Coupling, long-tailed, for 1%" hose. 

52. Creosote. 

53. Dry batteries, small, No. 6. 



BY Number. 
^0. 

54. Dry batteries, large. No. 7. 

55. Dry batteries, special, No. 8. 

56. Emery cloth, fine. 

57. Faucets, %" cast iron. 

58. Faucets, 1" cast iron. 

59. Ferrules for Clyde pruners. 

60. Files, 3-cornered 6" slim taper. 

61. Files, flat 8". 

62. Fork handles, for manure fork No. 

44. 

63. Forks, long-handled manure, No. 44. 

64. Gas, carbonic, for gas sprayers, in 

50-lb tubes. 

65. Gasolene. 

66. Gauges, pressure. 

67. Gas, carbonic, for gas sprayers, in 

20-Ib. tubes. 

68. Glasses, extra, for mirrors. 

69. Gouges, IV2" socket firmer. 

70. Grease, axle. 

71. Grease, hard, for pump cups. 

72. Grindstones, bi-treadle, ball-bearing. 

73. Grindstone, extra. 

74. Hammers, No. 12, Maydole. 

75. Handcarts, 44 x 30. 

76. Hatchets, lathing. 

77. Hatchets, 1 lb. axe-shaped. 

78. Hose, V2" cotton hose. 

79. Hose, %" cotton hose. 

80. Hose, 2V2" cotton, for hydrant. 

81. Hose, 2%" suction hose. 

82. Hose, 1" 7-ply rubber imitation 

marline covered. 

83. Hose, IV2" 4-ply imitation marline 

covered. 

84. Hose, %" oil. 

85. Hose reducers, IV2" x 1". 

86. Hose reducers, 1" x Vz". 

87. Hose spanners. 

88. Hose menders, 

89. Hose connection, %" Y. 

90. Hydrant gates. 

91. Jute twine for burlapping. 

92. Knife screws for Waters pruners. 

93. Knives, burlap. 

94. Knives, cleaning. 

95. Knives, sailors, sheath and belt. 

96. Knives for telegraph pruners. 

97. Knives for Waters pruners. 

98. Ladders, extension, 20'. 

99. Ladders, extension, 22'. 

100. Ladders, extension, 24'. 

101. Ladders, extension, 28'. 

102. Ladders, extension, 34'. 

103. Ladders, extension, 38'. 

104. Ladders, extension, 40'. 

105. Ladders, straight, 10'. 

106. Ladders, straight, 12'. 



76 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



List of Supplies by 

No. 

107. Ladders, straight, 15'. 

108. Loops, extra, for 3' 1-man cross-cut 

saw. 

109. Mallets, hickory, V2 lb. 

110. Marline No. 8. 

111. Mirrors, 2x4, with handle, 

112. Nails %" barbed roofing. 

113. Nozzles, single vermorel. 

114. Nozzles, duplex vermorel. 

115. Nozzles, triplex vermorel. 

116. Nozzles, Bordeaux. 

117. Nozzles, 6', for woodland work. 

118. Nozzles, hose pipe screw, 10". 

119. Nozzles, hose pipe screw, 15". 

120. Nozzles to fit 1" hose, 15" long. 

121. Nozzles to fit iVz" hose, 18" long. 

122. Nozzle tip, i/4", 

123. Nozzle tip, ^e". 

124. Nozzle tip, Vs". 

125. Oil-burning outfit. 

126. Oil, burning. 

127. Oil, cylinder. 

128. Opera glasses. 

129. Padlocks, 2" Yale, No. 853. 

130. Pails, heavy galvanized iron, 14 qt. 

131. Pails, creosote, 

132. Paint, white. 

133. Pitchforks, 4-tine. 

134. Pliers, Barnard side-cut, iVz" . 

135. Poles, bamboo, 12'. 

136. Poles, bamboo, 16'. 

137. Poles, spruce, for telegraph pruners, 

18'. 

138. Poles, spruce, for telegraph pruners, 

20', 

139. Poles, spruce, for telegraph pruners, 

24'. 

140. Poles, window brush. 

141. Pruners, No. 2 Clyde. 

142. Pruners, extra handles for No. 2 

Clyde. 

143. Pruners, telegraph, with pole, 18'. 

144. Pruners, telegraph, with pole, 20'. 

145. Pruners, telegraph, with pole, 24'. 

146. Pruners, telegraph, without pole. 

147. Pruners, Waters, with spring for re- 

moving brown-tail webs, 12', 

148. Pruners, Waters, with spring for re- 

moving brown-tail webs, 14'. 

149. Pruners, Waters, with spring for re- 

moving brown-tail webs, 16'. 

150. Pruning shears. 

151. Pump packing; designate pump. 

152. Rakes, fire, long steel shank, 14 

tooth. 

153. Rope, Manila, for extension ladders. 

154. Rope, Manila, 1". 

155. Rope, Manila, \W . 



Number — Continued. 
No. 

156. Rope, Manila, for telegraph pruners, 

157. Rope, cotton sash. 

158. Rubber packing for face plates on 

Douglas pump ; give size. 

159. Rubber valve seats for pump; desig- 

nate pump, 

160. Saws, Disston, 3' 1-man cross-cut, 

Great American Tooth. 

161. Saws, Disston, 26" No. 7, 5-point, 

162. Saws, 5' 2-man cross-cut. 

163. Saws, 6' 2-man cross-cut. 

164. Saw handles for No. 7, 26" 5-point 

Disston. 

165. Saw handles for 3' 1-man Disston, 

166. Saw handles for 6' 2-man cross-cut 

saw, 

167. Scales for weighing arsenate of lead. 

168. Scraper's barbox. 

169. Screw eyes for telegraph pruners. 

170. Screw drivers, 6". 

171. Scythe stone. Norton emery. 

172. Snips, tinning. 

173. Shovels, long handled, round point, 

174. Shovels, square end (fire shovels), 

175. Spark plugs, 

176. Sprayer-barrel outfit. 

177. Sprayer, double-acting pump and 

tank. 

178. Spray poles, V2" galvanized 8' iron, 

fitted. 

179. Springs, extra, for Waters pruners. 

180. Springs for telegraph pruners. 

181. Strainers for IV2" suction hose. 

182. Strainers, for 2" suction hose. 

183. Strainers, for 2i/^" suction hose. 

184. Tanglefoot, 25 lb. tins. 

185. Tanglefoot, 40 lb. wooden pail, 

186. Tanglefoot, V2 barrel. 

187. Tanglefoot combs. 

188. Tape, electric, lb. roll. 

189. Tape, electric, V2 lb. roll. 

190. Trowels, 7V2" brick. 

191. Trowels, pointing 5". 

192. Washers, for 1" suction hose. 

193. Washers, for 1%" suction hose. 

194. Washers, for 2" suction hose. 

195. Washers, for 2V2" suction hose, 

196. Washers, for IV2" hose. 

197. Washers, for 1" 7-ply marline-cov- 

ered hose (for new coupling). 

198. Washers, for 1" 7-ply marline-cov- 

ered hose (for old coupling). 

199. Washers, for IVz" 7-ply marline-cov- 

ered hose (for old coupling). 

200. Washers, for V2" cotton or rubber 

hose. 

201. Washers, for cotton or rubber 

hose. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No: 73. 



77 



List of Supplies by 

No. 

202. Wedges, steel, 4^/^ lb. Truckee. 

203. Wrenches, bicycle, 8". 

204. Wrenches, monkey, 12". 

205. Wrenches, Stillson, 14". 

206. Zinc, sheet, 9 oz. 

207. Memorandum books. 

208. Monthly report sheets. 

209. Pay roll blanks. 

210. Record books. 

211. Schedule of bill blanks. 

212. Time books. 

213. Triplicate books. 

214. First Annual Report of Superintend- 

ent for Suppression of Gypsy 
and Brown-tail Moths. 

215. Second Annual Report of Superin- 

tendent for Suppression of 
Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths. 

216. Third Annual Report of Superintend- 

ent for Suppression of Gypsy 
and Brown-tail Moths. 



NuMBEE — Concluded. 
No. 

217. Fourth Annual Report of Superin- 

tendent for Suppression of 
G3'psy and Brown-tail Moths. 

218. Bulletin No. 2. 

219. Sixth Annual Report of State For- 

ester. 

220. How to make Improvement Thin- 

nings. 

221. Reforestation in Massachusetts. 

222. Massachusetts Wood-using Indus- 

tries. 

223. We must stop Forest Fires. 

224. Forest Mensuration of the White 

Pine. 

225. How and when to collect White Pine 

Seed. 

226. Forestry in Massachusetts. 

227. Forest Laws. 

228. Parasite Bulletin. 



Supplementary 

No. 

229. Axes, broad. 

230. Axes, hand. 

231. Battery connections. 

232. Beetles (state size). 

233. Blade holders for bush scythes. 

234. Bramble scythes. 

235. Chisels, %" flat. 

236. Chisels, 2". 

237. Clyde pruner No. 2 bolts. 

238. Clyde pruner No. 2 rivets. 

239. Copper wire on spool. 

240. Gage glasses. 

241. Gaskets, copper. 

242. Gasoline tunnel with strainer. 

243. Gouges. 

244. Handles, extra, for bush scythes. 

245. Hose mender bands, Vz", 1". 



List, Oct. 19, 1910. 
No. 

246. Hose menders, V2", %", 1". 

247. Ladder, slip (made by Moulton). 

248. Oilers, copper, for machinery. 

249. Packing, flax. 

250. Packing, Selden's. 

251. Saw clamps with 1" jaw. 

252. Saws, two-edge pruning. 

253. Scrapers, 3-cornered. 

254. Strainers for lead. 

255. Switch keys. 

256. Tinning snips, curved blades. 

257. Tunnels, small. 

258. Waters pruner handles, extra. 

259. Wrenches, monkey, 24". 

260. Wrenches, Stillson, 18". 

261. Wrenches, Stillson, 24". 



CO-OPERATION. 

Co-operation between this office and cities, towns and property 
owners is greatly to be desired, and is encouraged by this office. 
In cities already heavily burdened with expenses there are often 
public parks badly infested, where some co-operative arrange- 
ments might be made with this office, so that the expense of the 
work may be lightened for the city. It would be necessary to 
confine such arrangements to places most used by the public. 
This might also be done in large towns having public parks. 



78 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The problem of tlie individual is somewhat different, as trou- 
bles are usually confined to their own estates or to adjoining 
ones; but in either case, if the property owner shows a disposi- 
tion to care for his estate in the proper manner, and he is the 
owner of valuable wooded areas, oftentimes better results can 
be accomplished by making some co-operative arrangement with 
this office. In cases where valuable woodlands are badly infested, 
the work of cleaning them should not be delayed too long, as 
each year they will depreciate in value, making the work more 
expensive. It must also be borne in mind that thinning, where 
there is not too much dead wood, oftentimes will nearly pay for 
itself in the cord wood that is removed, and also give the re- 
maining growth a much better chance to mature. Where indi- 
viduals clean their own property, and adjoining lands are badly 
infested, and the owner is unable to care for such parts as may 
border on his neighbor's lands, some co-operative plan should be 
arranged to meet the case. In spraying, it is also a benefit to 
have spraying apparatus used in cities and towns for the moth 
work and elm-leaf beetle work. We are willing to co-operate in 
any of the above-named ways ; but cases should be brought to 
the attention of this office at the beginning of the year, so that 
there may be sufficient time to plan the work. 

In purchasing extra spraying outfits which may be used in the 
future in spraying for the elm-leaf beetle, as well as in the 
work against gypsy moths, we are willing to co-operate with 
towns or cities. 

This co-operative work is of value not only to the individual, 
but also to the community at large and therefore to the Com- 
monwealth. 

ITational Aid. 

The work done by the federal forces during the year 1910 
has been very commendable. The roadside thinning, which has 
been done by them this season in cities and towns where the 
infestation was severe enough to cause stripping of trees and 
dropping of caterpillars, has been a great help. Since the thin- 
ning and cleaning have been confined to a 50-foot strip, a greater 
number of miles have been covered than in previous years ; and 
before another caterpillar season such roadsides as can properly 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



79 



be treated by tbem will be nearly covered. We do not wisb it 
understood that no more aid along tbis line will be needed ; bnt 
the point tbat must be considered is, if this kind of work is 
nearly completed, what is the next most necessary step. It is 
generally understood by those best qualified to judge that na- 
tional aid must be rendered us, with more definite purpose and 
by methods surer of results than ever before. According to 
the amount of infestation at the present time, Massachusetts 
is receiving less in proportion than any other State which is 
infested with the gypsy and brown-tail moths. Massachusetts' 
appropriation is $300,000: the cities and towns spend $350,- 
000 and the tax which property owners pay amounts to from 
$150,000 to $200,000, making a possible expenditure of $850,- 
000, not including what is being appropriated and expended in 
State parks and on the lands of State institutions, which would 
amount to nearly $200,000 more, this making an expenditure 
which can be estimated of $1,000,000 in all against the moths 
in the State. There is also a very large amount expended each 
year by individuals, of which there can be no record obtained, 
which shows that the government expenditure for l^ew Eng- 
land in the fight against the gypsy and brovni-tail moths, which 
is $300,000, is about one third of what Massachusetts is expend- 
ing; and, as there are three other l^ew England States with 
serious infestations of the gypsy moth, Massachusetts gets but 
a small part from the government, compared with what it 
should get. A tabulation of the expenditure of this money, 
which follows, reveals the exact condition. Maine expenditure 
from 1905 to January, 1910, $95,000; government, $50,000; 
l^ew Hampshire, $37,000; government, $90,000; Ehode 
Island, $33,000; government, $38,000; Massachusetts, from 
May, 1905, to January, 1910, $5,500,000 ; government, $417,- 
763.84. 

After considering this analysis of moth expenditure in the 
"New England States which are infested with the gypsy moth, 
it does not seem that Massachusetts, with its long, hard fight 
against this pest, and with its enormous expenditure, is getting 
its share of assistance from the government funds: that is, if 
the question of proportionate expenditnre be taken into consid- 
eration. This work, from the time of starting in 1906, has 
been carried on with the purpose of controlling the spread of 



80 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the gypsy moth by the method of thinning wooded roadsides 
where bad infestations were found, and caring for the same 
throughout the year. This method seems to be the best up to 
the present; and, as before mentioned, probably before another 
caterpillar season a greater part of this work will be covered in 
this State. As it has also been determined that the spread of 
the gypsy moth is not alone brought about by artificial means 
(as is explained in another part of this report), some other 
means of assistance is due this Commonwealth. In other 
States, when the appropriation has been exhausted, the State 
forces have been taken on to the government pay roll and the 
work continued along the same lines. It often happens in our 
Massachusetts Avork that there is not sufficient money to carry 
out what might be termed necessary work ; and Avhen our funds 
are exhausted, there are no means for continuing until another 
appropriation from the State is available. This handicaps our 
work badly; and if we are obliged to allow men to lie idle any 
length of time, they immediately secure employment with the 
government forces, and when our money for the work is availa- 
ble it is necessary to take untrained men, which is a loss in 
efficiency and expense. It therefore seems to us that some 
more definite plan should be made, so that we should receive 
our proportionate share of the federal appropriation. Although 
our infested territory is not growing much larger, it is becom- 
ing more badly infested in the northern section of the State, 
as the gypsy moth is inclined to spread in this direction, thus 
necessitating larger expenditures by the State in this section; 
and, as the residential section in most cases is in much better 
shape, more attention is being paid to the infested woodland by 
the owners, and co-operation is asked for. With the limited 
appropriations which our State is able to make, this becomes a 
very severe hardship financially, and in these cases help from 
the government funds is needed. In order to supply the de- 
mand for help along this line, larger government appropriations 
should be made, with the stipulation that part of the money 
should be spent in this co-operative work with the State. An- 
other reason why larger government appropriations are needed 
is, that inspection of shipments of all kinds is required to pre- 
vent the spread of the gypsy moth; and, as this problem is one 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



81 



of great magnitude, if done on a large scale it will necessitate 
a large expense in itself. To result satisfactorily, it must be 
done in a very thorough, manner. 

On examining the analysis of expense, it will be seen that 
the other States are receiving larger sums in comparison to 
their expenditure than Massachusetts ; and when the question is 
raised as to why this is done, the argument is used that their 
valuation will not allow them to make sufficient appropriation 
to carry on the work. Let us take our own case and look into 
it thoroughly, and see if we are not in the same class as the 
others, or worse. For twelve years previous to 1900 the State 
continued to appropriate money for this work. It was then 
stopped and taken up again four and one-half years later with 
larger appropriations than ever, and at that time a law was 
enacted so that the burden of expense was placed on the Com- 
monwealth, cities, towns and property owners. They have 
stood the financial strain in an uncomplaining manner, while in 
other States, cities, towns and property owners are not suffering 
from this burden to any extent. As the law in our Common- 
wealth allows only a small moth tax to be placed on valuable 
wooded areas that promise to be ruined unless given treatment, 
it seems that the expense of this work should be shared by the 
government. As the cities, towns and State can do only a very 
small part of this work, to our minds this problem is becoming 
more and more of national consequence. Taking the badly 
infested sections into consideration, the westward border of our 
infested district is one of great importance, not only for this 
State, but to the whole country; and as time goes on, and the 
infestation increases in this section, the more the country west 
of us is threatened. If this pest ever passes the Connecticut 
River in our State, the States west of us are sure to become in- 
fested in time, and then the possibilities of control are almost 
beyond reason ; while at the present time, if the proper methods 
are used, the chance of this westward spread is very small. 
While this Commonwealth is compelled to act under the present 
statute, it is powerless, as we cannot employ trained men and do 
the work as it should be done, as each to^vn is doing its own 
work with what might be termed " untrained " men. On the 
other hand, if sufficient government funds were available, this 



82 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



district could be thorouglily handled in the proper manner. It 
is therefore self-evident to one who understands the problem 
that the government appropriations are only one-third large 
enough; and it should be the duty of the people of our State 
and adjoining States to make an appeal to Congress for suffi- 
cient money to do enough work for more effective protection. 

!N'oRTH Shore Work. 
The work on the famous IsTorth Shore has been continued 
throughout the year. It is certainly fortunate for this section 
of the State that it contains such a public-spirited class of 
people. 

The towns and cities represent one party and the i^^orth 
Shore fund raised by private subscription another, while the 
State is a third party. By all three interests uniting and hav- 
ing the work under the State's jurisdiction, we are able to 
accomplish exceptionally fine results. This ^^"orth Shore work 
has proven especially valuable as an object lesson in demonstrat- 
ing what can be accomplished. 

The following is a partial reproduction of the summer resi- 
dents committees' report : — 

Gypsy Moth and Road Work on the North Shore. 
General Purposes. 

This circular is sent to outline the work which has been done on the 
North Shore during the last year, to preserve the forests and beautiful 
wooded drives and places, to develop its beauties by building wood 
roads, to keep the roads already built in repair, and to prevent the dust 
nuisance by oiling the roads. 

It is sent to the subscribers so that they may know what has been 
accomplished and where and how their money was spent. 

It is sent to the residents on the shore who have not subscribed, not 
only to show them what has been done to preserve its beauties and add 
to their pleasure, at the expense of the subscribers, but, even more, 
to give them an opportunity to co-operate by subscribing their fair 
share of the cost of the work. 

Preserving the Forest. 
Your committees present herewith a map showing the woodland on 
the North Shore Avhicli has been cleared, the brush burned, the nests 
creosoted and the territory sprayed during the past season. You will 




-^EXPLANATION^^ 

TREATED WITH CREOSOTE._@ LAKES '-x" PONDS 

UNCUT m ^■^^'^'^ "•'^ 

" •- ^ STREET R.R 

on- IN 1910 ^ CARRIAGE ROADS _S= 

CUT .H .30. ^ BR^i;^:°=::::::z::^ 

CUT IN I90S._ _ ^ TOWN ahoCITV LINES 

COLONIES SPRAYED [s] 



CHARACTER of WORK 


ACRES 


COST 


UNIT COST 


Spraying 


30l5i 


*I9,65I,4I 


$ 6.5lf- per aero 


Tanglefooffng 




1.324,27 




CreosotinC! 




6,908.33 


2.171 f«racm 


Cutti n$ s"'' burning 


9255 


20,801.31 


22.48J perocm 


Road buildfnfi 




451.31 


.OS'Jrperso.yd. 



PI_AN SHOWING 

NORTH SHORE GYPSY MOTH COLONIES 

TREATED BY ST/xTE SUPERINTENDENT 

/AUGUST- ISIO 



MANCHESTEft CONMIHEE 

MAJHENRV L. HIGOINSON. 
GARDINER M. LANE. 
GEORGE. WIGGLESWORTK 



BEVERLY COMMITTEE. 

OLIVER AMES. 
CHARLES H.TYLER. 
WM. D.SOHIER. 



m 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



83 



notice that, more than ever before, the work has been circumscribed and 
confined to the woodland adjoining the shore and the sides of the wood 
roads. This was due to the fact' that it was evidently an impossible 
task to take care of all the back woods. 

The woods adjoining the shore from Magnolia to Gloucester were 
being rapidly destroyed, and your committee therefore took up, with 
the city of Gloucester and the residents in that neighborhood, the ques- 
tion of caring for those woods, in addition to the territory already 
cared for in Beverly and Manchester. 

The result was that the city of Gloucester subscribed $2,500, the State 
agreed to contribute $2,500 and to superintend and direct the work, and 
the residents in that immediate neighborhood subscribed $2,535. Con- 
sequently, 305 acres in that vicinity were cared for and sprayed. 

How the Work was done. 

In order to give an idea of how the work was done and the plant that 
was necessary to accomplish it, as well as the work which was accom- 
plished, we present herewith some half-tones that illustrate it more 
graphically than words can. 

The first one shows the sprajdng machines used on the North Shore 
work and the auxiliary equipment, like the three gasoline pumps, the 
water carts that were used as tenders, the hose, etc. To do economical 
work it is necessary to have a gang of about eleven men with each 
spraying machine and about 1,000 feet of hose. In this manner a 
large radius is covered from the source of supply. The gasoline pumps 
also decreased the cost by pumping the water 1,000 feet or so. 

The whole problem of economical spraying depends upon the rapidity 
with which the tank can be filled and emptied and the number of times 
this can be done during the day. Some of our new machines this year 
covered as much as 24 acres a day, which means that the tank was 
loaded and unloaded twenty-four times. 

In the next two cuts we show the spray being thrown on to and in 
fact over the trees. Great economy was effected this year by the use 
of a nozzle gotten out by L. H. Worthley, superintendent, which was 
very easy to handle, and from which a spray could be thrown over all 
of the trees in the forest without climbing. This proved a great saving 
in time and money. 

Another cut shows a cluster of gypsy moth caterpillars attempting 
to climb a tree which has been tanglefooted, and there are two more 
cuts which illustrate the value of the work which has been done upon 
the roadsides. These show the trees defoliated early in the season in 
the back woods where no spraying was done, and the trees upon the 
roadside which have been sprayed, their leaves being intact. 

A cut is also given of Mussell Point in Gloucester, near the life-saving 
station, which shows graphically the importance of the work done and 



84 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



what can be done. Last year there was not a single leaf left on the 
trees, and the ground was absolutely covered by the crawling cater- 
pillars. This work was taken on this year in connection with the 
Gloucester work, the forest was cleared up, the nests creosoted and 
the territory sprayed, the result being that the trees were unharmed. 

Another illustration of the same character would be found on the 
hill belonging to Mr. Cabot, directly back of the Essex County Golf 
Club links. This hill was thoroughly defoliated last year, the cater- 
pillars crawling over the golf links and greens. There was very little 
strijoping there this year, if any, in consequence of the work done. 

The Work accomplished. 

Roughly speaking, about 1,000 acres of woodland were cleared up 
and sprayed in 1908, about 2,100 acres in 1909 and something over 
3,000 acres in 1910. The cost of the work is interesting, being approxi- 
mately as follows: in 1908, $60,000; in 1909, $60,000; in 1910, nearly 
$57,000; the acreage covered in 1910 being about three times that cared 
for in 1908, and the total expenditure being somewhat smaller. 

The work has all been done under the direction of the State forestry 
department, of which Mr. F. W. Rane is the head, but it has been 
directly in charge of his gypsy moth superintendent, Mr. L. Howard 
Worthley, who has under him two extremely efficient assistants in 
charge of the work on the ground, Messrs. Saul Phillips and Walter 
F. Holmes. All of these gentlemen are entitled to the greatest possible 
credit for their efficient work, but for which there would have been but 
few trees left unstripped in the Beverly and Manchester woods. In 
fact, there seems no doubt that the conditions would now be unbearable 
had the colonies been allowed to spread during the last few years. 

Our Woods can be preserved. 

It seems to your committee that the work which has been done abso- 
lutely demonstrates, beyond a doubt, that thorough and efficient work 
will preserve the woods, and this at a constantly decreasing cost per 
acre. You have all seen territory which was defoliated in 1909, and 
which is practically untouched in 1910. The conditions in the woods 
where work has been done are better each year, the gypsy moths are 
fewer, and fewer trees are being defoliated. In spite of this, the cost 
has been lessened. 

In consequence of the efficient work on the part of the State super- 
intendent this year, many economies have been effected, and it is hoped 
that much improvement may be made along this line next year. The 
introduction of better spraying machines is a great saving. Two new 
spraying machines, which were built at no greater cost than the old 
ones, have nearly, if not quite, double the capacity. They can spray 
twice as many acres in one day with the same labor force. 



I 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 85 



How the Money was secured. 
This year, as in former years, the Governor of the Commonwealth 
was appealed to for help. It was agreed by Governor Draper that 
the State gypsy moth department should take charge of the work, and 
that for the first money necessary, the State, the city of Beverly and 
the town of Manchester, and your committee, should share the expense, 
each paying one-third. Your committee therefore saw the officials of 
the city of Beverly and secured the sum of $5,000; Manchester, at a 
town meeting, appropriated $7,500; the State contributed $12,500; the 
committee contributed $12,500; making a total amount available for 
the work of $37,500. The balance of the expense was shared by the 
Commonwealth and your committees. Had it not been for the gen- 
erous and hearty co-operation of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
it would have been impossible to preserve the roads on the North Shore. 

The United States Authorities co-operate. 

Early in the season it was arranged with the United States authori- 
ties, through Mr. Dexter M. Rogers, who was in charge of the work 
in our district, that they would, from their available funds, clear out 
and care for the woods 100 feet wide on each side of some of the main 
roads, in addition to roads which they have cared for in former years, 
this being in line with their regular work, which is invariably in the 
nature of a quarantine, to prevent the caterpillars from being spread. 
The United States authorities therefore cleared up and creosoted the 
nests upon the sides of 25 miles of wood roads, or about 600 acres, 
spending approximately $14,500 in connection with this work. They 
refused, however, to take care of the woods upon the sides of the 
wood roads from which automobiles were excluded, on the grourfd that 
because of the exclusion of automobiles there was less danger of the 
gypsy moth caterpillars being carried long distances. They did, how- 
ever, take care of the New Manchester Water Works Road through 
to Chebacco, and Hesperus Avenue in Magnolia, because automobiles 
were allowed to use those roads. We feel that all of our residents are 
indebted to the United States authorities, especially Dr. Howard and 
Mr. Rogers, under whose direction the work was done. 

Your committee, therefore, had to take care of the roadsides on the 
28 miles of wood road which are maintained by private subscription. 

The same committee that served last year, Maj. Henry L. Higginson, 
Gardiner M. Lane and George Wigglesworth, solicited and secured sub- 
scriptions amounting to over $10,000 from the summer residents in 
Manchester. 

Your Beverly committee secured something over $15,000 from the 
summer residents in Beverly, and also obtained $2,500 from the city 
of Gloucester, $2,500 from the State, as well as something over $2,500 



86 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

which was subscribed by residents in that neighborhood. This enabled 
the committee to care for some of the woods near the water from 
Magnolia Point to Gloucester. 

Cost of the Work. 

According to the report of the State superintendent, the work this 
year was as follows : — 

In Gloucester, 202 acres cleared, burned and creosoted, 305 acres 
sprayed, at a total cost of $7,642.82. 

In Beverly, Manchester and adjoining woods, 925 acres cut, burned 
and many of them creosoted, 3,015 acres sprayed, etc., at a total cost 
of $49,137.13, not including plant and some materials. 

Expenditures. 
Expenditures from Aug. 1, 1909, to July 16, 1910, . 

Tools, spraying machines, etc., 

Bills outstanding, 



Value of tools and supplies on hand, . 
Actual cost of work, not including plant, . 



$43,044 63 
14,160 39 
937 18 



$58,142 20 
9,005 07 



$49,137 13 



Details of Cost of WorJc. 

Spraying, $19,651 41 

Tanglefooting, 1,163 02 

Combing tanglefoot, 161 35 

Eoad building, 451 31 

Cutting and burning, 20,801 31 

Creosoting in Adams estate, .... 420 47 

Creosoting in Bradley estate, .... 49 82 

Creosoting in Walker's estate, .... 1,012 09 

Creosoting, general, 5,426 35 



$49,137 13 



Average Cost of WorJc. 

Spraying, per acre, $6 512/, 

Creosoting, per acre, 2 17^ 

Cutting and burning, per acre, .... 22 48"^ 

Road building, per square yard, . . . 

Cost of running one sprayer, per day, . . 66 16 



Where the work was done on private estates, which was only in the 
back woods, where it came in connection with other work that your 
committee was doing, the money is being repaid by the owners when 
they are able to do so. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



Parasites. 

Many thousands of parasites have been planted in various localities 
in our back woods, where it was not likely that they would be inter- 
fered with by spraying, next year. Many varieties of parasites have 
been cultivated in this country, and so far have survived our winters, 
and several of them promise satisfactory results. Several of the most 
promising varieties have been imported in vast numbers from Japan 
and from Europe, and many of these have been liberated upon the 
North Shore. This work has been under the charge of the United States 
Department of Agriculture, and under the direction of its expert. Dr. 
L. 0. Howard. 

Plantings have been made, not only of the Calosoma beetle, a small 
green beetle, but also of several varieties of flies and smaller insects, 
which attack the gypsy moth in its various stages of development. 
Naturally, it will be several years before these parasites can develop 
enough to secure the balance of power, because the gypsy moths are 
already present in such large numbers. All the best experts agree, 
however, that in a few years the parasite will develop and secure the 
balance of power in this country, as it has already done in all other 
countries where the gypsy moth is prevalent. In the meantime, we 
must preserve all our most valuable woodland near the shore by active, 
efficient and co-operative work. 

Dr. Howard told your secretary last winter that, while he should not 
feel justified officially in giving an absolute statement to that effect, he 
personally had very little doubt that within three or four years the 
parasites would develop sufficiently to obtain the balance of power 
over the gypsy moth caterpillars. 

Another encouraging feature this year was that in some of the large 
colonies the wilt disease, so called, developed and attacked both brown- 
tail and gypsy moth caterpillars, killing them off in large numbers. 
One piece of woods in particular is interesting in this respect, that 
being the large section near Magnolia and West Gloucester, bounded 
by Magnolia Avenue, the State highway at Gloucester and Essex Street, 
which runs from the West Gloucester station toward Gloucester. Last 
year it was absolutely swarming with caterpillars, and there was hardly 
a leaf left. Your committee put three spraying machines at work there, 
and prevented the caterpillars from spreadi*ng by spraying some 300 
feet in on the borders. This starved out a great many caterpillars, and 
this year the wilt disease killed many more, and consequently many 
of the trees in that section of woods, while they have not been sprayed, 
still have their leaves in fairly good condition. This is true also in 
other places, in the Chebacco woods and elsewhere, and is an extremely 
hopeful sign for the future. 



88 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Otir Hopes for the Future. 

Your committee believes that if the money is provided and the work 
continued on the lines on which it has been begun, our beautiful woods 
adjoining the shore can be preserved, as can also the woods immediately 
adjoining the wood roads. 

It hopes that the subscribers and the cities and towns, as well as the 
United States and State governments, will co-operate in the future, as 
they have in the past. 

It hopes that every resident or summer resident on the North Shore 
who has enjoyed our woods, our drives and our dustless roads, and 
who has not yet subscribed, or who has not yet given his fair share 
towards this work, will co-operate by sending a check to Wm. D. Sohier, 
agent, 15 Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass. 

A list of the subscribers is published herewith. 

Wm. D. Sohier, 
For the Committee. 



Summer Eesidents Committees. 



Beverly. 

Oliver Ames. 
Charles H. Tyler. 
William D, Sohier. 



Manchester. 
Maj. Henry L. Higginson. 
Gardiner M. Lane. 
George Wiggles worth. 



Subscriptions for Gypsy Moth Work on the North Shore, 1910. 

Beverly. 



Henry C. Frick, . 


$2,000 


Eobert S. Bradley, 


$250 


William H. Moore, 


1,000 


J. L. Saltonstall, 


250 


W. S. & J. T. Spaulding, 


750 


William Endicott, Jr., 


^250 


Oliver Ames, 


500 


Dr. Henry F. Sears, . 


>250 


Mrs. E. D. Evans, 


^500 


Eobert Saltonstall, 


250 


William Endicott, 


500 


Bryce J. Allan, . 


250 


Mrs. Charles H. Dalton, 


400 


Frederick Ayer, . 


250 


D. Herbert Hostetter, . 


300 


F. L. Higginson, 


250 


Dudley L. Pickman, . 


^300 


Hon. William C. Loring, . 


250 


John T. Morse, Jr., . 


300 


Herbert M. Sears, 


250 


Col. C. N. Wallace, . 


^300 


Alexander Cochrane, . 


250 


W. B. Thomas, . 


250 


Henry P. King, . 


200 


Quincy A. Shaw estate. 


250 


Thomas P. Beal, . 


^200 


Amory A. Lawrence, . 


250 


The Misses Loring, 


200 


Miss Fanny P. Mason, 


250 


Mr. and Mrs. Neal Eantoul, 


200 


George S. Mandell, 


250 


Cora H. Shaw, . 


200 


William Phillips, 


250 


Mrs. Nicholas Longworth, . 


200 


Charles H. Tweed, 


250 


Philip S. Sears, . 


150 


Charles H. Tyler, 


250 


Mrs. J. B. Silsbee, 


150 


George Dexter, . 


250 


F. J. and Alice Cotting, . 


125 



1 Available for either moth or road work. 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 89 



Subscriptions for Gypsy Moth Work, etc. — Continued. 
Beverly — Concluded. 



Allen Curtis, 


$100 


George A. Goddard, . 


$100 


Amos Lawrence, . 


100 


F. I. Amory, 


50 


Leonard AM, 


100 


Gordon Dexter, . 


50 


Charles Storrow, . 


100 


T. C. Hollander, . 


50 


Col. C. L. Pierson, 


100 


Dr. Franklin Dexter, . 


50 


Mrs. Guy jSTorman, 


100 


James L. Paine, 


50 


A. Shuman, 


100 


Mrs. John S. Curtis, . 


50 


Charles J. Morse, 


100 


Mrs. Franklin Haven, . 


50 


Mrs. John C. Phillips, 


100 


Mrs. F. H. Peabody, . 


50 


Mrs. James F. Curtis, 


100 


Mrs. Eobert C. Heaton, 


^50 


Augustus P. Loring, . 


100 


Mrs. Hall Curtis, 


50 


The Misses Paine, 


100 


Norman F. Greeley, . 


25 


i\irs. xLi. x^reoie Motiev, 


100 


A. C. Eatshesky, 




Harold J. Coolidge, 


100 


Charles K. Cummings, 


25 


TTorapp T) ChflDiTi 


100 






k^ctiXlLlt:;! X, *>J.Ui ot/. 


100 


Total, . 


41 K Q 50 

• fpXXJ yOO\J 


Katharine E. Silsbee 


uoo 








Manchester. 




George E. White, 


. * $500 


Mrs. S. P. Blake, 


$100 


Charles E. Cotting, . 


500 


Eoland C. Lincoln, 


100 


Lester Leland, 


500 


Ezra C. Fitch, . 


100 


George N. Black, 


500 


S. H. Fessenden, 


100 


Walter D. Denegre, . 


300 


Mrs. Edw. Wigglesworth, 


100 


Harrison K. Caner, 


250 


Mrs. Charles Hanks, . 


250 


Gardiner M. Lane, 


250 


William B. Walker, . 


250 


Henry L. Higginson, . 


250 


Mrs. James McMillan, 


250 


Elizabeth Winthrop, . 


250 


Edward S. Grew, 


250 


The Misses Curtis, 


250 


Louis Cabot, 


250 


Jane N. Grew, . 


250 


Mrs. W. S. Fitz, . 


250 


Francis M. Whitehouse, 


250 


Gordon Abbott, . 


250 


F. W. Fabyan, . 


250 


Clement S. Houghton, . 


2.50 


Eben D. Jordan, 


250 


John L. Thorndike, . 


250 


S. Eeed Anthony, 


=^200 


George Wigglesworth, . 


250 


Mrs. W. C. Cabot, 


200 


Thomas B. Gannett, . 


100 


T. J. Coolidge, Jr., . 


200 


William J. Boardman, . 


100 


Mrs. Mary E. Bremer, 


200 


Alex. S. Porter, Jr., . 


100 


E. T. Paine, 2d, . 


150 


Amory Eliot, 


100 


Mrs. C. P, Hemenway, 


150 


T. J. Coolidge, . 


100 


T. Dennie Boardman, . 


100 


George Putnam, . 


100 


Dr. E. H. Fitz, . 


100 


George H. Lyman, 


100 


S. Parker Bremer, 


100 


William L. Putnam, . 


50 


E. H. Dana, 


100 


Mrs. George D. Howe, 


50 


T. K. Lothrop, . 


100 


The Misses Bartlett, . 


50 


Samuel Carr, 


100 


Mrs. J. S. Sturgis, 


50 



^ Available for either moth or road work. 
2 Omitted by error in 1909. 



90 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Subscriptions for Gypsy Moth Work, etc. — Concluded. 





Manchester - 


— Concluded. 




Kichard Stone, 


$50 


Russell Tyson, 


$25 


Miss E. D. Boardman, . 


50 


John H. Storer, . 


10 


VV lUldlll ±UCJa.ol, . 


50 


Arthur Merriam, . 




HGnristta M. Crosby, 


50 






Samuel B. Dana, . 


50 


Total, . 


. $10,470 


Nelson S. Bartlett, 


25 






Totals. 




Beverly, 






$15,850 








10,470 


Total, . 










Magnolia. 




Jolin Hays Hammond, 


$500 


C. D. Turnbull,- . 


$100 


lYllCjb Hi, Vt. JJLUUy Ill/Oil, . 


250 


Mrs. Mary Turnbull, . 




.Tnhn T Mnr«!P .Tr 


200 


George A. Upton, 


75 


V^JUdl lets Xj. XlcxliA, . 


200 


James S. Lee, 




XVlloo J- dLliiVllc!!. , • • 


200 


Mrs. J. T. Heard, 


o\j 


^^illinTYi TT r^nnli rl (TP 


100 


Miss Georgina Lowell, . 


50 


E. C. Richardson, 


100 


R. B. Williams, . 


25 


Mrs. L. F. Ayres, 


100 


Anonymous, 


25 


W. R. Nelson, 


100 


Mrs. S. W. Covel, 


10 


Mrs. William McMillan, 


100 






George F. Willett, 


100 


Total, . 


. $2,535 


J. Harrington Walker, 


100 







Gypsy Moths spread by the Wind. 

It is a well-known fact that caterpillars of the gypsy moth are 
distributed from badly infested colonies on automobiles and 
teams, and proof is at hand that they have sometimes been car- 
ried by farm animals. 

During the progress of the gypsy moth work, especially the 
scouting operations in the territory outside of the badly in- 
fested district, many colonies of the insect have been found in 
locations remote from roadways, and often in wooded areas sel- 
dom frequented by men or domestic animals. The repeated 
occurrence of colonies in such situations rendered it very diffi- 
cult to explain in a rational Avay the means by which the insect 
became established. It has often been suggested that birds 
might be considered responsible, as some species are known to 
carry hairy caterpillars to their nesting places for the purpose 
of feeding their young. The present scarcity in eastern Massa- 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



91 



chusetts of birds which are known to feed to any great extent 
on hairy caterpillars, together with the distance from badly 
infested areas to new colonies, which was often several miles, 
renders it improbable that the distribution can be accounted for 
in this manner. The question also arose in regard to the pos- 
sibility of birds feeding upon the egg masses of the gypsy moth, 
and distributing fertile eggs in the excrement at points far 
removed from where the food was obtained.^ The location of 
many of these colonies made this theory improbable, and certain 
tests which have been made on birds in confinement seem to 
indicate that it is very unusual for eggs to pass unharmed 
through the alimentary tract. It is somewhat doubtful whether 
eggs of this insect are eaten by birds, under natural conditions. 
Furthermore, the digestive process of birds is carried on very 
rapidly, and it is improbable that under the most favorable 
conditions eggs could be conveyed long distances. 

As a result of the continual discussion of the reason why cer- 
tain isolated colonies had come into existence, and of much 
thought and consideration upon this subject by practically all 
the officials connected with the gypsy moth work, it was decided 
to carry on a series of experiments, for the purpose of deter- 
mining, if possible, whether newly hatched caterpillars of the 
gypsy moth could be distributed by the wind. Accordingly, 
early in the spring of 1910 arrangements were made for these 
tests to be carried on in a co-operative way by the United States 
Bureau of Entomology and the office of the Massachusetts 
State Forester. The work was under the general charge of 
Mr. A. F. Burgess, who was assisted by Mr. C. W. Collins, both 
of the Bureau. The necessary apparatus and supplies were 
furnished by the State Forester's office, and also several men 
who assisted in the work at various times. Among those who 
should be specially mentioned were Messrs. J. Y. Schaffner, 
Emery Proctor and H. E. Gooch. In planning the experi- 
ments, much assistance and valuable advice was given by 
Messrs. W. F. Fiske and D. M. Eogers of the Bureau, also by 
Messrs. L. H. Worthley and F. H. Mosher. 

1 Collins, "Some Results from feeding Eggs of Porthetria dispar to Birds," Journal of Eco- 
nomic Entomology, Vol. 3, No. 4, August, 1910, page 343. 

Reiff, " Some Experiments on the Resistance of Gypsy Moth Eggs to the Digestive Fluids 
of Birds," Psyche, Vol. XVII., No. 4, August, 1910, page 161. 



92 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Experiments were made in several localities where condi- 
tions were suitable for a thorough test. In order to capture 
caterpillars that might be floating in the air, screens made of 
ordinary poultry wire were constructed, and treated with a 
coating of tanglefoot. Two screens of this sort were built on 
rafts, one of which was moored in the center of Sandy Pond 
in Lincoln, and the other in Chebacco Lake in Essex. The 
woodland surrounding these bodies of water was badly infested 
with the gypsy moth. Another screen was placed on the top of 
a high tower in the Lynn woods, while still another was exposed 
on the sides of a tower at Cliftondale. 

The results of these experiments were not entirely satisfac- 
tory, although a few caterpillars were found on the screen trap 
on Sandy Pond. 

Another test was made by liberating young caterpillars from 
a station near the center of the salt marshes between Revere and 
Lynn. These marshes cover a large area, and the experiments 
were well isolated from any trees or shrubs upon which gypsy 
moth egg clusters might be found. Small, portable, tangle- 
footed screens were set up at various distances from the station 
where boxes containing hatched egg clusters were placed in such 
a manner that the caterpillars were allowed to crawl out and 
spin down from one side of the containers. The screens had to 
be changed frequently, as it was necessary to keep them in line 
with the direction of the wind. Caterpillars were caught on 
these screens at distances varying from 50 to 600 feet; and 
upon one screen which was allowed to remain out during the 
night of May 11, and which was 1,833 feet from the point of 
liberation, a single caterpillar was found the following morning. 

These experiments demonstrated conclusively that small 
caterpillars of the gypsy moth may be carried by wind. This 
method of distribution is probably most frequent when the 
caterpillars are in the first, or possibly in the second, stage, at 
which time they spin large quantities of silk for the purpose 
of lowering themselves from the trees or foliage. It is probable 
that these insects are often carried long distances in this way, 
and that large numbers of them perish every year because they 
fail to come in contact with suitable food. 

The result of this investigation shows the grave danger of 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



permitting large woodland colonies of the gypsy moth to exist, 
becanse, when the infestation becomes severe in any area, the 
opportunity for wide dissemination of the insect increases very 
rapidly. A study of the gypsy-moth-infested area in 'New 
England shows very plainly that localities many miles removed 
from badly infested areas must have become infested in this 
manner between the years 1900 and 1905, during the time 
when no work was done to prevent the spread of this insect. 
The results also explain the reason why small colonies are being 
found each year in the outlying towns. 

Spea-Yittg not a Destkoyee of Birds. 
There has been a general feeling abroad that spraying with 
arsenate of lead has been and is destroying our birds. In order 
to determine this matter, we have had many birds sent to the 
chemist and tested for arsenical or lead poisoning. The results 
of these examinations have all been in the negative. Similar 
although ]nore extensive work has been carried on by the State 
Ornithologist, Mr. E. H. Forbush, the results of which have 
been published in his annual report for the year 1909, which 
can be had from^ the Massachusetts State Board of Agriculture, 
State House, Boston, upon application. Mr. Forbush exam- 
ined many birds, first for injury, and second, for poisoning. 
The following quotation from his report gives a comprehensive 
statement of conditions : — 

Investigations of the possible poisoning of birds by spraying trees 
with arsenical insecticides were continued through the summer of 1909. 
The result was inconclusive, but from what we now know it seems prob- 
able that the fatal effects of such spraying have been exaggerated both 
by the people and the press. We cannot say that no birds die from 
eating live, poisoned insects, from eating poisoned foliage or from 
drinking poisoned water; but after several years' study of the subject 
it seems safe to assume that although probably some birds are fatally 
poisoned, they are the exception and not the rule. Probably there is 
far more destruction of birds where unsprayed trees are stripped of 
their foliage by the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth than where 
spraying is done and the foliage is saved. The defoliation of the trees 
by these insects, which exposes the nests of the birds to the sun and 
rain and to their natural enemies, results in the death of nearly all 
young birds in a region so defoliated, while the spraying probably 



94 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



kills at most comparatively few. The dearth of birds in parts of the 
region infested by the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth is no ^ doubt 
due largely to defoliation, as well as to the filling of holes in trees 
where birds formerly nested, and the cutting down of trees as well as 
the cutting and burning of underbrush. These operations, which are 
necessarily a part of the work of the moth suppression, are not de- 
structive to birds if not carried on in the nesting season, but they drive 
them away. The effect of the spraying operations upon birds may 
be illustrated by the case of the rose-breasted grosbeak. This bird is 
very fond of the Colorado potato beetle. Potatoes have been sprayed 
with Paris green and other arsenical insecticides ever since this beetle 
first ajDpeared in New England, and there is much circumstantial evi- 
dence which seems to point to the death of rose-breasted grosbeaks 
which have fed among the poisoned potatoes. Nevertheless, the Colo- 
rado beetle has furnished a new food supply for the grosbeaks, and 
the birds appear to be more numerous in Massachusetts than they were 
forty-five years ago, before the beetle Avas introduced. 

The results of the investigation of the year follow. Letters were 
sent early in May to many correspondents, and notices were published 
Avidely in the press requesting all persons finding dead birds near 
sprayed trees to send them to the State Ornithologist for examination. 
Much correspondence resulted and many dead birds were received at 
this office. Some correspondents were positive that large numbers of 
birds had been killed by the spraying in their neighborhoods, but most 
of them failed to produce any dead birds. Many correspondents in 
Massachusetts and other States, tree wardens, nurserymen, orchardists 
and others Avho made a business of spraying trees, and who claimed 
to have kept a careful watch for dead birds, reported that they had 
failed to find any. People on whose estates spraying had been done 
wrote that they had instructed their men to keep a close lookout for 
dead birds, but that none had been found. 

Par.vsite Work. 

Report of Dr. L. 0. Howard, Chief of the Bureau op Ento- 
mology, Washington, D. C. 

United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C, Nov. 30, 1910. 

Prof. F. W. Rane, State Forester, 6 Beacon Street, Boston, Mass. 

Sir : — I have the honor to report as follows upon the work done 
by this Bureau in its co-operation work with your State in the attempt 
to import and establish in New England the foreign parasites of the 
gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth, this report covering the period 
since the submittal of my last report, on Dec. 29, 1909. 

Respectfully yours, L. 0. Howard, Chief of Bureau. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



95 



The work of the gypsy moth parasite laboratory continued uninter- 
ruptedly during the year, consisting of : — 

(a) Importation of parasites and predatory enemies from abroad. 

(b) Rearing these parasites and predators in the laboratory, and 
v/herever possible breeding them in numbers from imported parent 
stock. 

(c) Colonization in the field of the parasites thus obtained. 

(d) Field work to determine their progress in America. 

(e) Investigations into their biological and general relations. 

(/) Field and laboratory investigations into the parasites of native 
insects most nearly related to the imported pests either in habit or in 
natural affinity, with especial reference to the probable effect which 
the introduction of the foreign parasites will have upon the economy 
of the native jDarasites and of their hosts. 

Larger quantities of the raw material from which the parasites have 
been reared have been received than during any other year. This has 
consisted, as heretofore, of eggs, winter nests, caterpillars and pupae of 
the brown-tail moth from Europe; and of eggs, caterpillars and pupas 
of the gypsy moth from Europe and Japan; large numbers of adult 
predatory beetles and thousands of parasite cocoons and puparia. But 
for numerous reasons, although the amount received was larger, the 
results obtained, owing partly to the condition of the material on re- 
ceipt and owing to curious seasonal fluctuations and differences in the 
countries of origin and in the infested territory in America, the results 
have by no means corresponded with the increased material. 

During the year 1909 two important parasites of the gypsy moth 
{Blepliaripa and Parasetigena) were imported in large numbers. They 
were both hibernated successfully, and colonized under ideal conditions 
in the spring of 1910. 

During 1910 determined efforts have been made to secure adequate 
numbers of several interesting and probably valuable parasites not yet 
secured in quantities sufficient to provide for satisfactory colonies; but 
for the most part these attempts seem to have resulted in failure, 
although final word cannot be said at this time. 

As the work goes on, there seem to be almost as many disappoint- 
ments as successes. For example, no less than one million of the 
Japanese parasites of the eggs of the gypsy moth were reared during 
the summer of 1909 and the winter and spring following, and great 
hopes were entertained for its success, but from the present point of 
view it appears to be wholly unable to withstand the rigors of the New 
England winter; and another egg parasite, a European species, of 
which several hundred thousands were reared in confinement, does not 
appear to make an impression upon the numbers of the gypsy moth 
eggs in America. 

On the other hand, success of the most promising character has been 



96 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



reached with others of the imported species. Cdlosoma sycophanta, an 
imported European predatory beetle, was the first of the imported 
species to be recovered from the field under circumstances indicative 
of its ability to exist under American conditions. The season of 1910 
is the fourth during which its progress has been conscientiously fol- 
lowed, and during each of these seasons it appears to have combined 
a steady rate of increase of approximately tenfold, with a rate of dis- 
persion in excess of one mile a year in every direction from the center 
of the original colony. A tenfold rate of increase annually means that 
one hundred beetles liberated in 1906 would have increased to one 
million by 1910, and the actual prevalence of the beetle in the field 
is such as to make this appear a reasonable estimate of the numbers 
actually existent. They were so abundant in some localities the past 
year as to affect the gypsy moth materially, although by no means so 
materially as to meet and overcome the strong reproductive ability of 
the pest. If, as there is reason to hope, ttiey will continue to increase 
at this slow but steady rate for some years to come, their effect upon 
the present prevailing abundance of the moth will be apparent to all. 

Another encouraging example is the Tachinid fly of the genus Comp- 
silura, which attacks both the gypsy and the brown-tail caterpillars 
as an internal parasite. This species was first liberated in 1906, and 
was first recovered in 1909 under circumstances indicative of its estab- 
lishment in America. During 1909 it was found distributed over about 
five towns adjacent to the one in which the first imported colony was 
liberated. It was everywhere rare during that year. In 1910 it was 
expected that it would show a marked increase, but the actual outcome 
was in excess of all expectations. Instead of a tenfold increase, which 
would have been considered satisfactory, there seems good evidence 
that it increased fiftyfold and perhaps much more. It has about 
equaled Calosoma in actual destruction of gypsy moths this year, and 
in addition has destroyed an appreciable percentage of the brown-tail 
caterpillars; and it is now turning its attention to such native species 
as the fall webworm, the tussock moth and other fall-feeding caterpillars. 
Its increase has been accompanied by a dispersion amounting to ten 
or twelve miles in every direction as a minimum aggregate during the 
four years since its first colonization. 

Still another example is the European Monodontomerus, the recovery 
of which over a large area was made the subject of especial mention 
in the last report. This species has continued its satisfactory rate of 
increase and phenomenal rate of dispersion throughout the year. It 
is well over the border line in New Hampshire, and appears to be ex- 
tending its range about ten miles each year, and to be maintaining a 
twenty-fivefold annual increase. 

It has been somewhat disheartening, in the course of the study of the 
progress of the parasites in the field, to find that certain species lib- 
erated under the most favorable conditions cannot be recovered the 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



97 



next year; and even in the case of two species, both colonized in 1908 
and apparently established in 1909, no traces could be recovered in 
1910. But, on the other hand, another species {Zygohothria), colonized 
in 1907, was recovered in 1910, three years later, for the first time, — 
in small numbers, it is true, but over a considerable territory, indicating 
a rapidity of dispersion sufficient to render a material increase un- 
noticeable for the first two years. 

Another encouraging fact which may be mentioned here is that an 
important egg parasite {Anastatus hifasciatus) seemed this summer to 
have demonstrated its ability to survive the New England winter, and, 
having been colonized in 1909, appears to be strongly established in 
1910. 

On the whole, the results of the work are distinctly more encour- 
aging than they have appeared to be heretofore, and we are by no means 
disheartened over the non-recovery during the present season of no 
less than fifteen species which have been colonized. In several in- 
stances colonization has been much too recent to make their recovery 
probable, on account of rapid dispersion ; and several others have never 
been received in sufficient numbers to make a strong colony possible, 
so that it may well be that establishment has not yet been accomplished. 
It has been found in the course of this work that there is little hope 
of the establishment of a colony of less than one thousand individuals, 
and in many instances of course it has been found impossible to put 
out so large a number. 

The insight which is being gained at the laboratory into many points 
connected with the biology of these important and interesting insects 
is resulting in practical knowledge that cannot fail to be of high im- 
portance in the continuation of the investigation. 

The writer visited Europe in May and June, 1910; visited agents 
and officials in Italy and France; and, through the courtesy of the 
Spanish and Portuguese governments, was able to start a new official 
service in each of these countries for the collection and sending of 
parasitized gypsy moth larvsB to the United States. In Italy Prof. F. 
Silvestri of the Royal Agricultural College at Portici, and Dr. Antonio 
Berlese, Director of the Royal Agricultural Entomological Station at 
Florence, insisted on the desire to be of service to the United States 
in this direction, and declined all financial aid. In Spain, Prof. L. 
Navarro of the Phytopathological Station at Madrid volunteered his 
services under the same conditions, with the approval of the Minister 
of Agriculture. In Portugal, Prof. A. F. de Seabra of the Phytopatho- 
logical Station at Lisbon also volunteered his services, with the permis- 
sion of Senor Alfredo Carlos Le Cocq, Director of Agriculture. In 
France, arrangements were made with a paid agent stationed in the 
south of France ; and the same arrangements as in previous years were 
made with paid agents in Germany and Switzerland. The distributing 
agency at Hamburg was continued, and a new distributing agency was 



98 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



started at Havre, on account of its convenient proximity to the Ameri- 
can steamers starting from Southampton. 

Sendings from Japan were continued in the same manner as during 
the previous year. The Minister of Agiiculture for Japan, at the re- 
quest of the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States, again 
designated Prof. S. I. Kuwana of the Imperial Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station at Tokio to be its official representative in the work to 
be carried on during the spring and summer of 1910. Professor 
Kuwana continued his most valuable sending-s. 

The thanks of the United States government and of the governments 
of the States involved are due in high measure to the officials of Italy, 
Russia, France, Spain, Portugal and Japan, who have assisted in this 
work. All of them have been named at one time or another in this 
series of reports. 

In the autumn of 1910 Mr. Fiske visited Russia and France for the 
purpose of studying autumnal conditions of the parasites in their 
native homes, and in order to obtain information on certain points 
needed for future work. It seems that the time has arrived to reduce 
the large bulk of the importations, and in the future to bring over only 
those species which have not yet been received in sufficient abundance 
to establish perfect colonies. Mr. Fiske's mission was to study the best 
methods of bringing this about and to learn something about the prob- 
able methods of hibernation of some of the species concerned. 

The Funooiis Diseases of the Bbown-tail ai^d the Gypsy 

Moths. 

The State Forester was able to make arrangements with 
Dean W. C. Sabine and Dr. Roland Thaxter of Harvard Uni- 
versity for continuing the co-operative work on fungous dis- 
eases, and Mr. A. T. Speare, who has been assisting Dr. Thax- 
ter, was taken over by the State Forester's department. He 
has devoted his entire time to this work throughout the past 
season. The following report has been prepared bv Mr. 
Speare : — 

The writer having been authorized by the State Forester to continue 
during the year 1910 the work undertaken in 1909, for the purpose of 
testing the practical value of artificial infection with fungous diseases 
of the brown-tail and gypsy moths in the field, desires to present the 
following preliminary report. Owing to certain experiments which 
have not been completed, it is not possible at this time to present a full 
statement. The writer hopes, however, to be able to present early next 
spring a complete illustrated report of the work that has been done 
with the parasitic fungi of the brown-tail and gypsy moths. The work 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



99 



in question is a phase of a project undertaken with the co-operation of 
Harvard University for the purpose of studying and testing the various 
diseases of the brown-tail and gypsy moths. 

This report comprises, in addition to an account of experiments with 
the brown-tail Entomophthora, a preliminary statement in regard to 
the successful importation of a corresponding disease of the gypsy 
moth larvsB by Dr. Clinton, who was sent to Japan for this purpose 
under the direction of Harvard University in May, 1909. 

In order to render the matters of this report intelligible to persons 
unacquainted with the subject, it seems desirable to give a brief sum- 
mary of the life history of the Entomophthora disease of the brown- 
tail, with results of the year's work, and a brief account of the first 
year's experiments with the gypsy moth disease. 

The cause of the brown-tail disease is a microscopic plant. The 
symptoms of this disease are quite peculiar. The Caterpillar exhibits 
no special peculiarities immediately after infection, but at the end of 
the fourth or fifth day its movements become sluggish; it attempts to 
eat no more, but seeks some elevated spot. It seems seized with some 
impulse to get up high. It accordingly crawls upward, becomes at- 
tached by certain of its legs, and shortly afterward dies. 

The body before this period appears normal externally. Soon after 
the caterpillar has become fastened to the bark, however, the body 
becomes rigid. Caterpillars can be found most abundant at this stage 
from 3 to 5 o'clock in the afternoon. If the body is broken (it can 
easily be broken), the entire internal tissue of the caterpillar will be 
seen to have been replaced by creamy-white flocculent or granular mat- 
ter; this is the vegetative part of the plant. During the night follow- 
ing, if the weather conditions be favorable (a certain amount of 
moisture), the fungus will further develop by sending spore-bearing 
organs to the outside of the body. When examined, the next day, the 
external appearance of the caterpillar will be seen to have changed 
entirely. Now, instead of the body presenting a normal appearance, 
the creamy-white matter is seen on the outside. This creamy-white 
matter is composed of organs which are part of the plant inside, but 
especially differentiated to produce spores. By a process which we will 
not detail, the spores are formed, and as the plant absorbes water the 
spores are literally " shot " into the air to a distance often of three- 
quarters to one inch from the caterpillar. The result is (if the 
caterpillar is attached to the branch) the formation of a creamy-white 
halo on the bark, which is composed entirely of fungous spores, and by 
which the disease can easily be recognized. 

It must be understood, however, that the spores thus seen on the 
bark do not represent the total discharge, but only a small portion 
of it. The majority of the spores discharged from the dorsal as well 
as the lateral sides float off in the air. One can now see the advantage 
of having the caterpillar in an elevated position when the spore dis- 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



charge occurs, inasmuch as the higher the lan^a is, the greater the 
amount of territory the spores will cover when they are discharged. 
Spore dissemination is also augmented by winds. These spores when 
they are discharged into the air float about, and a certain per cent, 
of them will adhere to healthy caterpillars, on which they will ger- 
minate and produce the disease with the symptoms described above. 

With the brown-tail the joeriod of incubation (that is, the time from 
infection to the production of new spores) is from four to six days, 
varying with the size of the infected individual, the temperature and 
weather conditions. A well-grown caterpillar under favorable con- 
ditions would probably discharge several hundred thousand spores, 
each capable of infecting a fresh larva in case it comes in contact with 
one; and among gregarious insects, such as the ones in question, the 
chance of copious infection is great. 

During the past year the field work has been undertaken on a much 
larger scale than heretofore, and a new method of planting was em 
ployed. This spring, instead of planting in isolated places, as has 
been the custom, a solid block of territory was chosen, comprehending 
about 10 square miles, and the plantings were all made in this area. 
Without going into details as to methods of infection, etc., it is enough 
to state that at the end of the season a mortality of 92 per cent, was 
estimated throughout this whole area. In parts of this territory not 
a single live pupa could be found. 

This last autumn the Avriter, not being able personally to plant all 
of the territory that was deemed desirable, was aided by eight of the 
division superintendents of the regular moth commission, and with 
their help 60 isolated plantings were made. Reports that have been 
received seem to guarantee an average mortality of 38 per cent, in 
48 of these 60 plantings. As we believe that the fungus will develop 
further in these plantings next spring, it seems desirable to wait until 
after the spring season before estimating the total mortality. 

The gypsy EntomopJithora was successfully carried over Avinter by 
means of resting spores, but for reasons which we will not detail the 
conidial condition (the stage in which the fungus is planted in the 
field) was not obtained until June 2. The life history of this fungus 
is very similar to the life history of the brown-tail, and need not be 
described here. A sufficient amount of infected material could not be 
obtained for planting until about the middle of June, at which time 
the gypsy larvas were quite large. However, 6 plantings were made 
in isolated places before the close of the season. Although the terri- 
tories were carefully inspected as often as time permitted, the writer 
was unable to detect any evidence of the fungus. Owing to the ex- 
ceptionally hot and dry months of July and August, the fungus may 
have formed resting spores, in which condition it could have been 
easily overlooked, as externally this condition resembles in a striking 
manner the advanced stages of the "wilt." It is of course possible 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



101 



that this may be the ease and that the resting spores may germinate 
and start infections in the field next spring. 

The results of this season's work, however, must not be considered as 
final in regard to the use of the gypsy Entomophthora as a means of 
destroying the gypsy larvae. In the first place, the writer was handi- 
capped by starting late; in the second place, the season was very hot 
and dry (conditions unfavorable for the development of the disease) ; 
in the third place, at the time the fungus was introduced the " wilt " 
was well established in all of the places that were planted with the 
fungus. 

The writer hopes to get the fungus started much earlier this spring, 
and, with more favorable weather conditions during the summer, hopes 
at some later date to be able to report more satisfactory results than 
the above. 

The Disease of the Gypsy Moth. 

The various lines of work reported on as begun last year 
under Dr. Theobald Smith of the Harvard Medical School, 
Prof. W. M. Wheeler of the Bussej Institute of Harvard Uni- 
versity and Dr. E. L. Mark of the Harvard Zoological Labora- 
tory, were again pursued during the past season. 

The work of Dr. Smith, through his assistant, Dr. H. iT. 
Jones, is given below. The work carried out under the super- 
vision of Dr. Wheeler, by Mr. Reiff, will be reported on later. 
The work carried out by Mr. J. W. Mavor, under the direction 
of Dr. Mark, has been completed for the present. 

Further Studies on the Nature of the Wilt Disease of the Gypsy 

Moth Larv^.^ 

The season of 1910 afforded an exceptional opportunity for the ob- 
servation of this most interesting epizootic. Because of the wide dis- 
tribution and high virulence of the disease in 1909, its prospective 
appearance in 1910 was awaited with much interest. 

Observation of the field conditions the past summer seems to have 
answered fairly conclusively two important questions regarding the 
epidemiology of the disease, — questions which suggested themselves 
before the advent of the season. Would the surviving gypsy moths 
of the previous year have transmitted to their offspring the immunity 
for the disease which they themselves seemed to possess? In other 
words, would the disease limit itself by the nearly complete elimination 
of susceptible individuals, and after a season of great activity be forced 
to wait through a number of seasons until a generation with low im- 



1 By Henry N. Jones, Laboratory of Comparative Pathology, Harvard Medical School. 



102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



munity should appear? In reply to the above questions, it can be 
pointed out that, in spite of the heavy mortality from the disease in 
1909, most field observers agree that it was much more severe in the 
past summer. This fact is reassuring, as it relieves the fear that in 
the conflict with the pest of the gypsy moth we may be deprived of 
the assistance of this disease. Other conditions, at present unknown, 
may of course operate in the future for the suppression of this dis- 
ease; but there seems to be no ground for believing that the general 
immunity of the gypsy moth will increase to such a degree as may 
curtail the inroads of the disease. 

The second question which suggested itself was this: Would a sum- 
mer which presented marked variation in climatic conditions from the 
usual seasonal average appreciably affect the disease or its epidemi- 
ology? That is, would an unusual amount of hot weather, or cold 
weather, or a very dry season, or a very wet summer, affect the dis- 
ease? Fortunately for the solution of this question, the past summer 
was unusually dry and warm, with a great amount of sunshine. Ap- 
parently the disease is at least in no wise checked by such meteorologic 
conditions. Should a season appear which presents the reverse of these 
conditions, it will be very interesting to observe the effect, if any, upon 
this disease. 

The amount of sunshine to which a gypsy moth larva is exposed 
during its development to maturity depends somewhat upon the en- 
vironment, and there may be still other factors than sunshine de- 
pendent on the environment, such as character of the food supply. 
Whatever may be the jDrimary cause, it seems evident that larv^ in- 
habiting a territory where the growth of trees is uniformly very young 
do not suffer from the disease so early in life nor in such great num- 
bers as do those living on trees of more mature growth. 

Observation of the disease in the field, however, although it has re- 
vealed several facts which are interesting of themselves, seems to have 
failed to reveal anything of a broad and fundamental character which 
might throw some light on the real nature of this disease and the laws 
governing its transmission. 

In the study of this disease in the laboratory the methods used the 
past summer differed somewhat from those of the previous year, as will 
appear from the procedures outlined below. The hope was entertained 
that the study of sectioned material might reveal some very important 
facts about the pathology of the wilt disease, but this hope was not 
fulfilled. While it seems that the histological study of normal and 
diseased caterpillars ought to do much toward the solution of the prob- 
lem of this disease, yet very many difficulties which seem almost in- 
surmountable are met in the attempt at such a study. The degeneration 
of the tissues of the animal in this disease is so remarkably rapid and 
complete, and the chitinous integument is so tough, that the difficulty 
of cutting good sections can be readily seen. Sections of diseased 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 



animals usually show nothing but the skin, intestinal tract, tracheal 
system, and, if the histolysis has not progressed too far, fragments of 
the musculature. It seemed evident that the process of tissue digestion, 
which seems to constitute the most remarkable feature of the disease, 
first attacks the fat bodies and later the muscles, while the chitinous 
structures naturally survive intact for an indefinite time. Probably 
it may be more accurate to say that the tissues are able to resist the 
action of the enzyme, or whatever it may be, in the order named, rather 
than that the disease attacks them in that order. It is also interesting 
to note that the digestive tract not only remains intact, but that often 
undigested food is found in the intestine of animals whose tissues 
have undergone complete dissolution. No trace of anything that could 
be considered a parasite could be found. 

In the bacteriological study of the disease, the dead and living larvae 
were opened aseptically and cultures then made both from the blood 
and from the intestinal contents. Many of the tubes of broth thus 
inoculated even from the dead larvae remained entirely sterile, and 
several times the only growth obtained was the common white mold. 
The different species of bacteria isolated behaved as a non-pathogenic 
intestinal flora. Organisms which possessed the power of liquefying 
gelatine were only occasionally met with. The only organism isolated 
with any fair degree of constancy from the caterpillars was the small, 
motile, diplo-bacillus described in the report of the work for 1909. 

The microscopical examination of the larvae while fresh rarely showed 
bacteria to be present in more than small numbers. Indeed, the body 
fluids of the dead larvae seemed to be quite remarkable for their rather 
singular freedom from bacterial life, presenting as they did a marked 
contrast to the usual abundant flora of body fluids exposed to invasion 
by saprophytic bacteria. The caterpillar's relative freedom from bac- 
teria, as contrasted with the condition of the higher animals, is doubt- 
less to be explained, in part at least, by two conditions. The food of 
the gypsy moth larvae is evidently singularly free from bacteria, and 
few of those bacteria introduced into the intestinal tract find conditions 
favorable for their multiplication; hence the intestinal tract of the 
caterpillars is exceptionally free from bacterial life, and the tough 
chitinous outer integument effectively prevents the post-mortem inva- 
sion of bacteria through the surface. 

In order to compare the changes occurring in the bodies of larvae 
killed by various agencies with the changes occurring in larvae dying 
by disease, many larvae were killed. The attempt was first made to 
kill the caterpillars by severe trauma, viz., crushing the head with a 
nip of the forceps. Strange as it may seem, however, to those accus- 
tomed to observing only the higher animals, it was found that, owing 
to the absence of a complex nervous system in the caterpillar, it was 
altogether impracticable to kill the animals by any injury which 
stopped much short of their total disintegration. The caterpillar of 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the gypsy moth possesses such extraordinary tenacity of life that it 
is not noticeably affected by the complete crushing of its head, living 
on in this mangled condition indefinitely until starvation occurs. It is 
also very resistant to the vapors of alcohol and chloroform, so that it 
cannot be satisfactorily killed by such means. 

It was found that the post-mortem appearance of the larvse killed 
by drowning never at any time resembled that of those that had died 
of the disease. At no time did the bodies of the drowned become 
flaccid, nor were the body contents transformed into a fluid condition. 

Attempts were made in several ways to transmit the disease to ap- 
parently normal larvae, but the results were not satisfactory. Such 
a large percentage of animals among the controls die under what are 
considered the best of conditions, that the greatest care is necessary 
in interpreting the results of infection experiments. 

Cultures of various bacteria isolated from dead larvae were injected 
into the hsemocoele of normal animals. These bacteria could be found 
in the blood, in enormous numbers, for a considerable time after inocu- 
lation, sometimes as long as seventy to eighty hours. They were never 
recovered after the third day, if the animal survived, and were much 
less numerous on the second day than on the first. Several pupae were 
also inoculated with a small quantity of a pure culture of bacillus A. 
These animals harbored the bacteria in quantities for fourteen days, 
and died without maturing. 

The presence of the so-called " polyhedral bodies," which several ob- 
servers have considered of significance, was constant in the fluids of 
the diseased caterpillars. These bodies are presumably similar to those 
described by Bolle, and thought by him to be protozoa {Microsporidium 
polyhedricum) , and concerned in the production of a disease in silk 
worms which seems to be quite similar clinically to the disease of our 
g3Tsy moth larvae. Several other investigators have noted the presence 
of these bodies in diseased conditions of the silk worm, and some have 
agreed with Bolle in considering them to be protozoa; while others, 
23articularly Sasaki of Tokio, are unable to satisfy themselves that 
they are more than some degeneration product of the body tissues. The 
opportunity was afforded for examining the tissues of young silk 
worms obtained through Dr. Bolle, and said to be infected with Micro- 
sporidium polyhedricum. Large numbers of polyhedral bodies were 
to be found apparently not differing from those to be found in the 
fluids of caterpillars dying of the so-called wilt disease in this country. 
Nothing could be observed, either in the structure or reactions of these 
bodies, as found in the gypsy moth larvae, which could possibly be 
interpreted as indicating that they were living organisms. The ob- 
servations of Sasaki as to the reactions to chemicals and appearance 
of these bodies were confirmed. The splitting of these bodies into sec- 
tors which Sasaki mentions as occurring when the bodies are subjected 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



105 



to pressure, was frequently noticed when the bodies had been subjected 
to no known pressure. This action seemed to be due entirely to internal 
stresses acting on the bodies. 

In addition to these polyhedral bodies, which were always found in 
enormous numbers in the fluids of the sick and dead larvae, there were 
frequently to be found in the blood of normally appearing caterpillars 
certain bodies of a very different appearance. These consisted of a 
variable number (12 to 18 or more) of hyaline bodies, 4 to 5 microns 
in diameter, nearly round, which were bound in a compact mass by 
a thin, external envelojje. These masses were sometimes so numerous 
in the blood that several could usually be found in a single field of 
the 2 mm. immersion lens. These are apparently cells of the body 
which, during certain changes of the body metabolism preceding molt- 
ing, and probably at the onset of the disease, are freed in abnormal 
numbers into the circulatory system. They are apparently similar to 
the " cellules amiboides granuleuses " which Janet describes in a paper 
on the anatomy of the thorax of the ant, although amoeboid motion 
was never observed. The examination of the blood of a considerable 
number of apparently normal caterpillars would always reveal some 
in whom the blood presented an opaque, clouded appearance, much like 
bouillon with a bacterial growth. The microscopical examination of 
such bloods always showed the presence of considerable numbers of 
these cells and greater or smaller numbers of the polyhedral bodies. 
It was observed that this condition of the blood portended one of two 
things : either the animal so afflicted molted, or died of the wilt." 

All that can be said regarding the nature of the cause of this disease 
at present is that, while many interesting hypotheses may suggest them- 
selves, such as the possibility of its being a curious miscarriage of the 
function of molting, what few data of any value have been obtained 
are entirely of a negative character; and that we must await the re- 
sults of much further investigation for the final solution of this most 
interesting and important problem. 

Papers to which reference has been made: (a) Johann Bolle, Der 
Seidenbau in Japan (die Gelb oder Fettsucht der Seidenraupe, — eine 
parasitare Krankheit). (6) Professor Sasaki, On the Pathology of 
the Jaundice of the Silk-worm (Journal of the College of Agriculture), 
(c) Charles Janet, Anatomie du Corselet et histolyse des Muscles 
vibrateurs, apres le vol nuptial, chez la reine de la Fourmi. 

BuLLETiisr ON Parasites. 
There seemed to be a desire on the part of many of our 
people to know more in detail than has been given them in the 
past about the parasitic work which the State has been carrying 
on since 1905; and it was to give this information that the 



106 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



United States Entomologist, Dr. L. O. Howard, who has been 
ooir chief adviser in this work, was prevailed upon to have a 
bulletin prepared. This bulletin, entitled " Parasites of the 
Gypsy and Brown-tail Moths introduced into Massachusetts," 
was published by the State Forester and distributed generally. 
The bulletin was written by Mr. W. F. Fiske, expert in charge 
of the State laboratory at Melrose Highlands. This bulletin, 
which gives a comprehensive idea of the work being undertaken 
by the State, has been well received. It can be had by any one 
interested, by applying to the State Forester. 

Post Cards ii^t Colors. 

During the past season the State Forester had printed fifteen 
thousand each of three different post cards, illustrating in nat- 
ural colors and size the various transformations in the life his- 
tories of the gypsy moth, the brown-tail moth and the Calosoma 
sycophanta beetle. 

Although the above-named moths have both been extremely 
destructive in eastern Massachusetts, it has not been uncommon 
to find that our people are continually mistaking one for the 
other. During last year even some of our newspaper reporters 
made this common mistake. 

These illustrated cards have served to clearly set forth the 
characteristics of each moth. Besides giving their natural 
size and color, the cards contained a brief description of each 
insect, together with a statement of the most economical method 
of treatment. In the case of the Calosoma beetle the object of 
printing the card was to familiarize every one with the insect, 
so as to give it protection. It is an insect imported for the 
purpose of assisting in destroying the gypsy and brown-tail 
moths. 

These three post cards have been greatly sought after by our 
people, and served very nicely for educating our young in the 
schools. 

They can be had by our Massachusetts people by applying to 
the State Forester, 6 Beacon Street, Boston. 



This hand cart is economically used in the moth work, as all necessaiy tools for 
supplying a working crew can be easily transported, and the customary 
expense of horse hire saved. 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



107 



Fii^ANCiAL Statements. 
In onr financial statement, given below, we show a balance 
of $19,992.47. This balance will be disbursed during the 
coming month in reimbursements to towns and cities which 
have not yet returned final papers of the year's expenditure 
to this office. 



General Appropriation. 



Balance from 1909, 

Appropriation for 1910, .... 

Appropriation of March 18, 1910, 

Cash returned by Merrimac Chemical Com- 
pany, 

Cash transferred from special North Shore 
fund for tools and supplies furnished, . 



Office expenses : — 
Salaries of clerks, 
Rent, .... 
Stationery and postage. 
Printing, 
Experts, 

Furniture, etc., . 
Sundries, . . 
Educational work, 

Field expenses : — 
Wages of employees, . 
Travelling expenses, . 
Supplies, 
Special work. 
Supplies for experiment, 
Sundries, 
Reimbursement, . 



$4,143 05 
150,000 00 
150,000 00 

850 68 

13,870 81 



$2,391 50 
2,454 17 
1,347 25 
835 42 
100 00 
32 75 
1,004 65 
14 77 



24,951 39 
9,106 63 
86,740 98 
22,500 00 
1,231 58 
895 77 
145,265 21 



$318,864 54 



298,872 07 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1910, 



$19,992 47 



Parasite Appropriation. 

Balance from 1909, $11,530 46 

Appropriation of March 18, 1910, . . 15,000 00 
Cash returned by American Express Com- 
pany, 7 70 



$26,538 16 



108 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Expenditures : — 
Wages of employees, . 
Travelling expenses, . 
Rent, .... 
Supi^lies, 

Stationery and postage, 

Printing, 

Experts, 

Sundries, 

Supplies for experiment. 
Importation of parasites, 



$11,193 10 
1,868 12 

380 00 
1,232 34 

166 51 
1,332 40 

162 00 

846 07 
23 80 
5,654 47 



$22,858 81 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1910, . 



$3,679 35 



Special North Shore Fund. 



Balance from 1909, 


$773 


05 


Deposit by F. W. Rane, State Forester, . 


22,500 


00 


Deposit by Wm. D. Sohier, agent. 


22,500 


00 


Deposit by city of Gloucester, . 


2,500 


00 


Deposit by city of Beverly, 


5,000 


00 


Deposit by town of Manchester, 


7,500 


00 


Cash returned for error on pay roll, . 


12 


00 


Cash received for work on private estates, . 


4,409 


50 


Cash returned to fund for accounts un- 








27 


06 


Expenditures : — 






Wages of employees, 


$39,720 


14 


Travelling expenses, 


846 


23 




181 


00 




15,950 


39 


Stationery and postage, .... 


1 


16 




1 


25 


Sundries (including teaming), . 


3,597 


57 



$65,221 61 



60,297 74 



Balance on hand Nov. 30, 1910, . 



$4,923 87 



Financial Summary by Towns. 
The following table shows the reimbursement paid to cities 
and towns for 1908 and 1909, the total net expenditure, the 
required expenditure before receiving reimbursement and the 
amount of reimbursement in 1910, and also the required expen- 
diture for 1911 : — 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



109 





1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1909. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1910. 

Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1911. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Abington, 


$1,493 44 


$796 28 


$1,175 93 


$915 49 




$1,220 85 


Acton, .... 


2,485 81 


1,764 27 


782 26 


2,051 73 


$1,269 47 


882 65 


Amesbiiry, 


378 10 




2,434 83 


2,177 29 




2,498 99 


Andover, 


2,365 17 


3,095 55 


2,588 47 


3,918 47 


877 77 


2,694 88 


Arlington, 


6,109 09 


4,931 26 


4,591 97 


6,303 41 


1,126 27 


4,754 91 


Ashburnham, . 






384 28 






410 75 


Ashby, .... 






212 71 




" 


211 42 


Ashland 


341 24 


49 31 


477 13 


560 05 


82 92 


500 57 


Athol, .... 






1,827 80 






1,857 48 


Attleborough, . 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Auburn, .... 






492 60 






523 20 


Avon, .... 






384 84 


506 77 


121 93 


388 79 


Ayer, .... 






835 41 






871 30 


Barnstable, 






2,317 10 






2,456 11 


Barre, .... 






741 20 






820 20 


Bedford 


9,466 72 


4,608 85 


522 90 


2,701 02 


2,178 12 


553 31 


Bellingham, 






335 96 






362 66 


Belmont, 


572 93 


164 32 


2,511 51 


2,146 94 




2,606.61 


Berlin, .... 


460 83 


362 95 


221 62 


572 89 


351 27 


236 67 


Beverly, .... 


1,889 61 


818 44 


5,000 00 


5,698 38 


349 19 


5,000 00 


Billerica, .... 


6,091 09 


4,238 66 


974 32 


3,951 12 


2,976 80 


1,004 35 


Blackstone, 






908 09 






926 16 


Bolton, .... 


411 07 


686 65 


199 14 


774 05 


574 91 


233 44 


Boston, .... 


2,500 00 


10,000 00 


5,000 00 


46,561 24 


20,000 00 


5,000 00 


Bourne, .... 


1,489 01 


791 61 


1,641 55 




~ 


1,956 15 


Boxborough, . 


1,805 43 


1,438 47 


106 79 


1,281 67 


1,174 88 


106 40 


Boxford 


2,066 35 


2,843 56 


520 74 


2,517 35 


1,996 61 


570 00 


Boylston, 






193 06 






197 51 


Braintree, 


1,445 27 




2.421 92 






2,506 35 


Brewster, 






246 40 






272 62 


Bridgewatei , . 




143 48 


1,328 11 


1,272 56 




1,387 13 


Brockton, 






5,000 00 




~ 


5,000 00 


Brookfield, 






508 57 






516 72 


Brookline, 


_ 


_ 


5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Burlington, 


5,599 44 


2,287 91 


250 36 


2,669 82 


2,419 46 


278 15 


Cambridge, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Canton, .... 






1,654 31 


3,046 17 


1,391 86 


1,816 78 


Carlisle 


5,485 58 


2,949 83 


182 89 


2,282 65 


2,099 76 


190 88 



110 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1909. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1910. 

Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


I 1911. 

! Required 
Expendi- 
i ture. 


Carver, .... 


$3,641 27 


$1,167 64 


$601 89 


$1,590 84 


$988 95 


$843 90 


Charlton, 


- 


- 


517 18 


- 


- 


536 06 


Chelmsford, 


3,740 98 


2,057 85 


1,809 64 


3,282 26 


1,472 62 


1,767 98 


Chelsea, .... 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


- 


- 


5,000 GO 


Clinton, .... 


- 


- 


3,309 63 


1,778 02 


- 


3,375 96 


Cohasset, 


936 40 


3,197 76 


3,061 17 


5,273 43 


1,578 28 


3,560 69 


Concord, 


5,169 66 


5,195 79 


2.716 27 


7,719 43 


3 519 62 


2,927 71 


Dan vers. 


6,441 71 


2,318 50 


2,404 85 


4,629 51 


1,650 86 


2,588 17 


Dedham, 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


Dennis 


- 


- 


489 60 


- 


- 


522 72 


Douglas 


- 


- 


493 52 


- 


- 


509 95 . 


Dover 


1,487 56 


2,884 61 


2,131 26 


1,197 55 


- 


2,189 97 


Dracut 


2,462 61 


1,218 05 


939 68 


1,432 65 


492 97 


988 45 


Dudley, .... 


- 


- 


686 27 


- 


- 


512 77 


Dunstable, 


544 67 


938 24 


131 58 


1,569 01 


1,437 43 


142 28 


Duxbury, 


3,381 91 


857 39 


881 61 


1,366 84 


485 23 


919 36 


East Bridgewater, . 


3,945 78 


902 27 


831 45 


1,218 83 


387 38 


834 95 


Easton, .... 


- 


- 


2,115 65 


- 


- 


2,307 89 


Essex, .... 


2,096 22 


1,099 97 


456 91 


1,556 49 


1,099 58 


473 03 


Everett, .... 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


1,856 66 


- 


5,000 00 


Falmouth, 


- 


- 


3,243 69 


- 


- 


3,500 67 


Fitchburg, 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


Foxborough, . 


- 


- 


911 11 


- 


- 


965 99 


Framingham, . 


- 


- 


4,226 59 


2,630 46 


- 


4,785 18 


Franklin, 


- 


- 


1,517 82 


- 


- 


1,575 46 


Gardner, 


- 


- 


3,071 08 


- 


- 


3,298 36 


Georgetown, . 


1,151 67 


2,055 66 


410 16 


2,387 65 


1,977 49 


414 86 


Gloucester, 


2,063 54 


947 56 


5,000 00 


7,603 17 


1,276 59 1 


5,000 00 


Grafton 


- 


- 


1,067 88 


362 55 


- 


1,095 75 


Greenfield, 


- 


- 


3,853 77 


- 


- 


4,052 15 


Groton, .... 


- 


196 72 


1,515 70 


1,780 73 


265 03 


1,585 36 


Groveland, 


1,711 10 


1,668 76 


465 07 


1,506 91 


1,041 84 


465 39 


Halifax 


2,237 83 


821 89 


213 70 


865 04 


651 34 


213 70 


Hamilton, 


3,167 63 


1,129 22 


1,519 37 


2,327 35 


807 98 


1,605 62 


HsiiiovGr • • 


4,054 60 


1,289 06 


591 95 


1,030 76 


438 81 


605 78 


Han.son, 


1,871 39 


691 79 


431 80 


1,074 38 


642 58 


502 04 


Harvard, 


616 61 


748 40 


493 48 


1,266 20 


772 72 


545 52 


Haverhill, 


1,131 62 


286 52 


5,000 00 


6,174 37 


587 18 


5,000 00 



1911.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Ill 





ions 


1909. 


1910. 


1Q1 1 
1911. 




Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Re-' 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
t\ire. 


Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Hingham, 


$1,877 15 


$1,000 00 


$2,441 02 


$2,753 38 


$13 88 


$3,152 60 


Holbrook, 






580 26 






590 44 


Holden, .... 






651 99 






658 02 


HoUiston, 






663 04 






658 07 


Hopedale, 






2,096 12 






2,371 14 


Hopkinton, 


810 16 


343 49 


631 34 


811 19 


179 85 


623 69 


Hubbardston, 






275 85 






275 04 


Hudson, .... 


999 59 


7 46 


1,570 08 


1,553 32 




1,537 45 


Hull 






2,161 33 






2,807 54 


Hyde Park, . 






5,000 00 


476 14 




5,000 00 


Ipswich 


1,757 80 


1,236 69 


1,914 70 


2,769 44 


854 74 


1,914 20 


Kingston, 


861 00 


889 64 


640 91 


2,822 56 


2,181 65 


646 34 


Lakeville, 






280 54 






328 37 


Lancaster, 






1,656 83 






1.765 67 


Lawrence, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Leicester, 






965 45 


78 70 




982 62 


Leominster, 






4,788 85 






4,959 29 


Lexington, 


11,139 99 


5,306 58 


2,903 12 


7,596 87 


3,343 60 


3,130 79 


Lincoln, .... 


O,UU0 UU 




1,216 10 


2,228 37 


1,012 27 


1,389 57 


Littleton, 


1,716 01 


1,051 05 


428 94 


1,758 25 


1,329 31 


454 77 


Lowell 


120 42 




5,000 00 


6,835 40 


718 86 


5,000 00 


Lunenburg, 


81 34 




441 06 


793 48 


352 42 


463 73 


Lynn, .... 


( 1,133 22 
1 3,084 27 


\ 
J 


5,000 00 


1,755 63 




5,000 00 


Lynnfield, 


2,982 45 


1,530 23 


312 84 


1,576 12 


1,263 28 


397 92 


Maiden, .... 






5,000 00 


3,543 94 




5,000 00 


Manchester, 






5,000 00 


— 




5,000 00 


Mansfield, 






1,580 27 






1,711 68 


Marblehead, 






3,101 54 


1,913 19 




3,514 38 


Marion 






1,763 45 






1,993 87 


Marlborough, . 


580 83 


369 94 


4,128 37 


3,803 98 




4,169 23 


Marshfield, 


2,389 25 


824 61 


767 20 


1,673 48 


906 28 


782 93 


Mashpee, 


104 77 


439 05 


87 88 


633 74 


545 86 


90 51 


Maynard, 


1,551 28 


654 30 


1,548 29 


1,539 12 




1,573 37 


Medfield, 






638 60 






639 28 


Medford, 


4,006 11 


4,000 00 


5,000 00 


10,355 86 


2,184 42 


5,000 00 


Medway, 






579 19 


391 78 




595 12 


Melrose, .... 


1,500 00 




5,000 00 


1,840 67 




5,000 00 


Men don, .... 






291 48 






280 58 



112 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 


1909. 

Re- 
imburse- 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1910. 

Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


j 1911. 

Expendi- 


Merrimac, 


$1,598 02 


$1,498 21 


' $498 68 


$1,171 29 


$672 61 


$531 01 


Methuen, 


3,334 00 


1,776 41 


2,453 32 


3,622 94 


808 86 


2,879 21 


Middleborough, 


- 


377 46 


1,885 95 


2,041 33 


155 38 


1,857 92 


Middleton, 


2,012 23 


1,237 45 


316 51 


1,430 55 


1,114 04 


327 33 


Milford 


- 


_ 


3,485 24 


- 


- 


3,732 59 


Millbiiry, 


- 


- 


917 32 


- 


- 


941 74 


Millia 


- 


- 


398 03 


198 53 


- 


440 95 


Milton 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


6,343 76 


7 89 


5,000 00 


Nahant, .... 


- 


- 


2,451 60 


- 


- 


3,290 10 


Natick, .... 


4,613 56 


615 63 


3,133 48 


3,510 68 


- 


3,288 64 


Needham, 


2,443 84 


1,254 29 


2,322 78 


2,373 61 


50 83 


2,442 13 


Newbury, 


5,187 19 


3,206 28 


492 99 


2,674 82 


2,181 83 


505 45 


Newburyport, 


- 




4,907 89 


- 


- 


5.000 00 


Newton, .... 


2,730 67 


8,000 00 


5,000 00 


28,906 25 


7,000 01 


5,000 00 


Norfolk 


- 


- 


331 80 


- 


- 


349 08 


North Andover, 


3,238 23 


3,045 08 


1,841 44 


2,192 20 


350 76 


1,975 09 


North Attleborough, 


- 


- 


2,737 98 


- 


- 


3,092 90 


North Reading, 


2,757 26 


2,807 28 


542 32 


2,110 70 


1,830 05 


294 56 


Northborough, 


- 


- 


1,744 38 


- 


- 


556 54 


Northbridge, . 


- 


- 


280 65 


- 


- 


1,837 84 


Norwell, .... 


2,291 57 


1,019 70 


367 98 


1,309 50 


941 52 


423 62 


Norwood, 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


- 


- 


5,000 00 


Orange 


- 


- 


1,445 19 


- 




1,481 88 


Orleans, .... 


- 


- 


252 53 


- 


- 


273 60 


Oxford, .... 


- 


- 


775 25 


- 


- 


786 53 


Palmer 


- 


- 


1,671 17 


- 


- 


1,745 87 


Paxton, .... 


- 


- 


133 18 


- 


- 


135 80 


Peabody, 


4,208 67 


1,698 36 


4,156 73 


4,940 92 


627 35 


4,436 42 


Pembroke, 


1,109 72 


791 90 


376 90 


1,511 55 


1,134 65 


381 62 


PepE)erell, 


870 79 


745 59 


901 22 


2,471 76 


1,570 54 


155 05 


Petersham, 


- 


- 


360 87 


- 


1 


374 33 


Phillipston, 


- 


- 


113 54 


- 


- 1 


113 48 


Plainville, 


- 


- 


317 85 


- 


- 


328 78 


Plymouth, 






4,346 09 






4,510 32 


J. Xjf HX^LSJUf • • • 


OfOV^ Of 


1 780 71 


150 30 




1 552 20 


155 05 


Princeton, 




_ 1 


438 87 






454 15 


Quincy 


1,550 24 


55 52 


5,000 00 


4,692 51 




5,000 00 


Randolph, 






826 48 






922 96 



1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



113 





ions 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


J.9U9. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


1910. 

Total 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1011 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Raynham, 


$70 80 




$307 47 


$327 69 


$20 22 


$309 49 


Reading, .... 


6,974 30 


$5,293 45 


2,181 77 


3,952 73 


1,770 96 


2,358 75 


Revere 






5,000 00 


1,941 63 




5,000 00 


Rochester, 


96 34 


98 75 


257 35 


353 05 


95 70 


289 38 


Rockland, 


675 17 


193 22 


1,589 06 


1,519 45 




1,690 45 


Rockport, 


800 34 


240 66 


1,309 19 


1,843 81 


534 62 


1,370 67 


Rowley 


1,047 73 


1,026 59 


298 94 


1,192 46 


893 52 


367 45 


Royalston, 






228 19 






240 82 


Rutland, .... 






288 47 






312 49 


Salem, .... 


2,818 68 


334 00 


5,000 00 


5,367 11 


183 56 


5,000 00 


Salisbury, 


2,103 91 


1,290 50 


356 54 


1,614 11 


1,257 57 


363 15 


Sandwich, 


494 08 


128 83 


405 29 


544 45 


139 16 


410 53 


Saugus, .... 


12,243 30 


7,747 29 


2,082 51 


6,226 00 


4,143 49 


2,204 21 


Scituate, .... 




1,351 60 


1,790 26 


2,795 31 


1,005 05 


1,863 08 


Sharon, .... 






1,105 51 






1,114 01 


Sherborn, 


1,463 82 


756 34 


592 24 


820 96 


228 72 


556 54 


Shirley, .... 






433 69 


541 10 


107 41 


478 45 


Shrewsbury, . 






653 07 






697 72 


Somerville, 






5,000 00 


668 62 




5,000 00 


Southborough, 


984 33 


1,105 88 


733 56 


984 72 


251 16 


779 71 


Spencer, .... 






1,416 42 






1,414 28 


Springfield, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Sterling 






453 08 






466 91 


Stoneham, 


8,052 48 


2,637 99 


2,021 00 


2,275 18 


254 18 


2,022 37 


Stoughton, 






1,399 13 






1,422 00 


Stow, .... 


773 80 


878 52 


375 39 


1,516 25 


1,140 86 


409 87 


Sturbridge, 






426 65 






439 63 


Sudbury, 


2,390 60 


1,550 53 


501 99 


1,891 06 


1,389 07 


526 98 


Sutton, . ... 






516 34 






527 21 


Swampscott, . 


1,509 10 




4,050 37 


4,547 50 


397 71 


4,475 02 


Taunton, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Templeton, 






634 61 






648 87 


Tewksbury, 


1,771 69 


1,745 42 


508 38 


1,975 10 


1,466 72 


586 94 


Topsfield, 


1,725 26 


1,404 32 


508 09 


1.503 54 


995 45 


635 73 


Townsend, 






469 92 


1,037 11 


567 19 


530 33 


Truro 






149 06 






151 65 


Tyngsborough, 


1,505 38 


1,892 27 


223 53 


2,061 04 


1,837 51 


231 92 


Upton, .... 






444 37 






450 27 



114 



THE STATE 



FORESTER. 



[Jan. 





1908. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


1909. 

Re- 
imburse- 
ment. 


Required 
Ex pGndi"" 
ture. 


1910. 

Total 
ture. 


Re- 
ment. 


1911. 

Required 
Expendi- 
ture. 


Uxbridge, 






$1,140 23 






: $1,197 32 


Wakefield, 


S4,297 83 


$1,446 07 


3,635 64 


$5,438 50 


$1,190 98 


3,752 22 


Walpole, .... 






1,750 25 


649 90 




2,161 03 


Waltham, 


3,340 13 


616 60 


5,000 00 


7,008 12 


224 99 


5,000 00 


Wareham, 






1,884 49 






2,025 56 


Warren, .... 






769 59 






761 50 


Warwick, 






171 39 






176 98 


Watertown, 


399 36 




5,000 00 


3,513 49 




5,000 00 


Wayland, 


4,603 00 


2,989 29 


937 77 


2,895 98 


1,956 51 


1,136 06 


Webster, .... 






2,962 92 






3,115 91 


Wellesley, 


587 42 


886 08 


5,000 00 


5,585 70 


249 77 


5,000 00 


Wellfleet, 






495 76 






438 36 


Wenham, 


1,577 95 


2,977 10 


1,007 04 


1,599 72 


592 68 


1,027 19 


West Boylston, 






311 89 






330 82 


West Bridgewater, . 


1,342 17 


499 40 


508 54 


824 08 


315 54 


536 87 


West Newbury, 


7,316 20 


2,838 64 


430 97 


1,097 77 


666 80 


429 67 


Westborough, . 






1,306 06 






1,297 66 


Westford, 


2,727 41 


2,165 92 


733 29 


3,297 22 


2,563 93 


772 89 


Westminster, . 






314 09 


312 87 




344 52 


Weston, .... 


10,541 99 


4,600 00 


2,733 10 


5,052 73 


1,078 63 


2,769 70 


Westwood, 






1,038 27 






1,180 14 


Weymouth, 


1,542 86 


300 73 


3,197 19 


2,341 38 




3,143 23 


Whitman, 






1,949 34 






1,997 89 


Wilmington, 


3,803 51 


2,974 23 


555 91 


2,347 00 


1,791 09 


609 12 


Winchendon, . 






1,644 50 






1,673 72 


Winchester, 


808 08 




4,988 65 


3,704 73 




5,000 00 


Winthrop, 




- 


4,797 44 




- 


5.0C0 00 


Woburn 


7,624 59 


5,969 40 


4,478 69 


8,872 57 


3,263 35 


4,596 60 


Worcester, 






5,000 00 






5,000 00 


Wrentham, 






480 48 






512 36 


Yarmouth, 






834 74 






886 01 





1911.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



115 



Summary of Recommendations. 
For General Forestry, 
First. — To enact a law defining the powers and duties of 
the State Forester with regard to forest fires. 

Second. — To enact a law regulating the handling of brush, 
or slash, throughout the State, in order to lessen the danger of 
fire. 

Third. — That the law requiring permits to set fires in the 
open air be so amended as to apply to all cities and towns in the 
Commonwealth; also, to lengthen the time during which such 
permits are required, so as to include the month of March. 

Fourth. — That an increased appropriation be made to carry 
on the work of reforestation, and for the general expenses of the 
State Forester's department. 

For Moth Suppression.' 

Fifth. — That the law relative to the suppression of the 
gypsy and brown -tail moths be so amended that the State For- 
ester may take supervision of the work in cities and towns so 
desiring it, or where economy and efficiency demand it. 

Sixth. — That the usual additional appropriation for gypsy 
and brown-tail moth suppression, and the importation of their 
natural enemies, which has been $165,000, be again made this 
year. 

Seventh. — The passage of a resolution by the Massachusetts 
Legislature, urging upon the Congress of the United States the 
necessity for more assistance in suppressing and checking the 
spread of the gypsy and brown-tail moths. 

Eighth. — That the appropriations be made available by 
March 1, as more economic results can thus be obtained. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. RA^s^E, 

State Forester. 



Public Document 



No. 73 



THE 

STATE FOEESTEE 

OF 

MASSACHUSETTS. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL EEPOET. 
1911. 



F. W. RANE, State Forester. 




BOSTON: 

WEIGHT & POTTER FEINTING CO., STATE PEINTEES, 
18 Post Office Square. 
191?. 



aiLLiERARlOF 

STATE HOUist, eiO;5i\;ii. 



Appeoved by 
The State Boaed of Publication. 



®l)c Commontoealtl) of iHo0sacl)U0ctt0. 



To the General Court. 

It is with pleasure that the State Forester presents this, his 
eighth annual report, which covers the work of this department 
during the year, with recommendations for the future needs of 
the department. 

The report is divided into two parts: — 

Part I. General Forestry. 
Part II. Gypsy and Brown-tail Moth Work. 

This report is submitted in accordance with the provisions of 
chapter 409, section 5, Acts of 1904. 

Respectfully submitted. 



Dec. 10, 1911. 



F. W. RANE, 

State Forester. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Introduction, ........... 7 

Organization and staff, .......... 9 

Forest wardens and local moth superintendents, ..... 12 

Part I. — General Forestry. 

Examination of woodland, ......... 25 

Chestnut bark disease, .......... 27 

Woodland management, .......... 28 

Surveying, ............ 28 

Forest maps, ............ 29 

Examination work, . . . . . . . . . .31 

Reforestation work, .......... 31 

Forest nursery, ........... 32 

Planting done under the advice of this office, ...... 33 

Amherst nursery, ........... 34 

Hopkinton nursery, .......... 34 

Sandwich nursery, ........... 35 

State plantations, 1911, .......... 35 

Report of State Fire Warden, ......... 36 

Forest fire equipment, .......... 40 

Towns receiving fire-equipment reimbursement, ..... 41 

Fire lines, ............ 42 

Forest fires of 1911, 43 

Forest fire reports, ........... 44 

Comparative damages by forest fires for the past three years, . . .45 
Comparative causes of forest fires for the past three years, . . . .46 

Forest fires of 1911, 46 

United States government aid, ........ 46 

Railroad co-operation in forest fire fighting, . . . . . .47 

The chestnut bark disease (Diaporthe Parasitica) , ..... 49 

List of Massachusetts towns (by counties) in which the chestnut bark disease 

has been found, ........... 50 

Proposed cure for the lumbering slash evil, ...... 51 

Lectures and addresses, .......... 52 

Conservation, restoration and economic utilization of Massachusetts natural 

resources, ............ 53 

Insect depredations, .......... 55 

Forestry, ............ 56 

The reforestation of watersheds for domestic supplies, . . . .57 

Municipal water supply lands, . . . . . . ... 60 

Tentative list of 37 cities and towns having water supply lands possibly 

capable of foresting, 25 acres and over, . . . . . . .61 

Forestry: the part that colleges and experiment stations may play in its 

development, ........... 62 

New forestry legislation, .......... 67 

An act relative to the setting of fires in the open air, ..... 68 

Rulings, . ........... 69 



6 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Attorney-General's opinion, ......... 69 

An act to provide for the better prevention of forest fires, . . . .73 

Resolve to provide for an amendment of the constitution relative to the tax- 
ation of wild or forest lands, ........ 74 

Article of amendment, .......... 74 * 

Expenditures and receiptsr ......... 78 

Part II. — Gypsy and Beown-tail Moth Suppression. 
General considerations, . . . . . . . . . .81 

Future of the moth work, ......... 82 

Private property problem, ......... 84 

Auto truck sprayer, .......... 85 

Supply store, ........... 86 

List of towns and cities receiving supplies and the amounts, . . .87 
Parasite work, ........... 88 

Wilt disease 90 

Fungous diseases of the brown-tail and the gypsy moths, . . . .91 
North Shore work, ........... 91 

South Shore work, 97 

Work on State highways, ......... 98 

Infantile paralysis, . . . . . . . . . . .99 

Moth conditions in cities and towns, ....... 100 

New legislation, ........... 141 

Financial statements, .......... 144 

General appropriation, . . . . . . . . . . 144 

Parasite appropriation, .......... 145 

Special North Shore fund, ......... 146 

Special South Shore fund, ......... 146 

Financial summary by towns, ......... 146 

Summary of recommendations, . . . . . . . .153 



The first ])0\ver truck sprayer ever invented. Built by the Massachusetts State 
Forester in 1911 lor spraying in the gypsy and brown-tail moth work. The 
whole outfit was designed and built for this work, and promises to revolu- 
tionize the question of spraying, particularly roadside, park and shade tree 
work, in combating insect and fungous depredations. It can be used for 
forest fire work as well. The same engine that propels the truck also imparts 
the jtower for spraying. See description elsewhere. 



®[)e Comtncntoealtl) of itTa00acl)xi0ettB. 



EIGHTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE STATE 
FORESTER. 



Introduction. 

It has been the constant aim of the State Forester to estabhsh 
a forest policy worthy of Massachusetts interests. Year by year, 
through the splendid support given by our public-spirited citizens 
and various organizations, we have made constant progress. By 
perusing the annual reports of the State Forester it may be seen 
that each year the General Court has recognized the importance 
of the work and has encouraged a steady development. 

In submitting this, the eighth annual report, it is certainly a 
great pleasure to be able to state that, through the generous con- 
sideration of the last General Court, we have been able finally to 
perfect a State-wide forest fire policy that promises very great 
economy. With an up-to-date patrol and look-out system for 
forest fires, backed by a strong and efficient town and city forest 
warden unit of organization, already well established, together 
with the perfecting and adapting of previous laws, we now can 
boast of being in a position adequate for natural growth and 
development. 

I am frank to say that there never has been a more wholesome, 
co-operative interest shown toward this department than during 
the present season, and this, too, following an apparent misunder- 
standing on the part of a few of our legislators last session, who 
finally gave the department their support. 

I firmly believe that ultimately Governor Foss's first year's 
administration will be as noted for its establishment of a State- 
wide forest fire protective policy as any legislation enacted during 
the session. When we once can assure our people that forest fires 
can and will be controlled, there will be little trouble to interest 



8 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



capital in reforestation. With fire protection and a rapidly in- 
creasing interest in modern forestry, which no one can deny is 
prevalent even at present, it only remains for the casual observer 
to predict what we may be able to accomplish in Massachusetts. 

The various lines of work in this department have been ex- 
plained quite fully in past reports, and it is necessary only to state 
that the work throughout the year has even surpassed any other. 
The requests for examinations and advice have been far in excess 
of our ability to meet them with our present force. Forestry 
literature has been in great demand, and several bulletins have 
been revised and reprinted, besides much new material sent out. 
Lectures and demonstrations have been constantly requested, and 
as many given as conditions would permit. Forest laws and fire- 
warning posters have been posted fully by our wardens throughout 
the State. 

Towns generally are awakening to the necessity of being equipped 
with modern fire-fighting apparatus if they are to encourage 
forestry in their midst. The towns with a valuation of $1,500,000 
or less are taking advantage of the State's offer of assistance, and 
it is predicted that the usual appropriation by the State of S5,000 
will be utilized immediately following the spring tow^n meetings. 
As usual, those towns with equipment and organization have kept 
forest fires under control, while other towns have suffered. 

The work of reforestation continues as popular as ever, and 
I am convinced that if the Legislature could see its way clearly 
to enlarge greatly the present appropriation for this work, we 
could readily plant many times our present annual acreage. Our 
reforestation act is unique arid is proving a success. The work in 
this line will be far better appreciated in a few^ years, when the 
young trees have grown to a more desirable size. 

The gypsy and brown-tail moth work, while still a very perplexing 
problem, is better understood and more intelligently combated 
than ever. Our people are finding out that the best way to fight 
these pests is to take advantage of the advice and assistance that 
experience has taught us. This ofiice is in a position to advise 
and assist in this work throughout the infested territory. The 
division superintendents are men of ripe experience, and the local 
superintendents are more efficient and in better control of their 
conditions than ever before. 

If, as we now have reason to believe, it is soon to come to pass 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 9 



that the United States government will take over the parasitic 
work which the State has financed up to the present, and also 
assume the work of controlling the spread of the moth, then our 
State work will resolve itself down to internal self-preservation in 
the present infested territory. With this arrangement, I believe 
the State ought to combat the enemies satisfactorily with de- 
creasing expenditures. Many cities and towns once badly in- 
fested are at present, through State aid, in good condition, and 
now should become self-supporting, and it is the department's 
purpose to so direct the work that the annual drain upon the 
State treasury may be lessened as much as possible. 

Massachusetts has been the motive force in combating these 
pests up to the present. In recent years the insects have spread 
into adjoining States, where little attention to their control has 
been given, so that now the problem is one of protecting the nation. 

It is believed that the national government can ill afford to 
take other than a more progressive stand in this work. A million 
dollars a year at present will go farther than a much greater sum 
later on. It is reasonable to hope that parasites, diseases or natural 
causes may work to the detriment of these insects, but there are 
many chances of other sections of the country becoming infested 
and thereby working great destruction before results from these 
are realized. At present the only practical means of protection 
from the spread of this pest is through spraying and other well- 
known mechanical methods. 

The various phases of the State Forester's activities are given 
more fully under their respective classifications in this report. 

Organization. 

There have been a number of changes during the year, but the 
department is fortunate in having intact the same general staff 
of assistants as last year. 

Mr. A. T. Speare, moth disease work, resigned, and Mr. R. M. 
Colley of Harvard University has succeeded him. Mr. William 
Reiff, assistant to Professor Wheeler of the Bussey Institute, and 
who has given the moth disease work part time, has arranged to 
give the department his whole time for a season. Mr. Charles 
W. Minot and Mr. Frank A. Bates, who have been connected 
with the State work for many years as agents, now known as dis- 
trict superintendents, have resigned. 



10 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The changes in local forest wardens and moth superintendents in 
towns and cities have been very few indeed, and this fact results 
in more satisfactory conditions. 

Mr. William W. Colton, division superintendent No. 6, re- 
signed to become city forester of Fitchburg. 

The legislation creating a State Fire Warden and estabHshing 
look-out stations and a patrol system increases the organization 
to that extent. 

In securing the services of Mr. M. C. Hutchins as State Fire 
Warden, I am convinced Massachusetts is particularly fortunate. 
Mr. Hutchins has been in the employ of the New York forest 
service for seven years, and had charge of one of the most impor- 
tant forest fire divisions of the Adirondacks. He began his services 
for Massachusetts on August 1, and already the organization is 
well perfected. We may have every reason to believe that by 
another season the forest fire menace will be greatly reduced. A 
report of the fire work will be explained more fully under that title. 

The organization of the State Forester's department at present 
is as follows : — 

General Staff. 



F. W. Rane, B.Agr., M.S. 
H. O. Cook, M.F., 

L. H. WORTHLEY, 

E, . S. Langdell, . 
M. C. Hutchins, 
H. F. Gould, M.F., 

F. F. Moon, M.F., 

William Reiff, . 
r. h. colley, 
Charles O. Bailey, 
Elizabeth Hubbard, 
Charlotte Jacobs, 
Emilie Rau, 
Josepha L. Gallagher, 
John Lanergan, 



State Forester. 
Assistant Forester, 
Assistant, moth work. 
Assistant, reforestation. 
State Fire Warden. 
Assistant, forestry management. 
Assistant, Massachusetts Agricultural 
lege. 

Assistant, moth disease work. 

Assistant, moth disease work. 

Secretary. 

Clerk, bookkeeper. 

Clerk, mail and office. 

Stenographer. 

Clerk. 

Office boy. 



Col- 



L, 0, Howard, Ph.D, 



Theobald Smith, Ph.B., M.D 



Roland Thaxter. Ph.D 



W. M. Wheeler, Ph.D. 



Co-operative Scientific Staff. 

. Chief United States Bureau of Entomology, 
Washington, D. C, parasites and preda- 
ceous insects. 
Professor of Comparative Pathology, Harvard 

University, diseases of insects. 
Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard 
University, fungous diseases affecting in- 
sects. 

Professor of Entomology, Harvard University, 
experimental entomologist. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



11 



F. W. Rane, M.S., 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

M. E. Fenn, 

F. L. Haynes, 

J. J. Shepherd, . 
John P. Crowe, 

G. H. Allen, 
John Murdoch, Jr. 



Staff, Forest Fire Protection. 
. State Forester. 
. State Fire Warden. 
. Assistant. 

. District Forest Warden No. 1. 
. District Forest Warden No. 2. 
. District Forest Warden No. 3. 
. . District Forest Warden No. 4. 
. District Forest Warden No. 5. 



J. F. Hammond, . 

F. H. Lombard, . 
Herbert Morrisey, 

G. W. Sherman, 
G. C. Miller, 

N. C. Woodward, 
J. H. Allen, 
L. A. Wells, 



Observers and Observation Stations. 

Robbin's Hill, Chelmsford. 
Grace Mountain, Warwick. 
Plymouth. 

Shoot Flying Hill, Barnstable. 
Steerage Rock, Brimfield. 
Mount Tom, Holyoke. 
Massamet Mountain, Shelburne Falls. 
Wachusett Mountain, Princeton. 
Blue Hills, Hyde Park. 



Staff, Moth Work. 
F. W. Rane, M.S., . . . State Forester. 

L. H. WoRTHLEY, . . . Assistant (General Superintendent). 
Smith, George A., Superintendent, District 1, 92 Sagamore Avenue, Chelsea. 
Enwright, John W., Superintendent, District 2, 48 Fellsway, Medford. 
Hatch, William A., Superintendent, District 3, 174 Main Street, Hudson. 
Ramsey, Harry B., Superintendent, District 4, 217 Park Avenue, Worcester. 
WoRTHEN, Francis C, Superintendent, District 5, Central Street, Georgetown. 
Fitzgerald, John J., Superintendent, District 6, 50 Howard Street, Haverhill. 
Phillips, Saul, Superintendent, District 7, P. O. Box 1363, Beverly. 
Parkhurst, Clarence W., Superintendent, District 8, P. O. Box 472, Medfield. 
HoDGKiNS, Lewis W., Superintendent, District 9, North Raynham. 
Farley, John A., Superintendent, District 10, Plymouth, R. F. D. 
Carleton, John F., Superintendent, District 11, East Sandwich. 



Armstrong, Henry F. 
Holmes, Walter F. 
Merrick, John L. 



Inspectors. 



Young, Arthur W. 



Sands, George A. 
SiLVA, Joseph. 
Sweeney, Charles F, 



Mechanics. 

Halpin, Frederick P. Towle, Claude E. 

Perry, Charles H. Smith, Albert E. 

Wright, Harvey J. 



Learoyd, Francis V., in charge. Supply Store. 



12 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents. 



[Alphabetically by Towns and Cities.] 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


287 


No telephone, 


B. E. WUkes,» . 




Abington, . 


C. F. Shaw, 


10 


181 


No telephone, 


W. H. Kingsley, 




Acton, . 


J. O'Neil, . 


3 


275 


2003-M, . 


H. F. Taber, . 




Acushnet, . 


A. P. R. Gilmore, 


9 


7 


48-2, 


J. Clancy, . 




Adams, 






93 


3165-11, . 


E. M. Hitchcock, 




Agawam, 






24 
228 


151-32, Great 
Barrington. 


J. H. Wilcox. P. 

State Line. 
J. E. Feltham, . 


0. 


Alford, 
Amesbxiry, . 


A. L. Stover, 


5 


67 


343-5, . 


A. F. Bardwell, . 




Amherst, 


W. H. Smith, 


4 


212 


105-3, . 


J. H. Playdon, 2 




Andover, 


J. H. Playdon, . 


6 


193 


35, 


W. H. Pierce, 1 . 




Arlington, . 


W. H. Bradley, . 


2 


104 


5-6, . . 


C. A. Billings, . 




Ashbiirnham, 


C. A. Billings, 


3 


158 




W. S. Green, . 




Ashby, 


H. A. Lawrence, . 


3 


50 


4-12, 


C. A. Hall, 




Ashfield, 






200 
105 


146-L, _ South 
Framingham 
44-2 or 72-4, . 


H. H. Piper, . 
F. P. Hall, 1 




Ashland, 
Athol, . 


M. Geoghan, 

W. S. Penniman, 


8 
4 


265 


34-4, 


H. R. Packard, » 




Attleborough, . 


W. E. S. Smith, . 


8 


123 


5-17, 


J. F. Searle, 




Auburn, 


J. F, Searle, 


4 


259 


8072-4, . 


.J. W. McCarty, . 




Avon, . 


W. W. Beals, 


8 


169 


96-4 or 477-4, 


C. E. Perrin, 




Ayer, . 


D. W. Mason, 


3 


315 
142 


236-2, . 
8-4, 


H. C. Bacon, P. 

Hyannis. 
A. E. Traver, . 


0. 


Barnstable, 
Barre, . 


H. C. Bodfish, . 
G. R. Simonds, . 


10 
4 


23 


3-12, 


E. D. Ballou, . 




Becket, 






179 


No telephone. 


C. E. Williams, , 




Bedford, 


W. A. Cutler, 


2 


73 


10, 


J. A. Peeso, 




Belchertown, 


E. C. Howard, . 


4 


326 


157-2, Milford, 


J. A. Spencer, 




Bellingham, 


H. A. Whitney, . 


8 


194 


409-W., . 


J. F. Leonard, > 




Belmont, 


C. H. Houlahan, 


1 


271 
139 


No telephone, 
14-6, 


G. H. Babbitt, Taun- 
ton, R. F. D., 1. 
W. Cole. . 


Berkley, 
Berlin, . 


J. M. Alexander, . 
E. C. Ross, . 


9 
3 


39 


2-13, 


E. W. Hale, 




Bernardston, 






220 


168-12, . 


R. H. Grant, » . 




Beverly, 


J. B. Brown, 


7 


173 


22-2, 


E. N. Bartlett, ' 




Billerica, 


W. H. O'Brien, . 


6 


114 
81 


475-L-l,Woon- 

socket. 
10-3, 


T. Reilly, 

H. K. Herrick, . 




Blackstone, 
Blandford, . 


A. J. Gibbons, 


8 


146 


7-22, 


C. E. Mace, 




Bolton, 
Boston, 


C. E. Mace, 

D. H. Sullivan, 


3 
1 



» Also chief of fire department. ^ Also tree warden. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 13 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


311 
182 


11-4, W.Acton, 


S. 0. Phinney, P. 0. 

Monument Beach. 
M. L. Wetherbee, 


Bourne, 
Boxborough, 


S. B. Wright, 
C. E. Sherry, 


11 

3 


218 
138 


16-5, 


H. L. Cole, George- 
town, R. F. D. 
C. S. Knight, . 


Boxford, 
Boylston, . 


C. Perley, . 

E. H. Hastings, . 


5 
4 


244 
318 


2125-4, . 

No telephone. 


J. M. Cutting, South 

Braintree. 
T. B. Tubman, . 


Braintree, . 
Brewster, 


O.A.Hubbard, . 
J. E. Eldridge, . 


1 

11 


293 


8-6, 


E. S. Rhoades, . 


Bridgewater, 


A. W. McFarland, 


8 


99 


14-3, 


G. E. Hitchcock, 


Brimfield, . 


G. E. Hitchcock, 


4 


286 


1041, 


H. L. Marston, * 


Brockton, . 


R. H. Carr, 


8 


120 


105-3, . 


D. N. Hunter, . 


Brookfield, . 


J. H. Conant, 


4 


237 


376, 


G. H. Johnson, > 


Brookline, . 


E. B. Dane, 




49 
178 


Lampson & 
Goodnow 
Mfg. Co. 

2-5, 


W. Sauer, P. 0. Shel- 
burne Falls. 

W. W. Skelton, ^ 


Buckland, . 
Burlington, 


- 

W. W. Skelton, . 


- 

2 


249 


21060, . 


L. Horton, P. 0. 
Ponkapoag. 


Canton, 
Cambridge, 


A. Hemenway, . 
J. F. Donnelly, . 


8 
1 


171 


9166, 


W. B. Chamberlain, . 


Carlisle, 


G. G. Wilkins, . 


2 


304 


16-2, 


H. F. Atwood, . 


Carver, 


H. F. Atwood, . 


10 


42 


No telephone. 


F. D. Legate, . 


Charlemont, 






115 


32-3, 


C.Bond, . 


Charlton, . 


J. D. Fellows, 


4 


320 
172 


11-12. . 
1597-4, . 


G. W. Ryder, West 

Chatham. 
A. C. Perham, . 


Chatham, . 
Chelmsford, 
Chelsea, » 


G. B. Bassett, . 
M. A. Bean, 
J. A. O'Brien, 


11 
6 
1 


11 

80 


167-3, . 
8-2, 


C. D. Cummings, 
M. E. Turner, . 


Cheshire, 
Chester, 






63 


8004, . 


C. A. Bisbee, Bisbee, 


Chesterfield, 






87 


271-11, . 


M. J. Lynch, 


Chicopee, 






308 


No telephone. 


E. C. May hew, . 


Chilmark, . 


A. S. Tilton, 


11 


3 
145 


No telephone, 
138-L, . 


D. W. Blanchard, No. 

Adams, R. F. D., 1. 
R. Jendricks, 


Clarksburg, 
Clinton, 


J. B. Connery, 


3 


246 


177-3, . 


W. J. Brennock, 


Cohasset, . 


J. E. Grassie, 




37 


17-6 


H. Davenport, 








180 


169-2 or 300, . 


G. G. Morrell, » . 


Concord, 


H. P. Richardson, 


1 


51 


20-13, . 


C. Parsons, ^ 


Conway, 






60 
14 


8001, . 
58-11, . 


W. S. Gabb, P. 0. 

Swift River. 
A. K. Cleveland, 


Cummington, 
Dalton, 






147 


No telephone, 


T. L. Thayer, North 
Dana. 


Dana, . 


T. L. Thayer, 


4 



Also chief of fire department. * Also tree warden. ' No forest area. 



14 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town, 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


345 


277-3, . 


M. H. Barry, . 


Danvers, 


T. E. Tinsley, . 


7 


278 
241 


1000 A "t XT««T 

loso-41, JNew 

Bedford. 
373 or 31-6, . 


S. P. Hawes, 
H. J. Harrigan, . 


Dartmoutli, 
Dedham, 


J. T. Kennedy, . 


8 


52 


Zio-li, (jrreen. 


W. Li. Mams, 


Deerfield, 






Oil 

272 


No telephone, 
29-3, 


A. Jr. rjaker, feoutn 

Dennis. 
Ralph Earle, 


Dennis, 
Dighton, 


TT TT 0„„_„ 

±1. ±1. oears, 
D. F. Lane, 


11 
10 


112 
^4u 


East Douglas, 

Central, 
o/o-i, 


W.L. Church, . 
J. Breagy, . 


Douglas, 
Dover, . 


W. E. Carpenter, 
H. L. McKenzie, 


4 

Q 
O 


163 


1869-4, . 

1 do 


r. ±1. (jruntner, * 

Navy Yard, 
i? • A. X uiiuani, . 


Dracut, 

T^ll ATT 


X. t! . UarncK, 
I. H. Easterbrook, 


1 
1 


161 


No telephone, 


a. W. Swallow, . 


Dunstable, . 


W. Saville, . 


6 


OVO 

298 
95 


00 

146-5, . 
4-3, 


Hi. W. OOUie, i . KJ. 

Box 15, Millbrook. 
R. H. Copeland, P. 0. 

Elmwood. 
E. J. Speight, . 


Duxbury^ 

E. Bridgewater, . 

E. Longmeadow, 


XI. A. r isn, . 
B. F. Taylor, 


in 

8 


900 


OA 01 0«1/>o<r.a 


W. H. Nickerson, 


Eastham, 


IN . sr. v^iarK, 


1 1 


77 


2-11, 


J. M. Deneen, . 


Easthampton, . 






264 
346 


z4-7, JNortn 

Easton. 
241-2, 


J. Baldwin, * 
M. fe. Koberts, . 


Easton, 
Edgartown, 


ti. W. Melendy, . 
i. o. Wimpenny, 


8 

Q 
O 


29 
74 
46 


1d5-14, Ureat 
Harrington. 
1-13, 

No telephone, 


r. W. iDraatora, (jreat 
Barrington, R.F.D. 
H. L. Ryther, . 

U. ±1. Holmes, rarley. 


Egremont, . 

Enfield, 

Erving, 


- 


- 


233 
- 


No telephone, 
- 


0. 0. Storey, » . 
- 


Essex, . 
Everett, » 


0. 0. Story, 
J. Davidson, 


7 
2 


276 


1439-22, . 


A. C. Aiken, 


Fairhaven, . 


G. W. King, 


9 


280 


14, 


W. Mulligan, 


Fall River, . 


J. H. Nugent, 


9 


312 
157 


136-2, . 
1421-W or 745, 


H. N. Lawrence, P. 0. 

Toaticket. 
W. W. Colton, . 


Falmouth, . 
Fitchburg, . 


W. B. Bosworth, . 
W. W. Colton, . 


11 
3 


5 


Hoosao Tunnel 
Pay Station. 


H. B. Brown, P. 0. 
Drury. 


Florida, 


- 


- 


261 


37-11, 


Hi. a. White, ' 


Foxborough, 


S. J. Johnston, . 


8 


197 

255 


352-4, South 
Framingham 
67-3, 


B. p. Winch, . 
E. S. Cook, 


Framingham, 
Franklin, . 


N. I. Bowditch, . 
J. W. Stobbart, . 


8 
8 


274 


No telephone. 


A. Hathaway, Assonet, 


Freetown, . 


G. M. Nichols, . 


11 


153 


191-M, . 


G. S. Hodgman, 


Gardner, 


T. W. Danforth, . 


4 


343 
224 


4-2, 


L. B. Smalley, P. 0. 

Menemsha. 
C. J. Eaton, 


Gay Head, . 
Georgetown, 


J. W. Belain, 
C. J. Eaton, 


11 
5 


45 


4-15, 


L. C. Munn, 


Gill, . 


A. Tuttle, . 


4 



• Also chief of fire department. 



'Also tree warden. 



' No forest area. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 15 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Xelepiione 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


Jo4 


Kin s 


o. a . ±iasKelI, 


Gloucester, 


xi. J . vvortu. 


7 


61 
344 


18-4, 


J. b. Mollison, Jr. U. 
Williamsburg. 


Goshen, 
Gosnold, 




- 


125 


Central, 


o. t} . Lieonara, . 


Grafton, 


U. ii.. Uespeau, . 


4 


79 


55-4, 


O. J\. Rust, 


Granby, 






91 


4-12, 


L. N. Henry, 


Granville, . 


- 


- 


25 


5-3, 


JJ. W. i<lynn. 


Gt. Barrington, 






44 


443-2, . 


J. W. Bragg, 


Greenfield, . 


J. W. Bragg, 


4 


327 
167 


33-24, . 
105, 


W. H. Walker, Green- 
wich Village. 
J. B. Harrington, ' 


Greenwich, 
Groton, 


J . r . JBateman, 


2 


225 


1026-X, . 


S. E. Johnson, . 


Groveland, . 


R. B. Larive, 


5 


66 


651-33, North- 
ampton. 


E. P. West, * 

th. XI. vaugnn, . 


Hadley, 
xxaiiiax, 


T? T^ T Trr\T^ 

n . u. j_/yon. 


m 


222 
97 

9 


No telephone, 
6-5, 

Post-office, . 


F. Berry, Essex, 

R. F. D. 
J. o. owenson, . 

C. F. Tucker, . 


Hamilton, 
Hampden, . 
Hancock, . 


ill. Kj. rsrewer. 


1 
I 


295 
296 
141 


8011- 2, 

8012- 6, Bryant- 
ville. 

No telephone, 


hi. Uamon, r$ox llo. 

No. Hanover. 
A. L. Dame, * South 

Hanson. 
P. J. Humphrey, 


Hanover, 
Hanson, 
Hardwick, . 


Li. Russell, . 

A. L, Dame, 

P. J. Humphrey, 


1 A 

10 
4 


152 


46-3, 


B. J. Priest, 


Harvard, 


vj. U. Maynarcl, . 


6 


319 


Central, 


J. Condon, 


Harwich, 






65 
216 


6-3, 
4-2. 


J. M. btrong. West 

Hatfield. 
J. B. Gordon, * . 


xiatneia, 
Haverhill, . 


M. Fitzgerald, 


6 


48 
36 


121-3. . 
5-18, 


M. H. White, P. 0. 
Charlemont. 

O /"^ "T) ^ 

b. G. Benson, 


Hawley, 
Heath, 






289 


21305, 


(jr. Uusmng, * 


Hingham, 


1 . ii. Murpny, 


1 


15 


20, 


L. B. Brague, 


Hinsdale, 






247 


150, Randolph, 


bj. W. Austin. ' . 


HolDrook, . 


VV. May den. 


8 


136 
101 
202 


29-4, 
5-21, 
1-2, 


W. H. btearns, tr. U. 

Jefferson. 
0. L. Howlett, South- 

Driage, rt.r .i-^. 
W. A. Collins. . 


Hoi den, 
Holland, 
Holliston, . 


W. ti. btearns, 
G. H. Moody, 


4 

8 


85 


R. H. Dietz, . 


C. J. Haley. 


Holyoke, 






328 


233-2, . 


W. F. Durgin. . 


Hopedale, . 


W. F. Durgin, . 


8 


201 


Central, 


R. I. Frail. 


Hopkinton, 


W. McMillan, 


8 


149 


25-13, . 


E. A. Young, 2 . 


Hubbardston, 


E. A. Young, 


4 


199 


No telephone. 


F. W. Trowbridge, » . 


Hudson, 


F. P. Hosmer, . 


3 



' Also chief of fire department. 



" Also tree warden. 



16 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


329 


248-W., . 


S. F. Sturges, ^ P. 0. 


Hull, . 


J. Knowles, 


1 




Allerton. 






/U 




u. r>. iViacK, 








330 


28 or 156, 


J. H. Wetherbee, 


Hyde Park, 


E. I. Corbett, 




223 


42-6 or 100, . 


A. J. Barton, 


Ipswich, 


J. Morey, 


5 


301 


- 


A. a. xioimes, 


Kingston, . 


R. F. Randall, . 


10 


283 


261-2, . 


N. F. Washburn, P. 0. 


Lakeville, 


S. T. Nelson, 


9 




Middleborough. 




151 


152-3, Clinton, 


E. M. Hawkins, 


Lancaster, . 


L. R. Griswold, . 


3 


10 


717-5, Pitts- 


Iv. U. iveeler, 


Lanesborougli, . 




~ 




field. 










214 


24-M, . 


H. Roach, . 


Lawrence, . 


H. Roach, . 


6 


22 


66-5. 


J. W. Bossidy, . 


Lee, 






122 


No telephone, 


U. Wmte, ir. U. Unerry 


Leicester, 


J. ±1. vvooaneaa, . 


4 




Valley. 




18 


135, 


0. R. Hutchinson, ^ . 


Lenox, . 


M. O'Brien, 


4 


155 


546 or 9, 


F. A. Russell, . 


Leominster, 


S. R. Walker, 


3 


57 


No telephone, 


0. C. Marvel, North 


Leverett, 








Leverett. 








188 


No telephone, 


A. P. Howe, 


Lexington, . 


A. P. Howe, 


2 


38 


248-11, . 


J. Sauter, . 


Ley den, 






187 


56-5, 


J. J. Kelliher, Con- 


Lincoln, 


J. J. Kelliher, . 


1 




cord, R. F. D. 








170 


17-4, 


A. Hj. xlopJans, . 


Littleton, . 


A. ill. Hopkins, 


3 


94 


12c5o-2, 


U. C Pomeroy, . 


iiongmeadow. 






165 ■ 


201-21, . 


E. S. Hosmer, * . 


Lowell, 


C. A. Whittet, . 


6 


88 


17-13, . 


E. E. Chapman, 


Ludlow, 






156 


24-2 L, . 


M. E. Harvey, . 


Lunenburg, 


M. E. Harvey, 


3 


331 


1174, 


H. C. Bayrd, . 


Lynn, . 


G. H. McPhetres, 


1 


209 


No telephone. 


T. E. Cox, Wakefield, 


Lynnfield, . 


L. P. Twiss, 


2 




R. F. D. 






191 


108, 


F. Turner, 


Maiden, 


Street commis- 












sioners. 




236 




E. J. Seamans, . 


Manchester, 


J. D. Morrison, . 


7 


263 


1-2, 


H. E. King, 


Mansfield, . 


W. 0. Sweet, 


8 


332 


No telephone. 


W. H. Stevens, . 


Marblehead, 


W. H. Stevens, . 


1 


306 


117-2, . 


G. B. Nye, 


Marion, 


J. Allanack, 


11 


198 


345-2, . 


E. C. Minehan, * 


Marlborough, 


T. J. Brennan, 


3 


292 


43-3, 


W. G. Ford, 


Marshfield, . 


P. R. Livermore, 


10 


313 


19-11 or 19-4, 


J. A. Peters, 


Mashpee, 


W. F. Hammond, 


11 




Cotuit. 






281 


25-2, 


E. C. Stetson, . 


Mattapoisett, 


A. H. Dexter, 


9 


184 


No telephone, 


A. J. Coughlan, . 


Maynard, . 


A. Coughlan, 


3 


252 


106-4, . 


W. E. Kingsbury, » . 


Medfield, . 


G. L. L. Allen, . 


8 


192 


138 or 53, 


C. E. Bacon, ' . 


Medford, 


W, J. Gannon, 


1 


254 


15-2 or 38-3, . 


C. C. Hunt, 


Medway, 


F. Hager, 


8 



* Also chief of fire department. 



Also tree warden. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 17 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 








Melrose, 


J. J. McCullough, 


2 


118 


151-4, . 


E. L. Cook, 


Mendon, 


F. M. Aldrich, . 


8 


227 


21-3, 


E. P. Sargent, . 


Merrimac, . 


C. R. Ford, 


5 


213 


No telephone, 


H. Nichols, 


Methuen, . 


A. H. Wagland, . 


6 


284 


5 or 36, . 


C. E. Weston, . 


Middleborough, . 


F. L. White, 


9 


342 
211 


9024-14, . 


T. H. Flemming, P. 0. 

Bancroft. 
0. H. Sheldon, . 


Middlefield, 
Middleton, . 


_ 

B. T. McGlauflin, 


5 


127 


65-3, 


E. M. Crockett, > 


Milford, 


P. Fitzgerald, 


8 


124 


42-13. . 


W. Blany, . 


Millbury, 


E. F. Roach, 


4 


253 


5-2, 


C. La Croix, 


Millis, . 


E. W. Stafford, . 


8 


242 


322, 


N. T. Kidder, » . 


Milton, 


N. T. Kidder, . 


1 


34 


No telephone. 


S. R. Tower, 


Monroe, 


_ 




98 


12-22, . 


0. E. Bradway, 


Monson, 


_ 




53 
28 


289-14, Green- 
field. 
Post-office, . 


F. T. Lyman, . 
D. C. Tryon, . 


Montague, . 
Monterey, . 


- 


- 


30 


No telephone, 


R. I. Patterson, 


Mt. Washington, 


_ 






138, 


T. Roland, 


Nahant, » 


T. Roland, . 


1 


333 


16-21, . 


G. M. Winslow, . 


Nantucket, 


G. M. Winslow, . 


11 


204 


52-4, 


W. E, Daniels, . 


Natick, 


H. S. Hunnewell, 


1 


238 
6 


195-1, . 

No telephone. 


H. H. Upham, i 
C. S. Baker, 


Needham, . 
New Ashford, 


E. E. Riley, 


1 


277 


2280, 


E. F. Dahill, 1 . 


New Bedford, . 


C. F. Lawton, 


9 


131 

32 


31-15, North 
Brookfield. 
Post-office, . 


E. L. Havens, . 
J. McLaughlin, . 


New Braintree, . 
N. Marlborough, 


E. L. Havens, 


4 


55 


Pay station, . 


R. King, Cooleyville, 


New Salem, 


R. King, . 


4 


231 
230 


173-1, New- 
buryport. 
380, 


W. P. Bailey, Byfield, 
C. P. Kelley, . 


Newbury, . 
Newburyport, . 


H. L. Bailey, 
C. P. Kelley, 


5 
5 


205 
256 


N. W., 33-1, . 
Post-office, 


W.B.Randlett.i New- 
ton Center. 
A. R. Jones, 


Newton, 
Norfolk, 


C. 1. Bucknam, . 
A. R. Jones, 


1 
8 


4 


205-4, . 


H. J. Montgomery,! . 


North Adams, 


H. E. Blake, 


4 


215 


821-3, . 


G. A. Rea, 


North Andover, . 


P. Holt, 


6 


262 


17-2, 


H. W. Tufts, . 


N. Attleborough, 


F. P. Toner, 


8 


129 


26-14, . 


G. 0. Rollins, 1 . 


N. Brookfield, . 


S. D. Colburn, . 


4 


175 


12-6, 


H. Upton, ' 


North Reading, . 


G. E. Eaton, 


2 


72 
140 


165, 
14-5, 


F. E. Chase, Engine 

House. 
T. p. Haskell, . 


Northampton, . 
Northborough, . 


T. P. Haskell, . 


4 



1 Also chief of fire department. 



2 Also tree warden. 



18 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


Gity or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


117 
40 


71-5, Whitins- 

ville. 
2-3, 


W. E. Burnap, P. 0. 

Whitinsville. 
F. W. Doane, 


Northbrldge, 
Northfield, . 


F. W. Doane, 


4 


266 


No telephone, 


G. H. Storer, 


Norton, 


G. H. Storer, 


8 


290 


11-4, 


J. Whalen, . 


Norwell, 


J. H. Sparrell, 


10 


250 




J. Fred Boyden, 


Norwood, 


F. H. Winslow, . 


8 


334 
135 


119-4, Marthas 

Vineyard. 
17-5, 


F. W. Ghase, 

G. H. Trowbridge, 


Oak BluSs, . 
Oakham, 


P. P. Hurley, 

G. H. Trowbridge, 


11 
4 


47 


62-13, . 


F. M. Jennison, . 


Orange, 


F. M. Jennison, . 


4 


321 


21-12, . 


G. F. Poor, 


Orleans, 


A. Smith, . 


11 


27 


7-15, . 


J. B. Soule, East Otis, 


Otis, . 






335 


25-2, 


G. A. Rich, 


Oxford, 


G. G. Lamed, . 


4 


89 


65-11 or 53-12, 


J. Summers, * 


Palmer, 


G. H. Keith, 


4 


130 


881-14, Worces- 
ter. 
18-3, 


D. W. Gratan, . 


Paxton, 


F. L. Durgin, 


4 


219 


M. V. McGarthy, 


Peabody, 


J. F. Gallahan, . 


2 


68 
294 
160 

16 


318-2, . 

8029-2, Bryant- 

ville. 
54-3 or 12-5, . 

1-2, 


G. P. Shaw, Amherst, 
R. F. D. 
J. J. Shepard, 

G. G. Tarbell, East 

Pepperell. 
E. Shumway, . 


Pelham, 
Pembroke, . 
Pepperell, . 
Peru, . 


J. J. McFarlen, . 
J. Tune, 


10 
2 


148 


13-2, 


G. P. Marsh, « , 


Petersham, . 


F. A. Hathaway, 


4 


106 
13 


176-6, Athol, . 
149 or 964, . 


W. Goulbeck, Athol, 

R. F. D., 3. 
W. G. Shepard, * 


Phillipston, 
Pittsfield, . 


W. H. Goulbeck, 


4 


309 
59 
302 


18-31, Gum- 
ming. 

208-L, No. At- 
tleborough. 

197-W or 88-4, 


E. L. Parker, 
H. E. Goombs,^ 
H. Morissey, 


Plainfileld, . 
Plainville, . 
Plymouth, . 


G. N. Snell, 

A. A. Raymond, . 


8 
10 


300 
69 
150 


11-14, Kings- 
ton. 
11-4, 

13-4, 


T. W. Blanchard, 

W. H. Pierce, P. 0. 

Greenwich Village. 
F. W. Bryant, . 


Plympton, . 
Prescott, 
Princeton, . 


D. Bricknell, 
F. A. Skinner, 


10 
4 


325 


49-11, . 


J. H. Barnett, . 


Provincetown, . 


J. M. Burch, 




243 




P. J. Williams, > 


Quincy, 


A. J. Stewart, 


1 


248 


86-1, 


G. A. Wales, * 


Randolph, . 


J. E. Blanche, 


8 


270 


1284-R, . 


J, V. Festing, 


Baynham, . 


G. M. Leach, 


9 


176 


214-1, . 


H. E. Mclntu-e, 


Reading, 


H. M. Donegan, . 


2 


268 


11-12, 


B. F. Monroe, Attle- 
borough, R. F. D. 


Rehoboth, 
Revere, ' 


S. W. Robinson, . 
G. P. Babson, . 


9 
1 


17 


4-2, 


T. B. Salmon, . 


Richmond, . 






282 


No telephone, 


D. E. Hartley, P. 0. 
Mattapoisett. 


Rochester, . 


G. W. Wilcox, 


11 


288 


55-4, 


J. H. Burke, 


Rockland, . 


F. H. Shaw, 


10 



» Also chief of fire department. 



' Also tree warden. 



• No forest area. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 19 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


o 1 o Ti Ti n Ti A 

Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


T.r^pnl \TrifTi 

Superintendent. 


Dist 
No.* 


235 


27-3, 


A. J. McFarland, 


Rockport, . 


F. A. Babcock, . 


7 


35 


21-6, 


M. A. reck, Ir. U. Zoar, 


Rowe, . 






232 


No telephone, 


JJ. U iarien, 


Rowley, 


D. O'Brien, 


5 


102 


No telephone, 


L. G. Forbes, . 


Royalston, . 


A. H. Brown, 


4 


83 
143 


194, Spring- 
field. 
13-3, 


S. S. Shurtleff, . 
H. Converse, * . 


Russell, 
Rutland, 
Salem, ^ 


H. E. Wheeler, . 
A. btillman, 


4 
7 


229 




C. I. Dow, 


Salisbury, . 


H. C. Rich, 


5 


33 
314 
207 
8 


Post-oflice, . 

144-2, 
3-3, 


L. H. Clark, P. 0. 

New Boston. 
J. r. Uarlton, ir. U. 

Spring Hill. 
0. C. Christiansen, . 

H. H. Fitzroy, . 


Sandisfield, 
Sandwich, . 
Saugus, 
Savoy, . 


B. F. Denison, 
T. E. Berrett, 


11 

2 


291 
267 
257 


129-3, . 

OAA T C T>«™ 

dyy-Lr-o, I'aw- 

tucket. 
121-2, 


E. R. Seaverns,' North 

Scituate. 
J. L. Baker, Attlebor- 

ough, R. F. D., 4. 
A. A. Carpenter, 


Scituate, 
Seekonk, 
Sharon, 


P. S. Brown, 

ti. L. 1 nompson, 

T. J. Leary, 


1 

9 
8 


31 


24-2, 


A. H. Tuttle, . 


Sheffield, 






43 
203 
348 


135-4, . 
9-6, 


H. 0. Fiske, Shelburne 
Falls. 

M. F. Campbell, So. 

Sherborn. 
G. F. Buxton, . 


Shelburne, . 
Sherborn, . 
Shirley, 


J. P. Dowse, 
A. A. Adams, 


8 
3 


132 


Central, 


w. hi. Kice, 


Shrewsbury, 


F. L. Ott, 


4 


58 
336 


2-21 Highland 
Tel. Co. 

XT 1 U« 

No telephone, 


M.A.Haskell, . 

W. . (jrrimtns, bwan- 
sea, R. F. D. 


Shutesbury, 
Somerset, 
Somerville, ^ 


C. Riley, 

A. B. Pritchard, . 


9 
1 


78 
76 


TOil 1 TT 1 «1 

724-1, Hoiyoke, 
151-22, . 


L. H. Lamb, South 

Hadley Falls. 
G. W. Tyler, . 


So. Hadley, 
Southampton, . 






337 
109 


13, Marlbor- 
ough. 
11, 


H.Burnett, 2 
A. Langevin, 


Southborough, . 
Southbridge, 


H. Burnett, 
A. Langevin, 


4 
4 


92 


14-5, 


L. G. Mason, 


Southwick, 






121 


77-4, 


A. F. Howlett, . 


Spencer, 


G. Ramer, . 


4 


86 
144 

21 
190 


20, Indian Or- 
chard. 
16-5, 

Post-office, . 
207-R, . 


T. J. Clifford, P. 0. 

Indian Orchard. 
G. F. Herbert, P. 0. 

Pratts Junction. 
G. Sclineyer, P. 0. 

Glendale. 
L. T. Bruce, 


Springfield, 
Sterling, 
Stockbridge, 
Stoneham, . 


W. F. Gale, . 
J. H. Kilburn, 
Dr. H. C. Haven, 
G. M. Jefts, 


4 
3 
4 
2 


258 


121-3, . 


J. Curley, . 


Stoughton, 


W. P. Kennedy, . 


8 


183 
108 
185 


145-11, . 

No telephone, 

5-5, 


W. H. Parker, P. 0. 
Gleasondale. 

C. M. Clark, P. 0. 
Fiskedale. 

S. W. Hall, So. Sud- 
bury. 


Stow, . 

Sturbridge, 

Sudbury, 


G. A. Patterson, . 

C. M. Clark, 

W. E. Baldwin, . 


3 
4 
3 



1 Also chief of fire department. 



2 Also tree warden. 



3 No forest area. 



20 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist 
No.* 


338 


46, 


A. U. Warner, 


Sunderland, 






116 


00-0, MiUDury, 


R. H. Richardson, 


Sutton, 


J . iLi. Lrinora, 


4 


339 


3106-3, . 


G. P. Cahoon,! . 


Swampscott, 


E. P. Mudge, 


1 


273 




i . Li. Mason, 


Swansea, 


A. til. Arnold, 


9 


/oy 


ozu or 1-0, 


F. A. Leonard,'' 


Taunton, 


A. Harnden, 


y 


107 


37-16, 


xl. A. beaver, 


Templeton, 


J . rs. Wneeier, 


4 


164 


11-3, 


±1. W. PlilsDury, 


Tewksbury, 


TT TIT T> 

xl. M. rSriggs, 


6 


310 


102-3, . 


E. C. Chadwick, P. 0. 

Vineyard Haven. 
K^. xx. ueuiing, . 


Tisbury, 
xoiiana, 


P. S. Luce, . 


11 


218 


Central, 


W. J loyd, 


lopsneiu, 


Ky. W. r loycl. 


5 


159 


or 6i-z, . 


F. J. Piper, ^ 


Townsend, . 


(jr. hi. Jtvmg, 


2 


324 


No telephone, 


N. Hatch, . 


Truro, . 


J . xl. Atwood., 


11 




0- 4, 

1- 22, 


U. JU. wrignt, 
vjr. r . ivnapp. 


Tyn^sborough, . 
T y ring^h am , 


C. Allgrove, 


A 



126 


7-2, 


Hi. M. rJaker, '■ 


Upton, 


G. H. Evans, 


8 


113 


31-12, 


L. F. Rawson, 


Uxbridg'e, 


xl. u. iNewell, 


Q 
O 


208 




o. i . r^arlcer, 


waKeneici, 


W. W. wmttreage, 


2 


100 


No telephone. 


W. W. Hiager, 


Wales, . 






340 


112-2, 


±1. A. bpear, Jr., 


Walpole, 


T> T) A11„-.» 

r^. xt. Allen, 


8 


lyo 


Jr^ost-Onice, 


G. L. Johnson,^ 


Waltham, 


w. M. xtyan. 




75 


5-13, 


L. S. Charbonneau, . 


Ware, . 


F. Zeissig, . 


4 


305 


45-23, . 


D. C. Keyes, . 


Wareham, . 


J. J. Walsh, . 


11 


119 


No telephone, 


D. Vigneaux, 


Warren, 


A. A. Warriner, . 


4 


41 


73-3, 


A. Williams, . 


Warwick, 


TP TP T3 rk + rtVi^l ^ y^T. 

Hi. hi. xJatcnelaer, 


4 


19 


34-6, Becket, . 


O. rJ. baunders, 


Washington, 






206 
196 
111 


116, Newton 

North. 
56-4, Natick, . 

113-4, 


J. C. Ford, 

C b. Williams, Jr. U. 

Cochituate. 
T. Toomey, 


Watertown, 

Wayland, 

Webster, 


J. C. Ford, . 
D. J. (jrranam, 
U. Jvlebart, . 


1 

4 


239 


250, 


TTT TTT T^V* 1,1 

W. W. Diem, 


Wellesley, 


J< . M. Abbott, 




323 


No telephone. 


E. P. Cook, 


Welmeet, 


TP O T««^K^ 

Hi. b. Jacobs, 


11 


54 


74-14, Orange, 


G. A. Lewis, 


Wendell, 






221 


74-2, 


J. D.Barnes, 2 . 


Wenham, 


J. D. Barnes, 


7 


137 


4-12, 


F. H. Baldwin, . 


West Boylston, . 


C. H. Baldwin, . 


4 


285 


768, 


W. P. Laughton, 


W. Bridgewater, . 


0. Belmore, 


8 


128 


No telephone. 


J. H. Webb, 


W. Brookfield, . 


J. H. Webb, 


4 


226 


No telephone. 


S. M. Titcomb, P. 0. 

Byfield. 
A. A. Sibley, . 


W. Newbury, 


W. H. Preble, . 


5 


341 


691-12, . 


W. Springfield, . 


J. F. Hayes, 


8 



1 Also chief of fire department. 



2 Also tree warden. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 21 



List of Forest Wardens and Local Moth Superintendents — Con. 



Badge 
No. 


Telephone 
Number. 


Forest Warden. 


City or Town. 


Local Moth 
Superintendent. 


Dist. 
No. 


20 


Post-oflBce, . 


B. Manning, 




W. Stockbridge, . 


- 


- 


30? 


203-23, . 


W. J. Rotch, 




West Tisbury, 


H. W. Athearn, . 


11 


133 


No telephone, 


J. H. McDonald, 1 




Westborough, 


J. P. Crowe, 


4 


84 


111-Y, . 


T. H. Mahoney, 




Westfield, . 






166 
71 


14-3, 

148-13, . 


J. A. Healey, P. 

Granite ville. 
L. Burt, 


0. 


Westford, . 
Westhampton, . 


H. L. Nesmith, . 


2 


154 


15-22, . 


J. C. Goodridge, 




Westminster, 


S. Whitney, 


4 


186 
279 


512-2, Wal- 

tham. 
No telephone, 


E. P. Ripley, . 
H. A. Sanford, . 




Weston, 
Westport, . 


E. P. Ripley, 
H. A. Sanford, . 


1 

9 


251 
245 


336-M, Ded- 

ham. 
332-M, . 


P. R. Dean, 
J.L.Hunt,! 




Westwood, . 
Weymouth, . 


C.H.Southerland, 
C. L. Merritt, 


8 
1 


56 
297 


69-2, South 

Deerfield. 
28-14, . 


J. A. Wood, East 

Whately. 
C. A. Randall, 2 


Whately, 
Whitman, . 


- 

C. A. Randall, . 


- 

10 


96 
64 

2 


1-4, 

37-21, . 
184-14, . 


H. I. Edson, North 

Wilbraham. 
F. J. Vining, P. 0. 

Haydenville. 
A. Remillard, . 


Wilbraham, 
Williamsburg, 
Williamstown, . 


J. H. Starr, . 
- 


4 

- 


174 


34-4, 


H. M. Horton, . 




Wilmington, 


0. A. McGrane, . 


2 


103 


147-5, . 


A. L. Brown,! . 




Winchendon, 


G. W. Drury, 


4 


189 


123-2, . 


D. H. DeCarney, i 




Winchester, 


S. S. Symmes, 


2 


12 


203-12, Dalton, 


C. D. Galusha, . 




Windsor, 
Winthrop,3 . 


- 

J. A. Barry, 


- 
1 


177 


110, 


F.E.Tracy,! 




Woburn, 


J. H. Kelley, 


2 


131 


1947, 


A. V. Parker, . 




Worcester, . 


H. J. Neale, 


4 


62 


10-13, . 


C. F. Bates, 




Worthington, 






260 


21-3, 


E. S. Stone, 




Wrentham, . 


W. M. Gilmore, . 


8 


316 


53-21, . 


D. Nickerson, . 




Yarmouth, . 


C. R. Bassett, . 


11 



! Also chief of fire department. 



2 Also tree warden. 



3 No forest area. 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



Part I. 



GENERAL FORESTRY. 



Examinations of Woodl.\nd. 

Our custom, continued now for several years, of giving first 
place under "general forestry'' to an account of examinations of 
woodland belonging to private owners, seems again to be justified 
by a slight increase over last year, both numerically and in area, 
of unsolicited examinations of this character, thus keeping this 
branch of our work well to the front in importance. 

Not only has this increase taken place, but, what is still more 
gratifying, the proportion of examinees who are actually following 
or are on the point of taking up the recommendations of the oflSce 
has surpassed that of last year by nearly 10 per cent. An increase 
of this kind is much more gratifying than would be the increase in 
number of examinations alone. The total area of land examined 
exceeds last year's figures by nearly 2,000 acres. 

Owing to this increase, as well as to the additional amount of 
land surveyed and mapped, no systematic attempt has been made 
to pursue the work of inspecting former examinations, in accord- 
ance with the hope expressed last year. Several such inspections 
have been made in the regular course of the work, however, as 
will appear below. 

The following tables give lists of the examinations and inspections 
made, their location and area. A table of costs will be found at 
the end of this section of the report. 



26 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Owner. 


Town. 


Area (Acres) 






30 


Bay State Street Railway Company, 


Methuen, 


43 


Bay State Street Railway Company, 


Tyngsborough, .... 


118 






200 


Bird, C. S 




20 






5 


Brown, Wm. B 




400 


Billiard 


Holliston, 


100 






55 


Clinton water department, 




211 


Crocker, C. T 


Fitchburg and Westminster, . 


500 


Cutting, Mattie B., 




50 






20 


Fogg, H. T., 




40 


Foxborough State Hospital, 




1,000 


Greenfield Woman's Club, 




52 


Hale, R. W., 


Dover, 


180 


Hardy, F. 




200 


Hellier, C. E 




20 


Hollaway, G. W 


Abington, 


18 


HoUiston school board, .... 




10 


Hosmer, E. H., . ... 




190 


Hunt, D 




150 


Hutchins, G 




6 


Leland, P. F 




14 






30 


Metropolitan Water Board, 


Southborough, Framingham, Marl- 
borough. 

Milford 


1,400 
8 


Mixter, S. J 




250 


Mixter, S. J 




101 






20 


New Bedford wat«r works, 


Lakeville, Freetown, Rochester, 


1,500 


Newburyport water board. 


Newburyport, 


50 


New SalemrAcademy 




102 






10 


Owen, G. W., 




8 


Pabodie, W 




40 


Pearne, A. C, 




6 


Perkins, H.'S 




50 


Plumb, C. S 


Becket 


465 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



27 



\J VV iurv* 


Town. 


Area (Acres) • 


Pousland, F. G 




70 


Powell, E. C, 




50 






05 






10 


Sibley, F. P 




62 






40 






50 




Tyngsborough, .... 


90 


Wakefield park board, .... 




8 


Washburn, C. G., 


Princeton, 


6 






2 


Wharton, W. F., 




10 


White, A. P 




30 


Y. P. C. U. of Lynn 




7 






8,202 



Ten inspections have been made, totalling 880 acres. 



Owner. 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Bay State Street Railway Company, 


Groveland, 


38 


Bennett, Marion, 


Tyngsborough, .... 


200 


Fitchburg water board, .... 


Westminster, 


400 


Fogg, H. T 


Norwell, 


40 


Goldsbury, P. S 


Warwick, 


50 


Joslin, E. P 


Oxford, . . 


100 


Kilburn, W. G 


Lancaster, 


7 


Leland, P. F 


Ashland, 


14 


Mahoney, T. J., 


Wareham, 


1 


Sears, Julia M 


Tyngsborough, .... 


30 


Total, 




880 



Chestnut Bark Disease. 

In addition to the regular examinations of woodland described 
above, several examinations have been made by this oflSce to as- 
certain the presence or absence of the chestnut bark disease, 
Diaporthe (Vabonectria) parasitica, 

A list of examinations follows: — 



28 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Owner. 


Town. 


A rOf) ( A PTOQ^ 


Disease 
present. 








Helburn, J. W., . . . . 


West Stockbridge, . 


160 


No. 


Hoffman, Bernard, 


Stockbridge, .... 


Nursery stock 


No. 


Moses, A. H., 


Russell, 


1,200 


Yes. 


Pearson, S. F 


Alford 


50 


Yes. 


Shatswell, H. K 


Dedham, .... 


30 


No. 


Woodruff, C, 


West Stockbridge, . 


75 


No. 



These examinations were made with the knowledge and usually 
at the request of the owner. 

During the coming year this work wall be energetically pushed, 
and in fact at this writing two assistants from this ojBBce are in the 
field investigating the geographical extent of the infestation, 
following up the work of Mr. A. H. Graves of the United States 
forest service (outlined more fully in another section of this re- 
port), but with particular reference to discovering and investi- 
gating all possible means of utilizing the wood of trees killed by 
the disease, e.g., the comparatively recent process of obtaining 
chestnut extract from both bark and wood. 

Woodland Management. 

Some space in our last annual report was devoted to an account 
of an operation in Buckland, Mass., where a good bit of merchant- 
able timber was taken out and the stand still left in good growing 
shape, the ground being well covered in most cases wdth white 
pine seed trees. Where such seed trees were not left, under plant- 
ing with two-year seedlings was tried. 

The success of this operation has made us feel justified in under- 
taking the general supervision of a similar work in Barre, described 
fully below. 

Surveying. 

The forestry department has done more surveying and accom- 
panying mapping this year than ever before. The work of obtain- 
ing complete files of maps for all lots taken over under the so- 
called reforestation act is being carried to completion. During 
the past year an area of 485 acres has been thus surveyed, com- 
prising the following lots : — 



A natural stand of white pine properly thinned to assure good growth of the 
remaining trees. In the town of Buckland. 




A plantation of white pine, thirty-eight years of age, which has been thinned by 
this office at a profit, belonging to W. G. Killburn of Lancaster. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



29 



Name of Lot, 


Town. 


Area (Acres). 


Baker-Dune, 


Wellfleet, . . . . . 


18 


Bolton 


Shirley, 


20 


Crowell, 


Yarmouth, 


21 


French, 


Lancaster, 


74 


Holmes 


Kingston, 


14 


Holway, 


Sandwich, . . . . . 


24 


Glebe land, 


Hopkinton, 


108 


Jacobs, 


Wellfleet, 


6 


Jones River, 


Kingston, 


140 


Nickerson, 


Harwich, 


15 


Clark. 


Paxton, 


45 


Total 




485 



Other lots surveyed bring the total area up to 643 acres, for all 
of which maps have been made by the forestry department. 

Forest Maps. 

Besides maps of this sort, two complete maps in colors have 
been made. One of these, a map of the Barre property above 
referred to, comprises an area of 101 acres, and outlines the various 
types of tree growth, forming a basis for an estimate of the timber 
and a working plan for carrying on the operation of the property. 

Before this map was drawn a so-called preliminary examination 
was made to ascertain the approximate amount of timber and the 
chances of getting it out, accompanied by a report recommending 
that certain steps be taken toward ascertaining the facts more 
accurately, and particularly in regard to the making of the map 
in question. 

This report being accepted and its suggestions adopted, several 
days were spent in an accurate survey of the ground and in plot- 
ting the areas of the different types of growth as closely as possible. 
The map when finished was made the basis of a fuller report, con- 
taining the volume to be removed by cutting and an estimate of 
the gross and net profits. 

The pine was found to total about 1,750,000 feet board measure, 
of which some 750,000 feet will be cut. Of the 245,000 feet of 
hardwood, about 153,000 feet will be cut. Besides the above 



30 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



there is on the property about 54,000 feet of hemlock, so that it 
will be evident that a fair-sized timber operation is under way, 
and one which will illustrate, we hope, the advantages of a scientific 
method of cutting, — a statement which becomes particularly 
forcible when it is added that a probable net profit of about $7,000 
will be realized and the stand left in better growing shape at the 
conclusion of the work than it was in the beginning. 

The operation of this lot is now in progress and the work is 
nearing completion, a large number of the logs being yarded and 
ready for the mill. This office hopes in the near future to publish 
a bulletin describing in some detail this operation, and several 
others recently handled in much the same way. 

The other map referred to combines an outline survey with 
timber and topographic map in colors, and, like the above, is 
accompanied by an estimate. The property is owned by Prof. 
C. S. Plimab of Columbus, O., and consists of 450 acres of land 
in Becket, Mass., nost of which is growing some kind of timber. 
Mr. Plumb has become much interested in the property, and we 
hope by judicious forestry management to eventually establish a 
good working forest proposition. To this end the owner expects 
to turn over 10 acres of the open land, and probably more event- 
ually, for forest planting. This will supply the immediate need 
for young growth, and if continued at intervals w^ill provide con- 
stantly growing timber of different ages. About all the other 
stages of growth are now represented by timber on the ground, 
although the proportions vary greatly, as is to be expected in any 
natural stand. 

If our plans are followed, however, instead of eventually being 
obliged to cut practically all the timber and leave the ground bare, 
by the time the present medium growth is mature there will be a 
fine stand of much better quality coming on. 

Thus the ideal of all forest management will be approached, 
viz., a continuous, periodical, sustained yield, without diminution 
of the capital stock of timber. 

All the maps referred to have been preserved in duplicate for 
our files by means of tracings, thus doubling the work but greatly 
increasing the usefulness of the maps. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



31 



Examination Work. 

An account of the expenses of the examination work is given 
herewith, in accordance with section 6, chapter 409, Acts of 1904, 
as amended by section 2, chapter 473, Acts of 1907. 



Expenses incurred in Examination Work, charged to Owners. 



Affleck, G. B., 


$5 22 


Milford, town of, . 




Bay State Street Railway Company, . 


2 80 


Mixter, S. J 


. 8 96 




1 40 


Mount Tom Golf Club, 


. 4 77 


Bird, C. S 


_1 


New Bedford water works, . 


. 4 00 




1 50 


Newburyport, . . . . 


. 2 00 


Brown, A. W. F., 


2 04 


New Salem, 


. 4 42 




3 21 


Nor well, town of, . 


_1 


BuUard 


_i 


Owen, G. W 


. 1 00 


Clark, H. W 


1 04 


Pabodie, W 


80 


Clinton water department, . 


1 83 


Pearce, A. C, 


40 


Crocker, C. T., . . . . . 


2 28 


Perkins, H. S., . . . 


. 1 30 


Cutting, Mattie B., 


50 


Plumb, C. S., . . . 


. 10 25 


Dennison, H. S., 


1 10 


Pousland, F. G., . 




Fogg, H. T 


1 20 


Powell, E. C 


. 4 01 


Foxborough State Hospital, . 


_1 


Reed, J. 0., . 


_i 


Greenfield Woman's Club, . 


4 84 


Ripley, A. L., 


. 1 04 


Hale, R. W., 


75 


Sibley, F. P., 


_2 




2 00 


Stannard, Margaret, 


. 1 04 




4 60 


Stevens estate, . . . . 


. 6 54 


Holloway, G. W 


80 


Vesper Club, . . . . 


. 1 30 


HoUiston school board. 


1 60 


Wakefield park board, . 


75 




95 


Washburn, C. G 


. 2 00 




3 30 


Watertown Arsenal, 


_i 




_l 


Wharton, W. F., . 


_l 




3 00 


White, A. P 


90 


Maynard & Edgerly, . . . . 


94 


Y. P. C. U. of Lynn, . 


- ^ 


Metropolitan Water Board, . 


1 00 







Reforestation Work. 

The reforestation work has been carried on this year along the 
same Hnes as formerly, and the increasing interest of lumbermen 
and landowners proves it a policy worthy of enlargement. 

The plantations put in during the spring of 1909 and 1910 are 
showing up well, the growth in many instances on plantations 
made with transplant white pine being as much as 8 to 16 inches 
this last season. There was practically no loss this year from dry 
weather affecting these plantations, proving that when once well 
started they are not liable to be affected by climatic conditions. 

Plantations made this year in one or two instances were quite 
badly affected by the exceedingly dry season, as might be expected. 

Increased interest has been shown by parties looking over 



^ No expense. 



Transportation furnished. 



32 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



plantations with the idea of making small plantings on their own 
land, and the large number of inquiries shows that this work is 
awakening great interest. 

This year 860 acres have been planted, and deeds for 500 acres 
additional have been recorded which, from lack of sufficient ap- 
propriations, we were unable to plant. There are also now offered 
700 acres more. The amount of work possible is governed entirely 
b}^ the appropriation, and it would seem advisable for the State to 
enlarge this work. 

Forest Nursery. 

It has been impossible up to the present time to raise sufficient 
stock to take care of the planting done under the reforestation act, 
the department being forced to purchase a large number of seed- 
lings from outside nurserymen at a much higher price than if 
raised on our own land. It has, therefore, been deemed advisable 
to enlarge our nursery from time to time, and we are now in a 
position to supply from our own nursery sufficient stock for our 
planting work next spring. 

It being impossible to obtain land suitable for transplant work 
adjoining our present site at Amherst, it was deemed advisable 
to make this nursery the main one, raising seedlings and doing 
as much transplant work as the allotment of land would allow; 
to establish at Hopkinton a transplant nursery, and also to en- 
large our nursery at Sandwich, where for the past two years we 
have been raising Scotch and Austrian pine, black locust and such 
varieties as are suitable for planting on Cape land. 

Under this system we shall be able to ship direct from the nearest 
nursery to the planting site and in this way avoid much expense 
and delay in transportation. 

The Amherst nursery has been in charge of our foreman, W. N. 
Tavener, the past season and was very capably managed. The 
exceedingly dry weather has not seemed to affect either last year's 
seedling or the transplant beds. This year's seedlings were affected, 
however, by the drought, though a fairly dense stand has been 
obtained. This year's transplants have made a remarkably good 
showing, and the work was much facilitated by the use of planting 
boards designed by one of the men at the nursery, this board en- 
abling a man to put in a much larger number of trees and leave 
them firmer in the rows than when the old method was used. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



33 



At Hopkinton about an acre of land was ploughed up and made 
into transplant beds, and set with Norway spruce and white pine 
seedlings. This nursery has needed very little care except for two 
or three light weedings. It should be enlarged the coming spring. 

At East Sandwich a good stand of Scotch pine was obtained, 
but the loss by drought of this year's seeding of white pine shows 
the inadvisability of trying to raise this variety from seed in that 
section, unless an irrigation system can be installed, which would 
be well worth the outlay both at the Sandwich nursery and at 
Amherst. 

We shall have from these nurseries about 500,000 transplants 
and 350,000 three-year seedlings for field use this year, and with 
our two-year-old stock shall be able to take care of our entire 
planting work without purchasing elsewhere. 



Planting done under the Advice of this Office. 



Name. 


Town. 


Variety. 


Number 
of Trees. 


F. C. Bent 


Sudbury, .... 


White pine, 


15,000 


E. H. Brenan 


North Salem, 


White pine, 


1,000 


H. S. Dennison, 


South Framingham, . 


White pine, 


5,000 


T. M. Cole 


North Carver, . 


White pine, 


3,000 


F. C. Dunn 


Gardner, .... 


White pine, 


25,000 


C. 0. Fiagg, . . . . 


Gilbertville, 


White pine. 


5,000 


Fitchburg Water Company, . 


Fitchburg, 


White pine. 


20,000 


F. J. Tucker 


West Rutland, . 


White pine, 


1,000 


0. J. Stockwell, 


Athol, .... 


White pine. 


3,000 


B. D. Pierce 


Springfield, 


White pine, 


1,000 


Island Park Box Company, 


Bradford, .... 


White pine. 


1,000 


L. C. Grosvenor, 


Taunton, .... 


White pine, 


2,000 


P. B. Hart 


Medway, .... 


White pine. 


6,000 


C. W. Severance, 


Bernardston, 


White pine. 


1,000 


E. L. Sampson, 


Plymouth, 


White pine. 


1,000 


G. H. Simonde, 


North Andover, 


White pine. 


1,000 


Danvers State Hospital, 


Danvers, .... 


White pine. 


2,000 


R. B. Symington, . 


Plymouth, 


White pine, 


40,000 


C. F. Choate, .... 


Petersham, 


White pine. 


20,000 


I. P. Lawrence, 


Fitchburg, 


White pine, 


56,000 


Miss C. B. Dobson, 


Ipswich, .... 


White pine, 


1,500 


Miss C. B. Dobson, 


Ipswich, .... 


Norwaj' spruce. 


500 



34 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Planting done under the Advice of this Office — Con. 



Name. 


Town. 


Variety. 


Number 
of Trees. 


Lewig A. Wright, 




White pine, . 


500 


S. W. McCaslin, 


Wellfleet, .... 


White pine. 


100 








Town of Norwell, . 




White pine, . 


2,000 


H. T. Fogg 




Miscellaneous, 


7,000 


Watertown Arsenal, 


Watertown, 


White pine, 


2,000 


Fall River water board, . 


Fall River, 


White pine, 


4,000 



Amherst Nursery. 



Variety. 


Age (Years). 


Number of 
Trees. 




1 


2,000,000 




2 


2,000,000 




3 


450,000 






500,000 




2 


1,000,000 




1 


50,000 




2 


500 






2,000 




2 


500 






6,003,000 




4 


250,000 




3 


325,000 




4 


24,000 




3 


14.942 




3 


20,553 




3 


2,542 




3 


6,634 






643,671 



HoPKiNTON Nursery. 



Norway spruce transplants 


3 


125,000 




3 


125,000 






250,000 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



35 



Sandwich Nursery. 



Variety. 


Age (Years). 


Number of 
Trees. 






ii 


4,DUU 





it 


R cr>f> 
D,oU(J 






1 K f>nn 
10,UUU 







5,000 




1 


oU.UuU 






1UU,UUU 




3 


130.000 




1 


30,000 




2 


100,000 


Austrian pine seedlings, 




20,000 




3 


1,000 


Black locust transplants, 


3 


40,000 






482,400 



State Plantations, 1911. 



Town. 


Acres. 


Type of Land. 


Variety planted. 


Ashburnham, 


54 


Cut-over land. 


White pine. 


Ashburnham, 


94 


Run-out pasture land. 


Norway spruce, white pine. 


Ashburnham, 


14 


Sprout land, 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, 


40 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Hubbardston, 


34 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Ashburnham, 


63 


Cut-over land, . 


Norway spruce, white pine . 


Fitchburg, . 


27 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Paxton, 


45 


Cut-over land, . 


Norway spruce, white pine. 


Shirley, 


19J 


Run-out pasture land. 


White pine. 


Kingston, 


140 


Burnt-over land. 


Norway spruce, white pine, 








black locust, etc. 


Lancaster, 


74 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Greenfield, . 


4 


Open land 


White pine. 


Lancaster, 


8i 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Buckland, 


166 


Run-out pasture land. 


White pine. 


Buckland, 


lU 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Attleborough, 


21i 


Cut-over land, . 


White pine. 


Yarmouth, . 


21 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Harwich, 


15 


Burnt-over land. 


White pine. 


Sandwich, 


10 
860 


Cut-over land. 


Scotch pine. 



36 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Report of the State Fire Warden. 

Mr. F. W. Rane, State Forester. 

Sir: — In compliance with your request for a brief outline of the forest 
fire organization and the work accomplished during my four months' 
administration of this branch of the department, together with a state- 
ment of the work done during the preceding months of this year, I beg 
to submit the following : — 

By an act of the last Legislature $10,000 was appropriated for the 
prevention of forest fires. Under this act you were authorized to engage 
a State Fire Warden and necessary district forest wardens; also to adopt 
such other methods as would further protect the large area of timbered 
and forest lands within this Commonwealth. 

The first work under this branch was the division of the State into 
five forest fire districts, each district being placed under the supervision 
of a competent district forest warden. The district arrangements are 
as follows: No. 1, Essex, Middlesex and Norfolk counties; No. 2, Bristol, 
Barnstable and Plymouth counties; No. 3, Worcester County; No. 4, 
Franldin, Hampden and Hampshire counties; No. 5, Berkshire County. 
The principal work of the district forest wardens has been in assisting 
in erecting telephone fines and observation stations, map making, visiting 
the selectmen and forest wardens in each town, and showing them the 
importance of appointing deputy forest wardens, and having them dis- 
tributed advantageously in the outlying timbered districts of the town. 
The district forest wardens are to visit each town within their respective 
districts, and impress upon the selectmen and wardens the importance 
of purchasing forest fire equipment; also, in towns with a valuation of 
$1,500,000 or less, the necessity of taking advantage of the reimburse- 
ment act. A large number of towns coming under this act have already 
made application for the required blanks, and others, where funds are not 
available at the present time, will see that an article is placed in the 
warrant at the annual town meeting for the same. 

Each district forest warden has under his personal supervision prac- 
tically 1,000,000 acres, 70 per cent, of which is forest land. He has also 
supervision over three observation stations in his district covering this 
area. 

We have established and have in operation 10 observation stations, 
each station covering practically 525,000 acres, or a radius of 15 miles. 
The length of time they have been in operation varies from two weeks to 
three months. As fast as completed they have been placed in operation. 

District No. 1. — We have in this district two stations in operation, 
one of which is Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, with an elevation of 
635 feet, where we were able to secure the valuable services of the man 
already in charge. The use of the observatory has been tendered us 
without any compensation whatever, except the payment of the man in 



V E R 



□ ist 



MASSACHUSETTS 
FOREST FIRE 
PROTECTION 
SYSTEIVl 



STATION . 

© A.SHOOT FLV I NC HILL BARNSTABLE 
B.RE5ERV0JR HILL PLYMOUTH 
C.BLUE HILLS 
D.FAY MT. 
E. BOBBIN HILL 



L OCATION. ELEVATION. DISTR1CTS\ CQUNTIE. 



MILTON 

W/ESTBOROUGH 707 

CHELNASFORO 400 

® F.BALD PATE HILL GEORGETOWN 340 

G. WACHUSETT NXT. PRINCETON 20IS 

H. STEERAGE ROCK BRiMFlELD 124^0 
EA5THAMPTON 1214 
WARWICK lt>20 

K.MT. MASSAEMET 5 HE LBU RME FALL 5 I b*l O 

L.rVlT . GREYLOC K ADAMS 3 500 

WASHINGTON nqo 

SANDI5FIELD 17 bO 



I . tVlT TOM 

J. N/IT. GRACE 



® M.MT. OCTOBER 
® N. TOWN HILL 



O. 



O.RICHN/IOND HILL DIGHTON 



2 00 



DI5T- 



ESSEX 
MIDQLESE X 
NORFOLK 



BRISTOL 
DI5T- 2. PLV MOUT H 

BARNSTABLE 

DIST- 3. WORCESTER 

FRAN KLI N 
□ IST 4. HAMPDEN 

HAMPSH IRE 

DIST- 5. BERKSHIRE 



EXPLANATION 

0- STATIONS IN OPERATION IN HH. 

STATIONS TO BE COMPLETED IN SPRING OF ni2. 
STATION! SITES PROPOSED. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



37 



charge for the time actually employed on our work. This station was 
placed in operation September 1 and discontinued November 10. This 
covers the Blue Hill Reservation and a large area of adjoining forest land 
in many towns. 

We also have Robbin's Hill station in the town of Chelmsford, with 
an elevation of 400 feet, covering a large area of forest lands and protect- 
ing the watersheds of the Concord and Merrimac rivers. We were obliged 
to install telephone service here connecting with the New England Tele- 
phone Company at Chelmsford. We have also erected at this station a 
steel tower 40 feet high, with an observatory at the top. This station was 
placed in operation October 16 and discontinued November 10. In order 
to completely cover this district we are yet to establish a station in Essex 
County, in the vicinity of Bald Pate Mountain. 

District No. 2. — In this district we have but one station in operation, 
Plymouth Observatory, which was placed at our disposal free of charge, 
we paying the observer for the time he is in charge of our work. This 
station covers a large tract of valuable forests, and was placed in opera- 
tion September 11 and discontinued October 1. 

We have also completed our telephone line on Shoot Flying Hill in 
Barnstable County, 200 feet elevation; but, owing to the rains and the 
lateness of the season, it was found unnecessary to place this in operation 
before spring. This station will cover a large portion of the Cape country. 
It will also be necessary to establish at least one more station in this 
district, and I think Richmond Hill in Dighton would be the most de- 
sirable selection, as it covers a large portion of Bristol County. 

District No. 3. — We have in this district three stations in operation: 
Wachusett in Princeton, Fay in Westborough and Steerage Rock in Brim- 
field. 

At Wachusett we were very fortunate in being allowed the free use 
of the observatory at the Summit House on Wachusett Mountain, with 
an elevation of 2,018 feet, and covering a radius of 20 miles, or an area of 
nearly 1,000,000 acres. From this station can be seen Boston harbor in 
the east and Greylock Mountain in the west. This station was the first 
to be placed in operation, August 14, and was discontinued November 
10. Sixty-four fires have been observed and reported from this station 
alone. The watersheds of the Nashua, Miller, Chicopee, Thames and 
Blackstone rivers are protected by this station. 

At Fay Mountain, with an elevation of 707 feet, we were obliged to 
install a telephone service connecting with the New England Telephone 
Company at Westborough. It will be necessary to erect a steel tower 
40 feet high in order to completely cover the territory desired. The water- 
shed of the Blackstone River and a large area of forest land are protected 
by this station, which was placed in operation October 8. 

Steerage Rock, with an elevation of 1,240 feet, protects the water- 
shed of the Connecticut and Thames rivers. At this station we were 
obliged to install a telephone service connecting with the New England 



38 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Telephone Company at Brimfield. Arrangements have been made for 
the erection of a 30-foot steel tower, with observation room at the top, 
from which this territory will be completely covered. 

District No. 4. — In this district we have Mount Tom at Holyoke, 
Grace Mountain at Warwick and Massamet Mountain at Shelburne 
Falls. At Mount Tom we have also been extremely fortunate in being 
allowed the privilege of using the large observation room in the Summit 
House free of charge, where we have had at our command the use of 18 
powerful telescopes. This station has an elevation of 1,214 feet and 
covers a large portion of Hampden and Hampshire counties, and also 
protects the watersheds of the Connecticut, Deerfield and Miller rivers. 

Grace Mountain, with an elevation of 1,620 feet, protects the water- 
sheds of the Connecticut, Deerfield and Miller rivers. At this station 
it was necessary to install a telephone system connecting with the New 
England Telephone Company at Warwick. We have also erected a 50- 
foot tower to completely cover the territory. 

Massamet Mountain, with an elevation of 1,645 feet, covers a large 
portion of Franklin County and protects the watersheds of the Con- 
necticut, Deerfield and Miller rivers. At this station we were donated 
the free use of the 63-foot stone tower, which completely covers the terri- 
tory. It was necessary to install a telephone system on this mountain 
connecting with the Heath Telephone Company at Shelburne Falls. 
This station was placed in operation August 30 and was discontinued 
November 10. 

District No. 5. — We have completed no permanent observation sys- 
tem in this district. An observer was placed on Greylock Mountain 
October 17, and his services were discontinued November 10. The prin- 
cipal reason for this was to determine the length of time this mountain 
was obscured by clouds. Owing to its elevation of 3,505 feet above sea 
level, the results were not perfectly satisfactory, but since it is a State 
reservation of 8,147 acres, and is already equipped with a telephone service 
and an iron tower 50 feet high, I feel that arrangements should be com- 
pleted for the establishment of a permanent observation station at this 
point, to be placed in operation in the spring. 

We have also had in view the advisability of estabhshing a station on 
October Mountain, but, owing to the delay in getting permission for the 
use of this mountain, it being a private preserve, we were unable to de- 
termine its value. We shall also estabhsh a station in the southern part 
of Berkshire County, but nothing definite as to location has been arrived 
at as yet. 

The above system, when completed, will cover practically every inch 
of the great Commonwealth of Massachusetts, from Cape Cod in the east 
to and including the Berkshire Hills in the west. 

In explanation of our present system I wish to say that each observa- 
tion station is in charge of a competent observer, a man thoroughly familiar 
with the territory surrounding his station. These men are equipped with 



40 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



powerful glasses and maps of their respective territory. They also have 
telephone communication with over 1,500 town forest wardens and 
deputy town forest wardens. In connection with the new maps now being 
made for the season of 1912 we are instaUing our new triangulation sys- 
tem, which will be used in extreme cases where the observer is not sure 
as to the exact location of a fire. This system is not in general use, as 
far as known, in any other section of the country, Massachusetts being 
the first State to adopt it for forest fire purposes. By this method fires 
can be located more quickly and much more accurately than would other- 
wise be possible. An explanation of the system is shown in cut on page 39. 

The steel towers with which we are now equipping a number of the 
observation stations have an observation room 8 feet by 8 feet, with glass 
enclosure as far as possible, thus allowing our watchman to be continually 
on the lookout and also be thoroughly protected from inclement weather. 
Within these rooms are maps, telephone, report blanks, etc.; also a time 
clock, showing the exact time the observers are on duty. 

Owing to the short period our stations have been in operation, and 
the amount of rainfall during this time, our reports show only 200 fires 
observed, none of which burned over 3 acres. What the outcome would 
have been had the stations not been in operation of course we do not 
know, but if we are to base an estimate on our experience in the past, it 
would be no exaggeration to say that thousands of acres of valuable timber 
were saved, owing to the fact that the lookout stations make it possible 
for the fires to be detected and extinguished in their incipient stage. 

Forest Fire Equipment. 

The Legislature in the spring of 1910 passed an act authorizing the 
State Treasurer to reimburse towns having a valuation of $1,500,000 or 
less 50 per cent, of whatever amount they might expend for forest fire 
equipment, providing this amount does not exceed $500, and providing, 
also, that the equipment purchased has the approval of the State Forester. 
As the law was not passed until after the annual town meetings of that 
year, but 16 towns availed themselves of the opportunity, and only 
$988.65 was expended, the amount expended by each town being very 
small during the year. The appropriation being continuous, the same 
amount was available again this year and 29 towns have taken advantage 
of the act, not only in purchasing small equipment, but several towns 
have practically used up their full allowance and purchased one of the 
wagons with full equipment. The amount expended this year to Novem- 
ber 30, of which accounts have been received, is $3,917.32, thus showing 
a very marked increase over last year. 

I might add that this department holds receipts from the different town 
forest wardens for the equipment purchased under this act. The equip- 
ment is also subject to inspection by the State Fire Warden or by a dis- 
trict forest warden at any time. The following table contains the names 
of the towns that have received reimbursement, the amount thereof, and 
the kind of equipment purchased : — 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 41 

Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement. 



Towns. 



Amount of 

Reim- 
bursement. 



Nature of Equipment. 



Ashland, . 
Bedford, . 
Belchertown, 
Bolton, . 
Boxford, . 
Carlisle, 
Charlton, . 
Chatham, . 
Dighton, . 
Erving, 
Georgetown, 
Greenwich, 
Groveland, 
Hadley, 
Hanson, . 
Holbrook, 
Lunenburg, 
Mashpee, . 
Middleton, 
Newbury, 
Northborough, , 
North Reading, 
Norwell, . 
Oakham, . 
Pelham, . 
Pembroke, 
Phillipston, 
Plain ville, 
Prescott, . 
Princeton, 
Raynham, 
Royalston, 
Sandwich, 
Shutesbury, 
Sterling, . 
Sudbury, . 



$43 27 


Pumps, pails and extinguishers. 


220 92 


One-horse wagon complete. 


71 62 


Wagon and equipment. 


58 40 


Extinguishers, pails and shovels. 


45 60 


Extinguishers. 


193 72 


One-horse wagon complete. 


221 37 


Extinguishers, pails and shovels. 


146 53 


Wagon and equipment. 


58 67 


Extinguishers. 


11 52 


Shovels and hoes. 


55 33 


Extinguishers, shovels and rakes. 


25 95 


Extingmshers. 


51 05 


Extinguishers, shovels and rakes. 


75 00 


Extinguishers. * 


250 00 


Wagon, extinguishers, shovels, rakes. 


45 00 


Extinguishers. 


149 28 


Extinguishers and shovels. 


34 55 


Extinguishers and shovels. 


49 50 


Extinguishers. 


18 15 


Extinguishers. 


102 37 


Extinguishers. 


134 43 


Wagon and equipment. 


50 00 


Extinguishers. 


138 00 


Extinguishers. 


40 62 


Extinguishers and pumps. 


203 75 


^^agon and equipment. 


48 65 


Extinguishers. 


178 50 


Extinguishers. 


48 16 


Extinguishers. 


249 20 


Extinguishers and cans. 


50 00 


Extinguishers. 


22 35 


Extinguishers, shovels and pails. 


245 60 


Wagon and equipment. 


87 50 


Extinguishers. 


231 75 


Wagon and equipment. 


250 00 


Extinguishers. 



42 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Towns receiving Fire-equipment Reimbursement — Concluded. 



Towns. 


Amount of 

Reim- 
bursement. 


Nature of Equipment. 




$174 00 


Wagon and equipment. 




189 80 


Pumps, extinguishers and shovels. 




133 53 


Extinguishers. 


Wendell, 


35 07 


Extinguishers, pails and shovels. 


West Bridgewater 


200 12 


Wagon and equipment. 




55 91 


Extinguishers, hoes, pails and shovels. 




33 75 


Extinguishers. 




136 31 


Extinguishers. 




41 17 


Extinguishers and shovels. 



In this connection I wish to call your attention to our two sizes of 
model forest fire wagons. These were first constructed under the super- 
vision of the State Forester in order that town officials might see what 
we consider an ideal form of apparatus. The larger wagon is intended for 
two horses, and costs, all equipped, about $450, the equipment consisting 
of 14 chemical extinguishers; 14 galvanized cans, each holding two extra 
charges of water and chemicals; shovels; rakes; mattocks; and spare 
chemical charges. This equipment is carried in racks and cases, not only 
so that it will ride safely, but also so that it may be conveniently carried 
into the woods. Eight men can find accommodation on this wagon. 

The smaller wagon, drawn by one horse, has all the equipment of the 
larger, but less in amount. It will carry 4 men, and costs, all equipped, 
about $300. 

The demand the past year having been so great, not only from Mas- 
sachusetts but from adjoining States, several manufacturers are building 
forest fire wagons. 

Fire Lines. 

A small part of the appropriation for fire work was used in the con- 
struction of fire fines, made primarily to protect some of the State planta- 
tions. 

In Kingston this department had already commenced a fire fine parallel 
to the Muddy Pond road at the westerly end of our plantation there, and 
this was continued for about a mile further to Muddy Pond. This road 
bisects the large area of burned-over country lying to the south of the 
town, and forms a very convenient place for fighting forest fires, so that 
this fire line is not only a protection to our plantation, but a great help 
to the town, which has agreed to keep the line in proper condition. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



43 



A fire line some 2,000 feet long was also constructed along one side of 
our plantation in Gardner, and a fire line surrounding a plantation in 
Templeton, which was made two years ago, was mowed over to clean up 
the brush that had grown up in the mean time. Altogether, about $450 
was invested in this work. 

These fire lines were all of the same pattern. First a strip about 50 feet 
in width is cleared of brush, which is piled and burned, and on the inside a 



^KeTCH riRG PROTeCTIVe BeLT STANDING 

TIMBeR^- A^^o CUT OVeR PROPeRTY<'B. 



ditch about 4 feet wide and 1 foot deep is dug. The theory is that the 
cleared portion will offer so little fuel for the fire that by the time it reaches 
the ditch it will be unable to cross. 



It is with considerable reluctance that each year we include in our 
annual report a chapter on this painful subject, — painful, because forest 
fires are the greatest obstacle to the advancement of practical forestry 
throughout this Commonwealth. As long as this State continues to burn 
over from 35,000 to 100,000 acres each year, just so long will forest owners 
hesitate to make provision for natural reproduction, to plant trees, to make 
improvement thinnings, or to do other work looking to continued forest 
production. 

The season just ended has undoubtedly been the worst fire season this 
State has experienced in many years. When we stop and compare figures 
with the records of the past three years we find that during 1908, 1909 
and 1910 there was burned over throughout this State 116,976 acres, 
with a damage of $600,017, and in the year 1911 our reports show 99,693 
acres burned over, with a damage of $537,749, nearly as much as the three 
previous years combined. Estimating the forest area of the State at 
2,500,000 acres, which is a very conservative estimate (and in order to 




Forest Fires of 1911. 



44 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



reach this amount there has been included all the scrub growth and old 
pastures), it will require only twenty-five years to completely destroy 
every acre of forest land within this State. Then what is the result? 
Simply this: not only are we compelled to go elsewhere for our timber 
supply, but w^e have created a condition which seriously threatens our 
future water supply, for it has been demonstrated by the greatest engineers 
in the world that forests play an important role in the regulation of rivers. 
They retain for some time the rainfall and lessen the violence of flood 
flow. Whenever forests have been destroyed stream flow has always be- 
come more irregular and floods have increased in number and violence. 
Therefore, is it not time the public were awakened and a more thorough 
organization perfected to avert these dangers? 

In order that this department might have a better understanding as to 
the conditions throughout the State, the district forest wardens have 
visited as many towns as possible, and have submitted a written report 
to this office as to the conditions in each town, the type of man the warden 
is, and the facifities the towns have for fighting forest fires. These reports 
show the two extremes. Many towns have been fortunate in obtaining 
the services of a man for the position of forest warden who has had wide 
experience and training in handUng forest fires, and have equipped them- 
selves with modern fire-fighting apparatus, while other towns have forest 
wardens who are indifferent with regard to their duties, and who have 
taken no measures whatever to provide proper fire-fighting equipment. 
Therefore it remains very necessary that mayors and selectmen use more 
precaution in selecting these men, and as fast as the ideal man who has 
the energy and courage to make a thorough and efficient forest warden is 
found, have the appointment a permanent one so far as possible. We also 
desire to urge upon mayors and selectmen the importance of equipping 
the forest wardens with modern forest fire-fighting apparatus. Again, 
forest fire laws will never be respected unless enforced. Examples must 
be made of those who violate them, so that others will be restrained from 
neghgence in the use of fire. 

Forest Fire Reports. 

Town forest wardens undoubtedly do not appreciate the importance of 
making a complete report to this department of each fire as soon as it is 
extinguished. The system of fire reports has been in use but a very short 
period, and while the results along this line have been fairly satisfactory, 
the reports have been misleading and not absolutely correct. The two 
important points in fire protection are, first, preventive methods and 
education; and second, effective fire fighting. The only way this depart- 
ment has of knowing whether we are completely covering these points is 
by its system of reports. If the reports show that we are not covering 
these two points, then we are in a position to suggest a preventive method; 
but understand this is an impossibiUty unless we have these reports as 
soon as the fire is extinguished. For instance, take the railroad fire situa- 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



45 



tion. The reports that have come to this office this fall show that we have 
had 685 fires from this som-ce during the summer, and yet the department 
was unable to have an inspection of the locomotives made and the cause 
of the fires remedied, o\\dng to the lack of reports at the time of the fire. 
This is a very essential feature, and we shall be obhged to insist that these 
reports be forwarded promptly. 

In studying the tables of causes of forest fires for the past three j^ears 
we note some very interesting data, as weU as substantial improvement 
along different fines. The ''unknown" cause has the largest percentage, 
it being 44.5. This is omng, in a great measure, to insufficient care being 
taken to ascertain the exact cause. This we shaU endeavor to remedy to 
a large extent the coming season. Railroad fires show a reduction of 
practically 2 per cent, over 1910 and nearly 8 per cent, over 1909, which 
is certainly an improvement, taking into consideration the extremely 
dry season. "Burning brush" fires have been reduced from 16.2 per cent, 
in 1910 to 5.3 per cent, this year. This is, in a large measure, due to the 
permit law enacted during the last Legislature, which is gi"ving general 
satisfaction and should be made uniform throughout the State. Smokers, 
himters and berry pickers" fires show a decided decrease over former 
years. The same is true of ^' Steam sawmills " and " Children " fires. ''Mis- 
cellaneous" fires show an increase over 1910, but a decrease over 1909. 

The table of forest fires for 1911 shows 2,536 fires, an increase of 1,151 
fires over 1910, with the enormous damage of $537,749, burning over 
nearly 100,000 acres, with a cost to extinguish of $47,093. The most 
severe fires occurred in the months of April and May during the severe 
drought. 



Comparative Damages by Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 



Months. 


1909. 


1910. . 


1911. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


January, 


13 








140 


$210 


Febniary 


12 








7 


25 


March, 


1,577 


$4,763 


12,666 


$57,740 


1,693 


4,233 


April, 


12,515 


72,195 


13,782 


68,867 


29,213 


138,120 


May, 


4,322 


38,000 


4,236 


13,957 


61,501 


359,356 


June, 


405 


11.870 


137 


980 


622 


3,638 


July 


11,992 


26,396 


1,041 


6,509 


4,241 


24,844 


Augtist, 


1,940 


10.833 


165 


1,275 


! 2,226 


7,204 


September, .... 


1,092 


21,413 


2,900 


15,035 


! . 

i 


10 


October, 


384 


1,805 


7,068 


40,064 


10 


32 


November, .... 


585 


612 


107 


400 


1 36 


77 


No date given 


246 


1,515 


114 


556 


i 
1 




Totals 


35,083 


$189,482 


42,221 


$205,383 


99,693 


$537,749 





46 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



Comparative Causes of Forest Fires for the Past Three Years. 







1909. 


1910. 


1911. 


Causes. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 


Num- 
ber. 


Per 
Cent. 




360 


25.1 


413 


32.9 


1.128 


44.5 




497 


34.7 


362 


28.8 


685 


27.0 




149 


10.4 


203 


16.2 


135 


5.3 


Smokers, hunters, berry pickers, 


140 


9.7 


124 


9.9 


158 


6.2 




5 


.5 


1 


.1 


3 






92 


6.4 


75 


5.9 


118 


4.7 


Miscellaneous, 


190 


13.2 


78 


6.2 


309 


12.2 


Too late for tabulation, .... 


63 




129 








Totals 


1,496 


100. e 


1,385 


100.0 


2,536 


100.0 



Forest Fires of 1911. 



Months. 


Acres. 


Damage. 


Cost to put out. 


Number. 


January, 


140 


$210 


$50 


29 


February, 


7 


25 


14 


8 


March, 


1,693 


4,233 


859 


191 


April, 


29.213 


138,120 


11.659 


990 


May, 


61.501 


359,356 


24,337 


837 


June, 


622 


3,638 


1,016 


60 


July • . 


4,241 


24,844 


6,388 


205 


August, 


2,226 


7,204 


2,710 


90 


September, 


4 


10 


21 


4 


October, 


10 


32 


17 


6 


November, 


37 


77 


22 


7 


December, 










No date given, .... 








109 


Totals 


99,694 


$537,749 


$47,093 


2.536 





United States Government Aid. 

The Weeks bill, so called, recently passed by Congress, providing for 
the purchase of portions of the White Mountain and Appalachian Moun- 
tain regions to be held as government reservations, also carried an appro- 
priation of $200,000 for the protection against forest fires of the water- 
sheds of navigable streams in the United States. One thousand eight 
hundred dollars of this appropriation was allotted to the State of Mas- 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



47 



sachusetts to be expended in co-operative effort in such sections of the 
Commonwealth as would properly come within the provisions of the bill. 
This restricted our co-operative work to the western portion of the State, 
including the watersheds of the Nashua, Chicopee, Miller, Thames, 
Blackstone, Hudson, Connecticut and Deerfield rivers. As it was late in 
the season before final arrangements could be completed with the govern- 
ment, and as an unusually wet season prevailed, we were able to use only 
$360 of the allotment, allowing the balance to apply to the operations to 
be carried on in the year 1912. Under the terms of the agreement en- 
tered into with the United States government the State is required to 
expend an amount equal to that expended by the federal authorities in 
protecting the above-named territory. 

Railroad Co-operation in Forest Fire Fighting. 

In tabulating our forest fire reports for the past season, while we find 
that the total number of fires from all causes is greatly in excess of former 
years, owing to the severe drought, the percentage of railroad fires is 
sHghtly reduced, although they still outnumber those of any other known 
cause. I sometimes think we are too hasty to criticize the railroads, not 
knowing the exact conditions they have to contend with; and unless one 
has made a study of railroad fires and preventive methods it is difficult 
to reahze what it means to the railroads to completely eliminate railroad 
fires. 

At this point allow me to say that the raihoad fire proposition in this 
State is just in its infancy; therefore there is a chance for a great improve- 
ment. When we take into consideration that there are 2,110 miles of 
track and over 1,000 locomotives in use throughout the State it is not 
surprising that we must necessarily have a large number of forest fires 
from this source. Massachusetts is not the only State having this trouble, 
but practically every State throughout the west, where wood, coal or coke 
are used for fuel, is having the same experience. 

Railroad officials throughout the country have been endeavoring for 
the past few years to construct a spark arrester, whereby railroad fires 
would be eliminated and also allow the free steaming of a locomotive 
What is the result? Thousands of dollars have been spent on this alone, 
and still they are unable to meet the requirements. During the past 
season tests have been made on different railroads of new types of spark 
arresters or spark and cinder collectors, whereby the cinders are returned 
to the firebox and reburned, thereby saving a certain percentage in coal 
and practically ehminating railroad fires from this source. They are at 
present in the experimental stage, with the outlook very favorable that 
they will accomplish the desired results, and if this proves true, the rail- 
roads of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts will, without doubt, adopt 
them, thereby saving the many thousands of dollars they are annually 
paying out for fighting railroad fires and in settling railroad fire damages. 



48 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Owing to the above facts, it seems very necessary that the present 
railroad fire laws be more rigidly enforced. Section 1 of chapter 431, 
Acts of 1907, says: ''Every corporation operating a steam railroad within 
the commonwealth shall, between the first day of April and the first day 
of December of each year, keep its right of way clear of dead leaves, dry 
grass," etc. I have made a personal inspection of several of the different 
branches of roads throughout the State, and find that this portion of the 
law has not been complied with. I find in many instances the grass and 
brush along the right of way has been cut but not burned or removed, 
which is very essential in order to prevent fires. The outcome is that we 




BARto"' " * BaB£0 

NATURAL rOREST STRIP CC E A R C D « T H i N N t D ZONE BOAOBtO C U t ARE □ tT I N N£ D Z ONE STRIP N FOREST 



RAILROAD riRE LINE SKETCK- 



have miles of railroad within the State with the right of way covered \^^th 
dry grass and leaves, thereby causing immediate danger the first dry 
days in the spring. 

It also seems to me that owners of timber lands adjoining the right of 
way are not using proper precaution to protect their property. It is a very 
easy matter, and one which entails very little expense, to clean out from 
the timber the underbrush and debris on a strip 75 feet in width next to 
the railroad right of way, thus mitigating the danger of fire very materially. 
Beyond this cleaned strip a regular fire line 10 feet wide should then be 
made by cutting the wood or timber, burning the brush, and keeping it 
as free as possible from grass and leaves. The cut on this page is an illus- 
tration of a modern fire line which will save property owners in this State 
many thousands of dollars if they will adopt it. 

It is the contention among railroad officials that many railroad fires 
originate from cigar or cigarette stubs thrown from smoking-car win- 
dows. This is undoubtedly true in a great many instances, and there is 
no doubt that railroad fire claims have been paid that originated from this 
cause. The percentage of such fires we do not know. Allowing that 5 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



49 



per cent, of these fires come from this cause, would it not be a good business 
proposition for the raih-oads in this Commonwealth to screen their smok- 
ing cars, thereby eliminating every railroad fire from this source? The 
expense would be nominal compared to the constant drain on them for 
fire losses. Reports made to this department show 685 railroad fires, 
burning over 29,842 acres, with a cost for extinguishing of S10,949.46 
and a damage cost of $330,389.50. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. C. HUTCHINS, 

State Fire Warden. 

Boston, Mass., Nov. 30, 1911. 

The Chestnut Bark Disease (Diaporthe parasitica). 

In my last annual report mention was made of the presence of 
the chestnut bark disease in this State, and that the State Forester 
had taken the matter up with Dr. Haven Metcalf, pathologist in 
charge of the Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in order to determine, if possible, by co- 
operative effort, to what extent the disease exists in Massachusetts. 
Although it was known that the disease had caused irreparable 
damage to the chestnut growth of several States, notably New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Connecticut, it was thought 
to have gained only a slight foothold in Massachusetts, but the 
report of Prof. Arthur H. Graves, the United States government 
expert, who, under the direction of the State Forester, made an 
investigation, shows that it is far more widespread and serious 
than was suspected by the most radical students of the disease. 

The report of Mr. Graves is in part as f ollow^s : — 

The chestnut bark Wight has been found in 72 Massachusetts towns. 
The disease appears to be more general in the south-central and south- 
western parts of the State. This is perhaps due to the fact that these 
portions are nearer to the badly infested regions in New York and Con- 
necticut, and possibly also because on the whole more chestnut occurs 
here than in other parts of the State. In the southern part of Berkshire 
County the disease has alreadj^ done a great deal of damage. There is 
everj'" reason to believe that if the disease continues to spread as it has 
within the last half dozen years, it will ultimately cause tremendous havoc 
in Massachusetts, as it has already done in New York, New Jersey and 
Connecticut. 

Supplementing the report of Professor Graves, Professor Met- 
calf wTites the State Forester that " during the past summer the 



50 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



disease has spread more than in all its previous history. What- 
ever is done in Massachusetts, as well as in every other State north 
of Virginia, must be done within the next year. Otherwise we 
definitely face the issue of the extinction of the chestnut tree. 
The methods of control already adopted in New York and Penn- 
sylvania are the only practical methods that we know of control- 
ling the disease. These methods are, briefly, the location and 
destruction of the small advance infection beginning in that part 
of the State farthest away from the center of infection. We cannot 
too strongly advise the eradication as soon as possible of all ad- 
vance infection of this disease in Massachusetts, beginning in the 
eastern part of the State. It is probably already too late to save 
the southwestern part of the State by any method." 

The State Forester is anxious to give to the public all the in- 
formation obtainable relative to this disease, such as the above 
reports. He believes that valuable tracts of chestnut properly 
handled along forestry lines may be protected from serious injury, 
and he will be pleased to advise owners of such properties the best 
protective measures to employ. A bulletin recently issued by him 
treating of the disease and its remedy, with illustrations, will be 
mailed upon request to citizens of Massachusetts. Another bulletin 
discussing the entire situation, giving the method of control in 
detail and the status of the disease in the United States as a whole, 
may be obtained by applying to the United States Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

List of Massachusetts Towns (by Counties) in which the 
Chestnut Babk Disease has been found. 



Berkshire County. 



Alford, 2 or 3 per cent. 
Egremont. 

Great Barrington, 50 per cent, in spots. 
Hancock, scattering. 
Lee, 50 or 60 per cent, in spots. 
Lenox, 10 per cent. 
Monterey, scattering. 
Mount Washington, 50 per cent, or 
more. 



New Marlborough, general infection. 
North Adams, scattering. 
Richmond, scattering. 
Sheffield, 5 or 10 per cent, in spots. 
Stockbridge, general infection. 
Tyringham, one tree found. 
West Stockbridge, general. 
Williamstown, a few trees. 



Buckland, scattering. 
Charlemont, a few trees. 
Deerfield, 10 or 20 per cent. 
Erving, a few trees. 



Franklin County. 

Gill, one tract found diseased. 
Shelburne, scattering. 
Sunderland, 50 per cent. 
Whately, 30 or 40 per cent. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



51 



Hampshire CourUy. 



Amherst, general. 
Belchertown, scattering. 
Easthampton, scattering. 
Granby, scattering. 

Hadley, very bad, 50 per cent, or more. 



Hatfield, general. 
Huntington, general. 
Northampton, general. 
Pelham, scattering. 
South Hadley, scattering. 



Brimfield, scattering. 
Chester, general. 
Chicopee, general. 
Holyoke, general. 
Longmeadow, general. 
Montgomery, general. 



Hampden County. 

Palmer, scattering. 
Russell, general. 
Springfield, general. 
Westfield, general. 
West Springfield, general. 
Wilbraham, general. 



Athol, general. 
Auburn, scattering. 
Barre, scattering. 
Dana, scattering. 
Dudley, scattering. 
Grafton, scattering. 
Harvard, scattering. 
Hard wick, 12 trees. 
Leicester, three trees seen. 



Worcester County. 

Millbury, scattering. 
New Salem, four trees. 
Northbridge, scattering. 
Petersham, general. 
Shrewsbury, general. 
Southborough, one tree found. 
Sutton, scattering. 
Uxbridge. 



Bedford, one tree. 
Framingham, a few trees found. 



Middlesex County. 

I Marlborough, one or two trees found. 
I Wayland, a few trees found. 



Canton, two trees found. 
Dedham, one tree found. 



Norfolk County. 

Norwood, several trees found. 
Sharon, several trees found. 



Bristol County. 
Attleborough, scattering. 



Proposed Cure for the Lumbering Slash Evil. 

The sketch on page 43 represents the State Forester's idea for 
lessening the danger of forest fires starting in slash. He believes that 
a property owner has no right to endanger the property of a neighbor 
by leaving a lot of dried and easily imflammable slash bordering 
on or even encroaching on the other's woodland. To compel an 
owner, however, to burn his entire slash after a lumbering operation 
is an expensive and often needless operation. Sufficient protection 
can be had by dragging back all the dead limbs and tops for a 



52 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



space of 40 or 75 feet, and leaving it there until it can be burned 
safely. 

This was done by this department in one instance, a strip 60 
feet wide and 100 rods long being cleared at an expense of S40. 
This work was done after the slash had been lying on the ground 
for two years and had become well matted down and consequently 
hard to handle. Had it been done while the logging was going 
on the expense would have been comparatively small, because it 
is necessary to handle the slash over more or less in the work of 
logging, and the additional work necessary to clear a strip as 
described is not great. (See illustration on page 43.) Legislation 
was introduced by the State Forester last year looking to a regu- 
lation of this kind, but it was not reported by the committee. 

Lectures and Addresses. 

The demand upon the State Forester for engagements in the 
State and abroad have been very great, and he has been compelled 
to send assistants to take his place at times. The usual custom of 
last year to make the meetings open to the public and ask for a 
guarantee of an audience of one hundred or more has proved very 
satisfactory. 

The usual lectures were given at the Massachusetts Agricultural 
College during the winter. 

The following organizations, clubs and associations were ad- 
dressed during the year: — 



Massachusetts State Board of Agri- 
culture, Winter Meeting. 

Boston Y. M. C. A. 

Boston Lumbermen's Association. 

American Forestry Association. 

Cape Ann Scientific and Literary So- 
ciety. 

Boston City Club. 

Chamber of Commerce, Boston. 

Springfield High School of Commerce. 

Massachusetts Agricultural College. 

Boston High School of Commerce. 

Massachusetts Retail Lumbermen's 
Association. 

Middleborough Cabot Club. 

Newton Highlands, Episcopal Men's 
Club. 

Union Club, Governor Rollins. 
Tyngsborough Village Improvement 
Association. 



International Paper Company, New 
York. 

New England Water Works Associa- 
tion. 

Melrose Woman's Club. 

Taunton Men's Club. 

Milford Woman's Club. 

Revere Woman's Club. 

Sharon Fortnightly Club. 

Massachusetts Forestry Association. 

Athol Men's Club. 

Ohio State University Club. 

Massachusetts Agricultural Club. 

Norwood Business Men's Association. 

Society for the Promotion of Agri- 
cultural Science. 

Waltham Baptists Men's Club. 

North Andover Village Improvement 
Association. 

Boston Wholesale Lumbermen. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



53 



Fitchburg Board of Trade. 

Brewster Grange. 

The Rural Club. 

Weston Boys' School. 

Pepperell State Grange Field Day. 

Eastern Forester's Association. 

Dudley State Grange Field Day. 

Dracut State Grange Field Day. 

Randolph Woman's Club. 

Third National Conservation Congress. 

Townsend Board of Trade. 

Nantucket Teacher's Association. 

Swampscott Woman's Club. 

Shirley Improvement Association. 

Greenfield Woman's Club. 

Association of American Colleges and 

Experiment Stations. 
Mansfield Men's Club. 
Old Boston Dining Club. 



Massachusetts Forestry Association. 
Lumber Salesmen's Club. 
Grange, Turner Center, Maine. 
Foxborough Board of Trade. 
Springfield Board of Trade. 
Lenox Horticultural Society. 
Massachusetts State Board of Agri- 
culture, Annual Meeting. 
Weymouth Grange. 
Worcester Central Pomona Grange. 
Massachusetts Firemen's Association. 
Lexington Men's Club. 
Plymouth Natural History Society. 
Scituate Men's Club. 
Wilmington Men's Club. 
Woburn Grange. 
Worthington Grange. 
Massachusetts State Y. M. C. A. 
Cohasset Men's Club. 



The Third National Conservation Congress met at Kansas City, 
Mo., September 25 to 27, and the State Forester was appointed 
a delegate by Governor Foss. 

The congress proved a very interesting and instructive one. 
The following paper was presented by the State Forester: — 

Conservation, Restoration and Economic Utilization of Massa- 
chusetts Natural Resources. 

In complying with the request of the officials of this association in 
reporting herewith for the State of Massachusetts, I wish to say at the 
outset that I certainly feel incompetent to undertake the task of pointing 
out the numerous activities that the good old Bay State is fostering. 
Being a Massachusetts citizen by adoption, I feel privileged to express 
myself the more frankly, as otherwise my report might seem prejudiced. 

We have in Massachusetts in the first place a conservation of the old- 
time ancestry which is not only renowned for its brillant deeds in the 
nation's early history, but is still firm and abiding even after these many 
years. What state has a fairer reputation in its dissemination of its 
natural resources, and still lives to enter more heartily into the conserva- 
tion and restoration of those remaining? 

The historic setting and general environment of Massachusetts in the 
early days of the nation are natural resources that constitute an ever- 
bubbling fountain. Yearly the pilgrimage to the old Bay State of thou- 
sands upon thousands from throughout the nation, to visit Boston, Concord, 
Lexington, Arlington, Cambridge, Salem, Plymouth and a score of other 
cities and towns, goes to show what the conservation of high ideals and 
true patriotism means. 



54 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan, 



The State has always been liberal, progressive and a natural leader 
in all that stands for education, advancement and enlightenment. Many- 
wonder at the splendid showing that Massachusetts always makes, and 
seem confounded at her successful progress. The explanation is that as 
a State we do not confine our interests to State bounds, but our people 
are equally interested in promoting and developing copper and other 
mines, or sheep ranches and other industries, in the south or west, as much 
as they are at home. Succeeding elsewhere means also better opportu- 
nities for home development. In this way mutual associations and 
enterprises of a stalwart and permanent nature are established. 

The old biblical saying that it is more blessed to give than to receive 
is literally true of the old Bay State. While she has been generous in the 
nation's life, yet there are few States that for their size have greater 
natural advantages and hold out better prospects for success in the future. 

Contrary to the minds of many, Massachusetts has advantages that 
are hard to surpass. I wonder how many have read the article entitled 
"Golden New England," by Sylvester Baxter, which appeared in the 
"Outlook" in 1910. If not, you may be interested in doing so. The 
author therein portrays various rural industries and very entertainingly 
points out their success. One of our enterprising business houses, N. W. 
Harris & Co., bankers, Boston, very kindly has sent out excerpts to those 
desiring the same. 

Massachusetts is a State with many manufacturing centers, and there- 
fore a great consumer of all kinds of resources, particularly in the raw 
material. This material is put through our factories and goes out as the 
manufactured article. 

Our high standard of education in literature, science and art has evolved 
men of usefulness. In the modern or applied sciences we point with pride 
to our technical, agricultural and trade schools, which are already ac- 
complishing results toward conservation, restoration and economic 
utilization of natural resources. 

Massachusetts people began to see the handwriting on the wall many 
years ago, and even before this congress was born they were agitating 
and accomplishing actual results. Our cities and towns are already well 
forearmed with generous water supplies. The great metropolitan water 
system of Boston and its suburbs, already a reality, is one of the greatest 
engineering feats yet accomplished in its line. Our metropolitan and 
municipal park systems are a credit to our people. The State highway 
system of Massachusetts needs no introduction to an intelligent audience 
like this, as its reputation has attracted road engineers from all over the 
world, and many States have come to the Massachusetts Highway Com- 
mission and induced our men to go away. Dr. Field of the Fish and Game 
Commission is here at the convention; hence he will inform you of this 
field of our activity. Simply let me say that our marine natural resources 
are far greater than most people realize. Massachusetts has a large and 
important coastal boundary, and were I able to tell you of the great 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



55 



possible future we have in mind, even for the old historic Cape Cod 
country, I know it would interest you. While the great fishing industries 
of old Gloucester, Nantucket and New Bedford are not as thriving as in 
earlier times, nevertheless, with the guidance of modern science to water 
farming, we have great promise of the restoration of these industries that 
will go far toward feeding the nation in the future. 

Speaking of fishing and game, forestry, natural history and Appalachian 
clubs, I am frank to say that I believe there are no people on earth who 
are more in love with nature herself, heart and soul, than our Massachu- 
setts people. We have organizations galore, and they are not only or- 
ganized, but bubbling full of real activity, and are accomplishing things. 
Were you the State Forester of Massachusetts, I can guarantee that you 
could spend your whole time simply lecturing on conservation or forestry, 
as the demands are so great and the work so popular. 

Insect Depredations. 

In the development of a new nation it invariably follows that conditions 
are constantly changing, and as intercourse with other nations progresses, 
through trade and business relations, the evils and blessings are shared. 
While we are greatly indebted to the various countries of the world for 
many an introduction, nevertheless now and then we unfortunately get 
an insect, or fungous development, which proves extremely disastrous. 

It would not be fair to Massachusetts in reporting on her conservation 
policies did I not mention the great fight that the State has waged for 
years against the gypsy and brown-tail moths. These two insects are 
indigenous to Europe, and while they have their natural enemies and are 
under subjection there, upon reaching this country they find an open 
field, and, with no enemies, become a veritable pest. 

Both species are destroyers of trees. The brown-tail moth devours the 
leaves of the deciduous or hardwood trees only, while the gypsy moth 
is no respecter of vegetation, and will defoliate evergreens as well, if food 
is scarce, although it, too, prefers the deciduous trees. The brown-tail 
moths, besides being tree destroyers, give off hairs from the larva and moth 
which, when brought in contact with the skin of human beings, produce 
a rash that is extremely irritating. Of the two insects the gypsy moth is 
generally considered the worse. The facts that when the white pine or 
other evergreens are once stripped they die outright, and that the pine in 
particular is one of our most valuable species, both from the economic 
and aesthetic standpoint, make their protection from the gypsy moth 
important. 

I will not take time to give you the life histories of these insects, for 
should any one be interested this information can be had by appljnng to 
the State Forester, Boston, Mass. We have illustrated matter in natural 
colors, showing these insects. 

Practically all of our trees in the residential sections of cities and towns 
in the eastern part of the State are sprayed annually. Our main traveled 



56 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



roadsides are sprayed each year. Individuals, the municipalities, towns 
and the State all co-operate in this work. The annual appropriation of the 
State is $315,000 a year. The total expenditure from all sources in this 
work within the State up to the present time is estimated at $6,000,000. 
Besides this, the United States government has spent in Massachusetts 
probably $700,000. We have had as many as 2,700 men at work at one 
time in the busiest season of the year. The renowned North Shore, our 
fashionable summer resort, spends practically $100,000 a year to protect 
the trees in that section alone. 

The State Forester's spraying apparatus is composed of an aggregation 
of 300 spraying outfits. We use in a single season over 400 tons of arsenate 
of lead, the State's contract alone being for 250 tons a year. 

During the past two years the State Forester's department has made 
great improvements in power-spraying equipment, the cost of spraying 
woodland having been reduced from $30 or more per acre to as low as 
$6 in some instances. Instead of its being necessary to climb trees, as 
heretofore, the modern power sprayer enables us to spray from the ground 
directly over the tops of tall trees. The whole sprajdng problem has been 
revolutionized. It is certainly to be hoped that these insects may not 
secure a foothold elsewhere. Surely Massachusetts is doing her part, and 
I cannot urge too strongly the necessity of other States and the nation 
realizing the importance of this work. We have introduced parasites from 
all over the world, and they are showing great promise. The work with 
disease also seems very effective, and the writer feels optimistic. It is 
very clear that the practice of modern forestry methods and the employ- 
ment of highly developed mechanical devices are doing much, and we 
trust ere long the parasites and diseases will bring about the desired result. 

Forestry. 

Massachusetts is enthusiastically interested in forestry, and the State 
Forester this past season was given an appropriation of $10,000 for forest 
fire work. We have appointed a State Forest Fire Warden, who is organ- 
izing and perfecting a workable sj^stem. He is also establishing lookout 
stations and patrol systems in different sections of the State. 

Our forest management, reforestation and general forestry, educational 
and demonstration work are all well established and progressing. We 
have 3,000,000 trees in the State nursery for use another season. The 
State is planting 1,000 acres each year, and our lumbermen and people 
generally are showing interest, and doing more each season. Our appro- 
priation, including that for forest fires this past year, was $30,000. 

Restoration v. Conservation of Natural Resources. 
In Massachusetts the work of restoration is even of more importance 
than conservation when applied to forestry. The annual cut of our 
forest products at present amounts to only 5 per cent, of that used each 
year throughout the Commonwealth for manufacturing, building and 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



57 



other purposes. Surely we can and ought to supply a larger amount of 
our own home-grown woods. Although the State has been well cut over, 
even now our present wood harvests play an important factor in the 
industries of many of our rural sections. While we believe thoroughly 
in conservation where it will apply, still the more potent force begins 
further back. We need to teach the A B C of restoration in forestry. 
When our work of reforestation shall have begun to demonstrate its 
value, it will be an object lesson which will mean much toward perfecting 
a better State forest policy. 

Practical forest restoration, therefore, is what Massachusetts needs 
most. If we will reconvert our hilly, rocky, mountainous, moist, sandy 
and waste nonagricultural lands generally into productive forests, the 
future financial success from rural sections of the Commonwealth is 
assured. This is no idle dream; it can be accomplished. Massachusetts 
is a natural forest country and all that is needed is simply to assist na- 
ture, stop forest fires and formulate constructive policies. Then we can 
grow as fine forests as can be found anywhere. Germany and many of 
the countries of the old world have already demonstrated what can be 
done. Are we to be less thrifty and farsighted? Americans do things 
when they are once aroused, and it is believed that reforestation and the 
adopting of modern forestry management must be given due consider- 
ation in this State from now on. 

The writer has been delighted in following the interest that has been 
aroused and the great tendency for all our people to not only welcome 
and appreciate the new idea of "conservation," but to even credit the 
term or phrase as covering every phase of new endeavor. 

It is not my purpose to lessen the glory one whit or bedim a single 
gem in the crown of the national phrase "Conservation of natural re- 
sources," nor could I were it to be tried, for the heralded motto has al- 
ready stamped itself firmly upon the nation. 

As time goes on, however, it will be found that our popular phrase 
will not carry with it the whole panacea of overcoming our wasteful 
and depleting conditions, and that new and equally applicable terms, 
though perhaps never so popular, will come to express more aptly our 
real needs. 

To my mind the phrase "Restoration of natural resources" vies with 
that of "Conservation of natural resources," and expresses a force to 
be aroused in the nation for good that in many ways surpasses the pres- 
ent popular one. 

We have our forest reserves and minerals that are left, and now to 
conserve them economically is a worthy undertaking; but in the older 
sections of the nation to conserve what we have in depleted and worn- 
out lands and forests is to pick the bones of the withered and shrunken 
carcass. 

Let conservation apply where it may, but the force that is needed in 
Massachusetts and all of New England, yea, the south, extending even 



58 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



well into the middle of the nation, following the greao depleting agri- 
cultural cereal and cotton crops on the one hand, and the lumberman's 
axe and forest fires on the other, is greater than this term can begin to 
express. 

The term "Restoration of natural resources," I claim meets our pres- 
ent needs far better, and breathes greater hope and definite accomplish- 
ments for our children's children in the future. 

The following paper by F. W. Rane, State Forester of Massa- 
chusetts, was read before the New England Water Works Associa- 
tion, March 8, 1911: — 

The Reforestation of Watersheds for Domestic Supplies. 

Mr. President and Gentlemen of the New England Water Works Associa' 
lion: — The subject of municipal forests is more or less of a new idea, 
but I can see where forestry and water works are naturally coming to- 
gether more and more. Most of you gentlemen, I take it, are engineers. 
Now, how can forestry come in along with your lines of work? I think the 
subject is likely to be of more and more importance, as time goes on, to 
water-works people. I take it for granted that a great many of the works 
represented here are municipal works. Some of them may be private 
corporations, but they are all run upon practically the same lines. A 
few years ago, in 1908 I think it was, we had occasion in the State Forestry 
office to work out a plan for the city of Fall River, covering about 3,000 
acres. At that time the mayor and the commissioners and the engineer 
had an idea that they were going to carry the plan into effect, but for some 
reason or other it unfortunately has not been carried out to the extent 
that they had hoped it would be. They are doing something, however. 
They have an area of about 3,000 acres surrounding their water supply, 
and if any of you are interested in the report we made, I have extra copies 
at the office and would be glad to send them to you upon apphcation. 

At that time I read a paper before one of our scientific societies, the 
subject of which was "Municipal, Corporation and Private Ownership 
Forests," and, with your permission, I will read you a few paragraphs 
from that paper bearing particularly upon the subject of municipal for- 
ests: — 

The time is ripe for the development of this type of forestry. I believe all 
that is required at present is to agitate the subject and to explain how easily and 
economically it can be brought about. Our cities and towns have sprung up by 
the hundreds and thousands throughout the land. Their development has been pro- 
portionate to their natural advantages. Permanency has become more stable as 
time has gone on, until to-day finds us with municipalities ready and willing to 
accept and adopt almost any measure that will develop a better future and a 
busier center of population. Our cities and towns have been solving the prob- 
lems of a permanent and efficient water supply, sewerage system, etc. Our boards 
of health tell us that a pure water supply is absolutely necessary to longevity of 
our population. Municipal forests about the drainage basins of our water sup- 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



59 



plies and reservoirs can be made not only an important factor in conserving the 
water supply and in improving sanitary conditions, but, if put under a modern 
system of forestry management, could be made a great economic factor in the 
production of wood and lumber. They may also comprise one of the gr^^at aes- 
thetic features of the section. The time element as a factor, so objectionable to 
the private owner in investing in forestry undertakings, need not ba considered 
here. The advent of the automobile and rapid transit has so enlarged the con- 
ceptions of the average citizen that instead of being content with shade trees and 
park systems he longs for the depth and quiet of large tracts of woods, which may 
be furnished almost without cost through the wise forethought of our municipal- 
ities. Who has visited Germany without being impressed with the trip into 
the Black Forest? These very forests are not only beautiful and renowned, but 
through their scientific treatment yield splendid net financial returns. Within 
walking distance from many of the cities, one can step into finer woods than can 
be found in our best eastern States. Spruce and fir trees 2 to 3 feet through and 
all the way up to 125 feet high stand on the ground as thickly as they can stand. 
There are acres that would cut more than 100,000 feet board measure. 

Municipal forests, therefore, will do much as object lessons, and their perma- 
nency and importance will assist very materially in forming a workable local, 
State and national policy. 

The State Forester of Massachusetts has completed a working plan for the 
city of Fall River this season for a municipal forest of 3,000 acres. We are work- 
ing on similar projects for three more cities at present, with still others on the 
waiting list. The Metropolitan Water and Sewerage Board of Boston have com- 
pleted planting 1,100 acres to forest trees about their new reservoir this fall. 
The city of Helena, Mont., has planted a forest of 900 acres. Warren Manning, 
the noted landscape gardener, the desigaer of the Jamestown Exposition grounds, 
etc., is an enthusiastic advocate of the broader forestry municipal development, 
as going hand in hand with landscape gardening. 

In a State like Massachusetts, where many park reservations like Mount Tom, 
Wachusett, Greylock, Blue Hills, metropolitan park system. Mount Everett, etc., 
have already been set aside for public purposes, if to these park systems, munic- 
ipal parks and forests be added as well as corporation and private forests, to- 
gether with increased holdings for fish and game preserves, it is evident that 
conditions will be developed which will make our State greatly to be envied. 
What has been and may be accomplished in Massachusetts can be wrought 
with equal ease throughout the Union to a greater or less degree. 

Considering an imperative necessity for the growing of our future forest pro- 
ducts, and considering the opportunity for business corporations and men to not 
only secure financial gain but bring great good to their respective communities, 
there certainly will be need in the future for all our well-directed acts of the pres- 
ent day. Is it not exceedingly fortunate that the conditions outlined do exist, 
and that the solving of them offers hopes to the future? It is fortunate, too, that 
as a people we are ever ready and quick to respond to any undertaking, no matter 
how strenuous the task, provided it will secure us benefit and reward. I have 
every hope, therefore, that our forestry problem will receive an early considera- 
tion at the hands of our people, and that all sections of the Union will do their 
respective parts in conserving the forests we already have and adopting modern 
methods of forest management, as well as in reforesting lands unadapted to agri- 
culture, returning them to forests, for which to all intent and purposes they were 
created. 

There has been of late much discussion on the subject of forests and 
their relation to stream flow, and we could, if we chose, give you a sermon 
on this subject, but we have elected in tliis article to present to you the 
financial sid of the question; in other words, the money profit which 



60 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



towns may obtain from lands which are now in their possession lying idle 
and unused. We believe that the time is not far distant when municipali- 
ties, like the State and nation, will take up forestry development in their 
midst, and that our towns and cities, like the communities of the Old 
World, will own their municipal forests. On the land which they have 
already acquired for the protection of a water supply is the place to begin. 

Appended is given a list of 47 towns holding such lands, and the area 
held. Ten of these have sought advice from this office in regard to the 
management of their lands, and 8 have in part carried out our suggestions, 
yet we are compelled to say that even these are only playing at forestry 
work. 

No one is in a more fortunate position to practice forestry than a munic- 
ipal water commission. It has as a rule no taxes to pay, the time element 
so detrimental to private ownership is wanting, because a municipality has, 
in theory at least, an everlasting existence, and the land which was bought 
as a protection for the water supply, from the forestry standpoint costs 
them nothing. 

The Metropolitan Water Board has planted some 1,200 acres of land 
with pine and hardwoods at an average cost of $20 per acre. In addition, 
in the first ten years they have had to spend $6 per acre for improvement 
cutting, and about 25 cents per year for fire patrol. The studies of this 
office have shown that average land planted to pine will yield 46,500 feet 
per acre in fifty years, worth on the stump at present prices $465. Now let 
us balance these figures, figuring our investment at 3| per cent., a fair 
average rate of interest on most municipal bonds. 

Stumpage 

Yield 
per Acre. 

Cost of planting at $20 for fifty years, interest 3 5 per cent. 

compounded $111 70 $465 00 

Improvement cuttings at S6 for forty j^ears, interest com- 
pounded at 3 1 per cent., . . . . . . 23 75 

Fire patrol 25 cents per year for fifty years, interest com- 
pounded at 3 1 per cent., . . . . . . 33 90 

Add to make even dollars, ...... 65 

$170 00 $465 00 



This leaves a net balance of $290 profit per acre over and above 3| per 
cent, return on the money invested, a rate of return equal to 7^ per cent., 
and this is based on stumpage prices prevailing at the present time, and 
stumpage will certainly be worth no less fifty years hence. Will you not 
agree with us that a town that holds land which is lying waste and idle, 
owned merely to keep some one from living on it, is committing a grave 
economic mistake when it fails to develop it into a forest? 

To take a practical example of the value that forestry can be to a town, 
Westfield owns 942 acres of land on its watershed in Granville, of which 
this office made a careful study. We found that 488 acres of this area were 
covered with some form of woodland and 454 acres were more or less 



1912 ] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



61 



cleared, 315 of which could be planted. We made our estimate of the 
income which may be derived from this land, giving its value at the time 
of cutting, basing the amount on present stumpage values. 



Types op Land. 


Area 
(Acres). 


Stumpage 
Value. 


Ready to 
cut. 


Large hardwoods, . 


33 


$2,640 00 


Present. 


Large pine, . 


4 


800 00 


Present. 


Medium hardwoods, ........ 


36 


3,000 00 


10 years. 


Medium pine, 




900 00 


12 years. 


Medium pine and hardwoods 


21 


1,500 00 


10 years. 


Culled land, 


160 


15,000 00 


25 years. 


Small hardwoods, 


104 


8,000 00 


18 years. 


Pine planted, .......... 


315 


108,000 00 


50 years. 



These figures when added show a net income to the town during the 
coming fifty years of approximately $140,000. To arrive at the net in- 
come on the planted land we have deducted $6,300 as cost of planting, 
$1,890 for improvement cuttings, $3,780 for fire patrol and $26,500 for 
taxes on the planted land. Taxes on the woodland (it being located in 
another town) would have to be paid whether forestry work was carried 
on or not, so they were not deducted in estimating the returns on the 
forested land. 

We cannot, in the narrow limits of this article, give the processes by 
which we arrived at the above conclusions, but we ask you to take them 
on faith, assuring you that we have done our best to be conservative in 
our estimates, basing them, as we said before, on the present values of 
lumber land. 

This office has given suggestions to 10 municipalities that have asked 
for our advice, and these suggestions have been embodied in written re- 
ports, in some cases in great detail. We stand ready to help any com- 
munity in the State, the extent to which we will offer our services depend- 
ing a great deal on how far the town will go in carrying out our suggestions 
after they have been made. The only cost to the town is for the traveling 
expenses of the man or men who make the examination and report. Most 
of the other States in New England have forestry officers who will give the 
same service, and where they cannot be secured there are firms of con- 
sulting foresters who can be called upon to give advice without excessive 
cost. 



62 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Municipal Water Supply Lands. 

List of Cities and Towns which have sought Advice from the State Forester concern- 
ing Forest Management of Such Lands, and Record of Accomplishments to Date. 
All since Fall River Report of 1909. 





Ownership, Mu- 


Watershed 


Existing 


Planting 


Plantable 
Area re- 
maining 
(Acres) . 


City or Towx. 


nicipal or Private 


Owned 


Woodland 


accom- 
plished 
(Acres). 




Compan}\ 


(Acres) . 


(Acres). 


1. Fall River, 


City, . 


2,940.6 


2,507 
488 


5 


433 


2. Westfield, . 


Town, . 


942.0 


20 


454 


3. Holyoke, . 


City, . 


2,200.0 


1,400 


12 


800 


4. Leominster, 


Town, . 


94.7 


(?) 


12 


None. 


5. Fitchburg, 


City, . 
Company, . 


400.0 


250 


None. 


150 


6. Amhersi:, . 


131.0 


(?) 


35 


(?) 


7. Needbam, 


Town, . 


91.6 


50 


5 


35 


8. Hudson, . 


Town, . 


162,0 


(?) 


18 


(?) 


9. Milford, . 


Company, . 


36.0 


16 


None. 


20 


10. Pittsfield, . 


City, . 


1,123.0 


723 


None. 


400 



Textattv^e List of 37 Cities and Towns having Water Supply Lands 

POSSIBLY capable OF FORESTING. TwENTY-FlVE AcRES AND OVER. 
[Project as yet unconsidered. Areas from State Board of Health.] 



CiTT OR TOWX. 


How owned. 


Watershed 
(Acres). 


1. Adams, 


Fire district, .... 


33.5 


2. Athol 


Town 


301.0 


3. Attleborough, 


Town, 


300.0 


4. Barre, 


Company, .... 


35.0 


5. BiUerica, 


Town 


25.8 


6. Brockton 


City 


225. C 


7. Clinton 


Town 


197.5 


8. Falmouth, 


Town 


82,1 


9. Foxborough, 


District 


26.0 


10. Hatfield 


Town 


40.0 


11. Haverhill, 


City 


668.0 


12. Lenox 


Company 


167.0 


13. LoweU 


City 


157.4 


14. Merrimac, 


Town 


31.0 


15. Nantucket, 


Company, .... 


32.0 


16. New Bedford, 


Citv 


1,682.0 


17. Newburj-port, 


City 


105.0 


18. Newton 


City, . : . . . 


721.0 


19. Northampton, 


City, 


786.3 


20. Northbridge 


Company, .... 


334.0 


21. North Adams, 


City, 


3,942.9 


22. North Brookfield, 


Town, . . . . 


144.8 


23. Palmer 


Company, .... 


40.0 


24. Peabody 


Town, 

Company, .... 


98.6 


25. Scituate, ... ... 


42.0 


26. Sharon 


Town 


216.5 


27. Southbridge, . . ... 


Company 


307.4 


28. Stoughton, . . .... 


Town 


56.0 


29. Taimton, . . ... 


City 


110.8 


30. Uxbridge, . . ... 


Town, 


64.0 


3i. Waltham, ... 


City 


40.0 


32. Ware. . . .... 


Town 


41.0 


33. Westborough 


Town 

Company, .... 


90.0 


34. Williarr stown, 


96.0 


35. Winchendon, ....... 


Town 


70.0 


36. Worcester. 


City 


442.0 


37. Wrentham, 


Town 


42.5 



Add to the above the 10 cities and towns which have already had advice from the State Forester. 



A view from the lookout station for forest lires ou Grace Mountain, in Warwick. 
Wachusett Mountain in the background, about thirty miles away. 




A portion of the State Forester's nursery at Amherst. These iiw i line -year-old 
white pine seedlings that will be set out permanently next spring. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



63 



The Association of American Colleges and Experiment Sta- 
tions met at Columbus, O., November 15 to 17, and the Massa- 
chusetts State Forester was asked to deliver the following paper 
before said association : — 

Forestry: the Part that Colleges and Experiment Stations may 

PLAY IN ITS DeVELOPMENTD. 

I feel complimented in being asked by the officials of this association to 
discuss this subject at this time. 

I take it for granted at the outset that forestry is already acknowledged 
to be a subject worthy of consideration by our colleges and universities 
and well adapted to a place in their curriculum; also that experiment 
station officials feel that were they able to enlarge their staff by the addi- 
tion of a forester, results could be expected in this line of agricultural 
development in their respective States. 

Forestry is nothing other than an agricultural crop which demands 
modern methods of culture and management, as other plants, for both 
economic and aesthetic results. The forest crop, or forestry, at once calls 
to mind a large class or group of plants of the vegetable kingdom whose 
fundamental importance to a State or nation is necessarily closely related 
to its success and progress. Wood or lumber finds innumerable uses. 

When our forefathers came to these shores they found magnificent 
primeval forests in all their glory, — a vast field of grain waving before the 
wind as it were. Individual specimens of white pine in New England, 
Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota; black walnut in Ohio, Pennsyl- 
vania, West Virginia and Kentucky; black cherry throughout the eastern 
United States; chestnut from Massachusetts to Georgia; tulip tree 
throughout the Appalachian range, — all these and many more species 
could be found that would cut from 3,000 to 6,000 feet board measure 
from a single tree. What has become of these monarchs of the forest? 
To-day we point with pride to the forests of the great west and northwest 
which still remain, but how long -will these forests continue to stand, 
judging from the wasteful methods of the past? Because the east wasted 
its birthright, now the west claims similar privileges. 

We have possessed a nation flowing with milk and honey, figuratively 
speaking, streams teeming with fish, precious minerals, coal, oil and 
natural gas in abundance, wild animals and game of a large variety, 
forests nearly everywhere, excepting on the rich prairies, soils adaptable 
to most any kind of a crop, etc., and what have we accomplished with 
this heritage thus far? We have built and established a nation great 
among the nations of the world. This we Americans are proud of, and we 
have every reason to be, as our record shows. It was but yesterday our 
ancestors arrived here, and to-day we are a world power, — in point of 
time but a brief minute compared with the lives of nations. 

In the development of the nation we have not wanted for natural re- 



64 



THE STATE FORESTER 



[Jan. 



sources; they have been awaiting our use. To an intelhgent audience of 
scientifically trained men like this it is unnecessary to paint any word 
picture of our development; to simply ask you to give the subject con- 
sideration is to call its evolutionary history to mind. 

Presidents, directors and workers generally who have co-operative in- 
terests in this organization all realize from their life's work the importance 
of economic utilization and conservation. There is undoubtedly no force 
that has met our nation's needs and furthered her real fundamental de- 
velopment of permanency more than the work of the institutions rep- 
resented in this organization. 

At the recent National Conservation Congress, held at Kansas City, 
I was particularly impressed with the fact that the men whom that organ- 
ization now falls back upon for permanency are largely the product which 
is the outgrowth of the work of the land grant colleges and experiment 
stations. Conservation of natural resources is a phrase which has sprung 
up like a mushroom in the night, and has emphasized, through its popu- 
larity and significance, what appeared at the time a new idea. This 
sudden culmination, however, was made possible through the educational 
conditions that have been constantly at work during recent years, to- 
gether with the psj^chological time in the nation's development. 

In presenting the report from Massachusetts at the recent Conservation 
Congress, I took the liberty of discussing briefly the subject of ''Restora- 
tion V. Conservation of Natural Resources," and as it is more or less 
applicable, I beg your indulgence in repeating a part of it : — 

In Massachusetts the work of restoration is even of more importance than 
conservation when applied to forestry. The annual cut of our forest products 
at present amounts to only 5 per cent, of that used each year throughout the 
Commonwealth for manufacturing, building and other purposes. Surely we can 
and ought to supply a larger amount of our own home-grown woods. Although 
the State has been well cut over, even now our present wood harvests play an 
important factor in the industries of many of our rural sections. While we believe 
thoroughly in conservation where it will apply, still the more potent force here 
begins farther back. We need to teach the A B C of restoration in forestry. 
When our work of reforestation shall have begun to demonstrate its value, it 
will be an object lesson which will mean much toward perfecting a better State 
forest policy. 

Practical forest restoration, therefore, is what Massachusetts needs most. If 
we will reconvert our hilly, rocky, mountainous, moist, sandy and waste non-agri- 
cultural lands generally into productive forests, the future financial success from 
rural sections of the Commonwealth is assured. This is no idle dream; it can 
be accomplished. Massachusetts is a natural forest country, and all that is needed 
is simply to assist nature, stop forest fires and formulate constructive policies. 
Then we can grow as fine forests as can be found anywhere. Germany and many 
of the countries of the Old World have already demonstrated what can be done. 
Are we to be less thrifty and farsighted? Americans do things when they are 
once aroused, and it is believed that reforestation and the adopting of modem 
forestry management must be given its due consideration in this State from now 
on. 

The writer has been delighted in following the interest that has been aroused 
and the great tendency for all our people to not only welcome and appreciate the 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



65 



new idea of "conservation," but to even credit the term or phrase as covering 
every phase of new endeavor. 

It is not my purpose to lessen the glory one whit, or bedim a single gem in the 
crown of the national phrase "Conservation of natural resources," nor could I 
were it to be tried, for the heralded motto has already stamped itself firmly upon 
the nation. 

As time goes on, however, it will be found that our popular phrase will not 
carry with it the whole panacea of overcoming our wasteful and depleting con- 
ditions, and that new and equally applicable terms, though perhaps never so 
popular, will come to express more aptly our real needs. 

To my mind the phrase "Restoration of natural resources" vies with that of 
"Conservation of natural resources," and expresses a force to be aroused in the 
nation for good that in many ways surpasses the present popular one. 

We have our forest reserves and minerals that are left, and now to conserve 
them economically is a worthy undertaking, but in the older sections of the nation 
to conserve what we have in depleted and worn-out lands and forests is to pick 
the bones of the withered and shrunken carcass. 

Let conservation apply where it may, but the force that is needed in Massa- 
chusetts and all of New England, yea, the south, extending even well into the 
middle of the nation, following the great depleting agricultural cereal and cotton 
crops on the one hand, and the lumberman's axe and forest fires on the other, is 
greater than this term can begin to express. 

The term "Restoration of natural resources" I claim meets our present needs 
far better and breathes greater hope and definite accomplishments for our chil- 
dren's children in the future. 

Forestry, although it is an agricultural crop and must have greater 
consideration in the future, has not received the attention it deserves un- 
til practically the present time. Forest products have been relatively 
abundant and cheap in nearly all sections of the nation. Suddenly our 
needs began to outstrip the supply, and then with advancing prices lum- 
bermen and the public generally have gradually awakened to the necessity 
of providing for our present and future needs. We find that it is not only 
a question of harvesting the crop from now on, but one of growing it. 
There has been little demand for educated foresters in the past as the un- 
dertakings were mainly those of economic methods of lumbering. 

Saw logs in the early days were 16 inches or more in diameter, while 
to-day with us in New England lumbermen consider the 5'inch saw log of 
equivalent value. Box boards, usually cut from white pine, regardless of 
size of the log or gnarliness of the tree, with wany edges and the bark still 
adhering, bring more money to-day than did square-edge, clean, clear 
stock not many years ago. A prominent Boston timber cruiser who has 
spent the past few years throughout the south called at my office within 
ten days, and his version of the depletion of the natural forest products 
of that section was really amazing. 

To my mind there are few subjects wherein the organizations repre- 
sented at this association need to participate more actively than that of 
forestry. Just because there has not been a definite demand and ap- 
parent need until now is not an excuse for present lethargy. 

The older members of this association can well remember the earnest 
and farsighted appeal made to this body by the late Samuel B. Green of 



66 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the University of Minnesota, Department of Forestry. Professor Green 
was particularly anxious that the government be called upon to enact a 
law whereby each State should have a definite appropriation yearly for 
carrying on forestry work. The idea was carried as far as presenting the 
matter before Congress, H. R. 9219, known as the Davis forestry bill. 
The bill called for an appropriation of $5,000 by the national government, 
on condition that each State appropriate a like sum. Professor Green 
said, "When we think of the enormous value of the forest output of this 
country, the amount requested to educate young men to be competent 
to take care of this forest wealth seems trivial indeed. I do not Tvish to 
see all the agricultural colleges attempting to turn out professional fores- 
ters, and such would not be the effect of these proposed expenditures; but 
the result would be that in a short time we would have a surplus of young 
men well trained in the basic principles of forestry, through whose efforts 
the forest sentiment of to-day would crystallize into a permanent and 
helpful thing." 

Do we realize that this plan carried out would mean an expenditure of 
only $250,000 a year from the national government, and as well furnish 
an incentive for the States to take advantage of the assistance? This 
would result in placing the work on a progressive foundation at once. 

For some reason we did not take to the idea enthusiastically. There 
is no legitimate reason even now for not using our present governmental 
funds for this work, but this might cause necessary adjustment and 
financial complication. Consequently we have been prone to let well 
enough alone. 

One thing is certain, we are losing valuable time in not having a more 
definite and well-defined policy of development for forestry throughout 
the nation. While here and there our most progressive States are doing 
something in forestry work which example is worthy, and is gradually 
being followed by others, nevertheless, we are one people, and a funda- 
mental industry so important to the nation's welfare should enlist all 
educational leaders of rural economics in its behalf. 

Economically the forest crop of the future must play a very important 
part. Those of you who have not had time to study it may be interested 
in knowing its importance to even a small State like Massachusetts. We 
have in Massachusetts approximately 5,400,000 acres of land, and of this 
acreage three-fifths, or practically 3,000,000 acres are unadapted to tillage 
or general agriculture. These lands, however, under management can all 
be devoted to forestry. Upon a single acre of such land we have demon- 
strated, from a thorough study of the white pine, that we can grow 40,000 
feet board measure in fifty years, or an average of 800 feet per year. As 
stumpage is worth from $6 to $12 a thousand at the present time, this 
would mean an average annual income of from $4.80 to $9.60. Were it 
possible to practice modern forestry management, therefore, over our 
entire 3,000,000 acres of forest lands in Massachusetts, it would mean an 
annual income of from $14,400,000 to $28,800,000. These figures may 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



67 



seem very startling at first, but I offer them for your deliberate con- 
sideration. Please remember that the above figures are based on present 
prices in Massachusetts, and I am willing to leave it to your judgment 
whether future prices are not likely to be even higher. 

What is true of the growth of white pine in the old Bay State is more 
or less true of forestry conditions elsewhere. When we consider stumpage 
prices, we must consider, also, that these conditions realized mean economic 
employment of manual labor, teams and machinery, together with the 
savings of transportation on raw material and the giving of employment 
to rural sections during the winter, resulting in an all-year-round occupa- 
tion. 

While Massachusetts does not typify every State it exemplifies that 
forestry and forest products demand our consideration. 

The United States Forest Service has done and is doing splendid work 
which is having desired results, and many States have well-organized de- 
partments of State forestry, but it remains for this association, through 
its present splendid organization, to become more elastic, welcoming the 
necessary extension of its curriculum and investigations to include forestry. 

I believe that every State should have its State Forester, whose whole 
time can be spent in determining and carrying out a definite State forest 
policy. Fire protection and regulation, reforestation and general modern 
forestry management need constant State supervision and encouragement. 

With a national and State organization perfected, the only thing lacking 
is the great assistance that must come from educating the rank and file 
of our people, who are to own and manage these forest lands. There are 
no institutions to which this work more naturally falls than to our land 
grant colleges and experiment stations. Already these institutions are 
doing for our people everything possible in every other line of agriculture; 
then why should not forestry be included with horticulture and agronomy? 
The department of botany necessarily teaches the fundamentals of the 
science, and with little additional equipment and assistance any botanical 
department could give a course in forest botany. What is true of botany 
is equally true of entomology, physics, plant pathology, etc. Again, I 
firmly believe that forestry should be required in the agriculture courses 
to a point sufficient for a comprehensive knowledge of it, allowing stu- 
dents opportunities to specialize later on. 

The principles of forestry can readily be taught in our short courses and 
elementary schools provided the fundamentals of botany, soils and nursery 
work precede the same. But here, again, this is made possible only through 
Cvimpetent teachers, the product from the land grant college or similar 
ins! itution. 

Please do not understand me as an advocate of more forestry schools 
which endeavor to educate the so-called technical forester, as I believe 
we have probably enough of this class of institutions already, but that 
there is a great and growing need for a general forestry education sufficient 
to practicing modern methods, I am certain. 



68 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



In Massachusetts, again, I believe we have the ideal arrangement. The 
State Forester has immediate charge of the shaping and carrying out of 
the State forest policy. The State Forester also gives lectures yearly at 
the agricultural college, covering his field of work. The Massachusetts 
Agricultural College has a professor of forestry whose privilege it is to see 
that all students are taught a working knowledge of the subject. Where 
certain students have shown special proficiency in forestry they un- 
doubtedly, upon graduation, may secure credits in forestry schools, but the 
college does not claim to turn out a technically trained forester. 

By this system of organization I am convinced that very satisfactory 
results can be realized. There is certainly plenty of work for a State 
Forester co accomplish without his being tied down to teaching or doing 
much research work. His work compels him to be familiar with the gen- 
eral State conditions, and the administration of field work in forestry 
management, reforestation, nursery work, forest insect and disease dep- 
redations, the care and management of State forest reserves, forest fire 
protection, etc. The handling of the forest fire problem alone requires a 
great amount of supervision to get satisfactory results. The installation 
and management of lookout stations, the work of securing modern forest 
fire-fighting equipment for towns and townships, and keeping it properly 
housed and cared for so as to be effective for proper and efficient patrol 
systems in dry times; all these demand constant attention. To keep a 
forest fire system effective the State Forester must be in close touch 
with the working unit. What is true of forest fires is equally true of seeing 
that forest working plans are properly executed, and that all forestry 
practices are performed in a practical way. 

It therefore remains for the professor of forestry to do the teaching of 
students, and the station forester or the station botanist, entomologist or 
pathologist to undertake the lines of pure investigation. With this defi- 
nitely outlined plan results are bound to come. 

In closing, I simply desire to appeal to this association in behalf of a 
more wholesome position than we have yet reached in recognizing forestry 
or the forest crop as needing and deserving more attention than we are at 
present giving it. 

New Forestry Legislation. 

The following new legislation was enacted by the last General 
Court. 

Law relative to setting Fires in the Open Air. 
The law relative to setting fires in the open air was amended at 
the last session of the General Court so as to apply to all cities 
and to such towns as accepted the provisions of the act at a meet- 
ing of the voters called for that purpose. The time at which such 
permits are necessary was also changed, as so to include the 
month of March. The law as now in force is as follows: — 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 69 



Chapter 209. 

An Act relative to the Setting of Fires in the Open Air. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. It shall be unlawful within any city, or within any town 
which accepts the provisions of this act, for any person to set a fire in 
the open air between the first day of March and the first day of De- 
cember except by the written permission of the forest warden, or the chief 
of the fire department or, in cities that have such an official, the fire 
commissioner: provided, that debris from fields, gardens and orchards, 
or leaves and rubbish from yards may be burned on ploughed fields 
by the owners thereof, their agents or lessees; and provided, further, that 
persons above eighteen years of age may maintain a fire for a reason- 
able purpose upon sandy or barren land, if the fire is enclosed within 
rocks, metal or other non-inflammable material. In every case such fire 
shall be at least two hundred feet distant from any forest or sprout lands, 
and at least fifty feet distant from any building, and shall be properly 
attended until it is extinguished. The forest warden shall cause public 
notice to be given of the provisions of this section, and shall enforce the 
same. Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall be punished 
by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars, or by imprisonment for 
not more than one month, or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

Section 2. Said chapter two hundred and nine is hereby further 
amended by strildng out section four and inserting in place thereof the 
following: — Section 4- The state forester and forest warden, or any 
duly authorized assistant in the employ of the state forester, or any duly 
appointed deputy forest warden, may arrest without a warrant any per- 
sons found in the act of setting or maintaining a fire in violation of the 
provisions of this act. 

Section 3. Said chapter is hereby further amended by striking out 
section five and inserting in place thereof the following new section: — 
Section 5. The selectmen of every town may submit this act to the 
voters for their acceptance at any annual or special town meeting. The 
vote shall be taken by separate ballot, and shall be ''Yes," or "No" 
in answer to the following question printed upon the ballot: ''Shall an 
act passed by the general court in the year nineteen hundred and eight, 
entitled 'An Act to provide for the protection of forest or sprout lands 
from fire,' be accepted by this town?" A majority vote of the legal 
voters present and voting at such meeting shall be required for the ac- 
ceptance of this act; and upon such acceptance the provisions of sec- 
tion twenty-four of chapter thirty-two of the Revised Laws shall cease 
to apply to any town which has previously accepted that section. 

Section 4. Section eleven of chapter two hundred and eleven of the 
Revised Laws is hereby repealed. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. Approved 
April 6, 1911, 



70 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan, 



Rulings. 

As the validity of this law has been doubted by some people on 
technical grounds, I desire to call attention to three cases which 
have been brought before the courts of the Commonwealth during 
the past season, and the disposition made of them. 

Soon after the act was amended by the Legislature, a fire was 
set by a man in B oxford without a permit, which got beyond his 
control, and not only burned over a large area of valuable forest 
land, but cost the lives of two men who were working to suppress 
it. The party who set the fire was arrested and brought before 
the court at Haverhill, where his counsel attempted to have the 
case nol pressed on the ground that while the town of Boxford 
had accepted by vote the provisions of the act of 1908, it had 
failed to take any action on the amendment of 1911; consequently 
his client could not be held criminally liable. Judge Ryan, who 
presided over the case, heard the evidence, and then reserved his 
decision for a week in order that he should have ample time to 
consider the case thoroughly, at the end of which time he adjudged 
the defendant guilty, and imposed a substantial fine. 

Another case, identical with the above, was brought before 
Judge Burke at Pittsfield. In this case the defendant was fined 
$20; he appealed to the higher Court, where the verdict of the 
lower court was sustained, although the fine was reduced to $15. 

The third case was one brought before Judge Field at Green- 
field. In this case the defendant was dismissed. 

In order to have the construction of the law settled, the State 
Forester asked the Attorney-General's opinion, which was rendered 
on Dec. 18, 1911. 

Attorney-General's Opinion. 

Boston, Dec. 18, 1911. 

F. W. Rane, Esq., State Forester. 

Dear Sir: — You submit for my consideration certain questions with 
regard to the construction of St. 1908, c. 209, as amended by St. 1911, 
c. 244. Your first inquiry is as follows: — 

Does the act of 1911 (chapter 244), which struck out section 1 of chapter 209 
of the Acts of 1908, substituting a new section therefor, make it necessary for 
towns that had accepted the act of 1908 to accept the amendment of 1911, or is 
the amended act operative in such towns without further action? 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



71 



St. 1908, c. 209, was entitled ''An Act to provide for the protection of 
forest or sprout lands from fire," and provided in section 1 that in a town 
which accepted its provisions or had accepted corresponding provisions of 
earlier laws no fires should be set in the open air between the first day of 
April and the first day of December, except by the written permission of 
the forest warden, except that debris from fields, gardens and orchards, 
or leaves and brush from yards, might be burned on ploughed fields by 
the owners, their agents or lessees, provided such fire was at least 200 
feet from any forest or sprout lands, and was properly attended until it 
was extinguished. Section 5 provided that the selectmen of every town 
should cause the act to be submitted to the voters for their acceptance at 
the next annual meeting of the town after the passage thereof; and that 
a majority vote of the legal voters present and voting at such meeting 
should be required for its acceptance. These sections were amended by 
St. 1911, c. 244. Section 1 repealed the whole of the first section of the 
earlier act and substituted in its place a provision that — 

It shall be unlawful within any city, or within any town which accepts the pro- 
visions of this act, for any person to set a fire in the open air between the first 
day of March and the first day of December except by the written permission of 
the forest warden, or the chief of the fire department or, in cities that have such 
an official, the fire commissioner: . . . 

This section was substantially similar to the section struck out, but 
contained the additional exception that persons above eighteen years of 
age might maintain a fire for a reasonable purpose upon sandy or barren 
land if the fire was enclosed within rocks, metal or other non-inflammable 
material, and was otherwise slightly changed in phrase therefrom. Section 
3 of chapter 244 repealed section 5 of the earlier act and substituted 
therefor the following new section: — 

The selectmen of every town may submit this act to the voters for their accept- 
ance at any annual or special town meeting. The vote shall be taken by sepa- 
rate ballot, and shall be "Yes" or "No" in answer to the following question 
printed upon the ballot: "Shall an act passed by the general court in the year 
nineteen hundred and eight, entitled 'An Act to provide for the protection of 
forest or sprout lands from fire,' be accepted by this town? " A majority vote 
of the legal voters present and voting at such meeting shall be required for the 
acceptance of this act; and upon such acceptance the provisions of section twenty- 
four of chapter thirty-two of the Revised Laws shall cease to apply to any town 
which has previously accepted that section. 

I am of opinion that the amendments so enacted do not disclose any 
intention upon the part of the Legislature to require an additional accept- 
ance thereof from towns which had accepted the statute amended. Where 
an act, the operation of which in any particular municipality or division 
of government is conditioned upon acceptance by such municipality or 
other division of government, has been accepted, it becomes a law, and, 
apart from questions affecting the constitutionality of the subject-matter 



72 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



of an amendment, may be amended or repealed at the pleasure of the 
Legislature. It follows, therefore, that the amendment of 1911 is appli- 
cable to all towns which had accepted St. 1908, c. 209, without further 
action by such towns. 

Your second inquiry is as follows: — 

Does the provision in section 1, which allows the burning of debris, leaves and 
rubbish from fields and orchards, when 200 feet from sprout land or 50 feet from 
a building remain in force throughout the year? Does that provision apply to 
all towns, or only those that have accepted the act? 

The provision to which your second question is directed, that ''debris 
from fields, gardens and orchards, or leaves and rubbish from yards may 
be burned on ploughed fields by the owners thereof, their agents or les- 
sees," is an exception from the restriction upon the setting of fires between 
the first day of March and the first day of December, contained in the 
same section, and it follows, therefore, that an owner, agent or lessee may 
at any time during the year burn debris from fields, gardens and orchards 
or leaves and rubbish from yards on ploughed lands, provided that such 
fire shall be at least 200 feet distant from any forest or sprout lands and 
at least 50 feet distant from any building, and shall be properly attended 
until it is extinguished. Whether or not during the period from the first 
day of December to the first day of March fires may be set which do not 
in all respects comply with the provisions referred to, your question does 
not require me to decide. Since St. 1908, c. 209, as amended by St. 1911, 
c. 244, has the force of law only in towns which have accepted or may 
accept its provisions, it follows that the particular restriction with re- 
spect to setting of fires does not apply to all towns, but oiAy to those which 
have accepted the act. 

Your third inquiry is as follows: — 

Does the striking out of sections 4 and 5 of the act of 1908 and substituting 
new sections affect in any way the application of the law in towns that have 
accepted the act? 

St. 1908, c. 209, § 5, permitted an acceptance of its provisions onl}^ "at 
the next annual meeting of the town after the passage of this act," to wit, 
at the next annual meeting after March 14, 1908. The obvious purpose 
of the amendment contained in St. 1911, c. 244, § 3, is to pro\dde that the 
question may be submitted to towns which did not avail themselves of 
the provisions contained in the earlier statute, "at any annual or special 
town meeting." There is nothing in its language which discloses any in- 
tent upon the part of the Legislature to require towns which had already 
accepted the provisions of the earlier act to reconsider the question. 

Very truly yours, 

James M. Swift, 
Attorney-General. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



73 



Law providing for Better Forest Fire Protection. 
What is considered by many to be the most valuable piece of 
legislation relating to forestry that has been enacted for many 
years is the law which empowered the State Forester to appoint 
an assistant to have charge of the forest fire problem in Massa- 
chusetts, aided by an efficient corps of deputies. The work al- 
ready accomplished under this law is extremely gratifying, and, 
with the system and organization planned for next season put 
in operation, will without doubt result in reducing very materially 
the losses we have annually suffered from forest fires. The follow- 
ing is the law in full : — 

Chapter 722. 

An Act to provide for the Better Prevention of Forest Fires. 
Be it enacted, etc., as follows: 

Section 1. The state forester is hereby empowered to appoint an 
assistant to be known as the state fire warden, whose special duty it shall 
be to aid and advise the forest wardens and their deputies in towns and 
the municipal officers exercising the functions of forest wardens in cities, 
in preventing and extinguishing forest fires and in enforcing the laws 
relative to forest fires, and may from time to time designate not more than 
fifteen deputies to aid such state fire warden in the discharge of his duties. 

Section 2. The state fire warden appointed under the terms of section 
one shall report annually upon his work and upon the forest fires occurring 
in the commonwealth, and his report shall be included in and be printed 
as a part of the state forester's annual report. 

Section 3. The deputies of the fish and game commissioners shall 
report to the state fire warden the situation and extent of any forest fire 
occurring within the district to which they are assigned, and they shall re- 
port to him monthly their doings under chapter two hundred and ninety- 
nine of the acts of the year nineteen hundred and seven. 

Section 4. The sum of ten thousand dollars is hereby appropriated 
to carry out the provisions of this act during the year nineteen hundred 
and eleven. 

Section 5. This act shall take effect upon its passage. [Approved July 
18, 1911. 

Constitutional Am'endment relative to the Taxation of Wild or Forest 

Lands. 

The desirability of a change in the method of taxing forest lands 
in Massachusetts was clearly shown by the report of a special 
committee appointed in 1905 to investigate the subject, and the 



74 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



benefits to be derived from a system less burdensome than that 
now in vogue have been pointed out by the State Forester many 
times in his annual reports. His Excellency Governor Foss, in 
a special message, urged upon the Legislature of 1911 the impor- 
tance of giving this question prompt and serious consideration. 
He recommended a constitutional amendment which would enable 
the General Court to enact such legislation relative to the methods 
of taxing wild or forest lands as will serve best to encourage the 
development of forestry in the Commonwealth. The following 
resolve, based upon the Governor's message, was passed by both 
branches of the Legislature : — 

Resolve to provide for an Amendment of the Constitution relative 
TO the Taxation of Wild or Forest Lands. 

Resolved, That it is expedient to alter the constitution of the common- 
wealth by the adoption of the subjoined article of amendment; and that 
the said article, being agreed to by a majority of the senators and two 
thirds of the members of the house of representatives present and voting 
thereon, be entered on the journals of both houses, with the yeas and nays 
taken thereon, and be referred to the general court next to be chosen; and 
that the said article be published, to the end that if agreed to in the manner 
provided by the constitution, by the general court next to be chosen, it 
may be submitted to the people for their approval and ratification, in order 
that it may become a part of the constitution of the commonwealth. 

article of amendment. 

Full power and authority are hereby given and granted to the general 
court to prescribe for wild or forest lands such methods of taxation as will 
develop and conserve the forest resources of the commonwealth. 

Senate, July 6, 1911. 

The foregoing article of amendment is agreed to, a majority of the sena- 
tors present and voting thereon having voted in the affirmative; and the 
same is referred to the general court next to be chosen. 

Allen T. Treadway, President. 

House of Representatives, July 13, 1911. 

The foregoing article of amendment is agreed to, two thirds of the 
members of the house of representatives present and voting thereon hav- 
ing voted in the affirmative; and the same is referred in concurrence to 
the general court next to be chosen. 

Joseph Walker, Speaker. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



75 



The passing of the foregoing legislation by the present General 
Court is believed to be of great importance by the State Forester. 
In order to give the State Forester's opinion more in detail, the 
following letter is published, which was alluded to in Governor 
Foss's message : — 

Governor Eugene N. Foss. 

Dear Sir: — In reply to your request for a statement of my opinions 
concerning forest taxation in this State, I submit the following: — 

Of the Massachusetts 5,400,000 acres, as far as I am able to ascertain 
practically three-fifths, or at least 3,000,000 acres, are better adapted to 
forestry than any other purpose. We have a naturally rolling country, 
and from its geological formation much of our lands are either hilly, rocky, 
mountainous, sandy or moist, so that they are unadapted for general 
agriculture. These same lands, however, were originally covered with 
splendid stands of primeval forests, and under modern methods of man- 
agement we have every reason to believe can be made a great funda^ 
mental asset to the State's future. 

We have in Massachusetts a natural forest country. From a study of 
the white pine as found growing naturally in the State, we have statistics 
in the State Forester's office that show very conclusively that were we able 
to keep our lands adapted to forests, growing this species alone, the 
average annual increment of growth would range from 751 feet board 
measure under slow-growing conditions to 1,130 feet under fast-growing 
conditions for each acre. The above data were for yearly averages of 
fifty-year growth stands. 

When we realize that at present white pine averages from $6 to $12 
per thousand for stumpage, one can appreciate what values are possible 
in even a small State like Massachusetts if properly regulated. What is 
true of the white pine is more or less true of other forest species. The 
above data are taken from natural conditions. 

It is well known by foresters that under modern methods of forestry 
management, like that pursued by the Germans, greater yields can be 
depended upon. From our present knowledge of forest production, and 
its bearing upon Massachusetts, we believe it a conservative statement to 
say that were we able to control forest fires, insect and disease depreda- 
tions, and to practice modern forestry management, we could expect 
the average yearly income to the State at present prices to range from 
$10,000,000 to $25,000,000. We are reasonably sure, as well, that future 
prices of forest products will be much higher than at present. 

The conditions of our present forest taxation are extremely elastic. In 
many towns the tendency is to place a heavy valuation on timber lands, 
while here and there we find that little change has been made for a number 
of years, although the true valuation has greatly increased. Instances 
are shown where forests have been taxed at a nominal sum until pur- 



76 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



chased at a fair price, and then the valuation is raised, in some instances 
to an advance of 60 per cent. 

The tendency at present is to increase valuations on forest lands more 
than formerly, as good growth is scarce, and if assessors tax it at its real 
value, according to law, owners at once realize the burden and are driven 
to cut it down. If these conditions applied to mature growi^h the objection 
would be slight, but our old growth is largely cut, and the burden comes 
on young and immature growth that from every economic standpoint, 
including that of rational taxation, should not be cut. 

The objectionable feature to our present system is the taxing of the 
growing crop as well as the land. Growing agricultural crops are not 
taxed. The forest is nothing other than a growing agricultural crop, only 
that the crop of each additional ring on the trees or increment cannot be 
harvested without destroying the possibilities of future crops or values, 
and hence remains dormant until the totals of several seasons are taken 
together. Were it not for this fact the growth of each year would not be 
taxed any more than other agricultural crops. Therefore, just because 
there is in a tree crop an accumulation of annual gromng crops, which 
from the nature of the case is necessarily standing idle to ensure the 
succeeding annual growing crop on the same land, it should not be taxed. 

Farm lands are assessed at a fair average figure per acre, depending 
upon their productivity of crops, and, as above stated, the crop is not 
taxed. Why not tax forest lands, or even depleted and neglected lands 
capable of growing forests, of which there are many throughout the State, 
at the rate of their annual possibilities of productivity, the same as agricul- 
tural lands are now taxed? This would determine a basis of yearly per- 
manent taxation on which the towns and State could depend. It would 
go farther; it would establish a definite policy whereby one could be 
assured of a reasonably certain policy in dealing with forest properties. 

Our present law, if enforced by conscientious assessors, results in pre- 
mature harvesting of the crop, as not only is the growing annual crop 
taxed, which in itself would not be so objectionable, even if other agri- 
cultural crops are exempt, but this growing crop is again taxed year after 
year when it is standing idle, and this fact is distinctly burdensome to 
modern forestry development. 

A point I wish to emphasize relative to the importance of ha\'ing a well- 
regulated State forest policy, which is impossible with our present uneven 
taxation law, is that modern forestry encouraged is bound to return an 
industry to our rural communities, the lack of which is already experienced 
at the present time. 

It was only a few years ago when every farming district was equally 
busy in winter as throughout the growing season, utilizing its hired help 
and teams in the wood lot, getting out saw logs and lumber; not stripping 
the land, but taking out the ripe trees suitable for lumber, and canying 
on a rotation of crops in the forests as it were. The farmer had an industry 
to follow in the winter as well as in the summer. At present the depleting, 
or run-out at the heel, forestry conditions, once so thrifty, have, through 



1912,] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



77 



improper culture, left many a rural town without a winter occupation. 
The hired help which once the farmer was able to retain throughout the 
whole season is lost during the present winters, and even the horses and 
oxen are ''eating their heads off," instead of being needed for the accus- 
tomed purpose of industry. A more rational taxation of forests, I believe, 
will have a tendency to better the whole rural life problem. 

I came to Massachusetts as State Forester the year following the report 
of the committee of 1905, which was appointed by the General Court to 
consider the laws relative to the taxation of forest lands. After studjdng 
the report, and looking into the matter quite fully, I became convinced 
that the whole question was one of larger importance, namely, that 
before we could arrive at the problem satisfactorily from the forestry stand- 
point, it would be necessary to be able to classify the forestry properties 
in such a manner as to render practical results. This, I found, is not 
allowable according to the State Constitution, and it was for this reason 
that I took the position that I did before the taxation commission, which 
reported in December, 1909. 

Respectfully submitted, 

F. W. Rane, 
State Forester. 

April 26, 1911. 

Expenditures and Receipts. 
In accordance with section 6, chapter 409 of the Acts of 1904, 
as amended by section 1, chapter 473 of the Acts of 1907, the 
following statement is given of the forestry expenditures for the 
year ending Nov. 30, 1911: — 



Salaries of assistants, $5,335 70 

Traveling expenses, 741 73 

Stationery, postage and other office supplies, .... 593 93 

Printing, 159 92 

Nursery account, 3,075 28 

Sundries, 119 28 



$10,025 84 

Reforestation Account. 

Labor, $5,679 54 

Land, 675 00 

Trees, 2,048 23 

Tools, 323 08 

Travel, 767 68 

Express, 417 91 

Sundries, 83 63 



$9,995 07 



78 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 1912. 

Forest Fire Prevention. 

Salaries, $3,440 27 

Travel, 2,287 02 

Printing, 378 80 

Stationery, postage and other office supplies, .... 468 92 

Express, 34 59 

Equipment, 2,461 67 

Sundries, 52 47 



$9,123 74 



Reimbursements to towns for fire-fighting apparatus, . . $3,424 54 



Part II. 



MOTH WORK. 



Part II. 



GYPSY AND BROWN-TAIL MOTH 
SUPPRESSION. 



In General. 

The moth work has been under the supervision of your State 
Forester for the past three seasons. It has been his constant aim 
to perfect a "Uve-wire" organization. The department has re- 
ceived $300,000 a year for the State work and $15,000 a year extra 
for parasite work. This last sum has been largely expended under 
the direction of the United States government. For the expendi- 
ture of the $300,000 each year for the past two years statements 
have been made in previous annual reports, and the results of the 
present season are given in the following pages. 

The expenses for supervision of moth work in two years were re- 
duced from $92,000 to $36,000, and we believe the work is more 
efficient than ever. 

What has been saved in supervision has enabled the department 
to do just so much more in cities and towns. With modern con- 
veyances, as with the motor cycle and automobile, the whole prob- 
lem of better supervision and methods has been solved. The im- 
proved spraying machinery and general equipment have revolution- 
ized former practices, as the cost of woodland spraying alone was 
reduced from $40 to about $6.50 an acre. The burlap method of 
treatment is practically a thing of the past, except in certain cases. 
The same amount spent for spraying that was allowed for labor 
and burlap proves more effective in combating the moths. 

At present we have a more definite State policy. The co-opera- 
tive understanding between the State forces and the United States 
government officials is much improved, and it is believed promises 
well for the future. Since the enactment of the law giving the 



82 THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



State Forester the power of approval of local moth superintendents 
the personnel has greatly improved, and their degree of respon- 
sibility has increased. 

Taking the above conditions under consideration, it is believed 
that we may now begin gradually to curtail the present State 
appropriation. 

The State Forester presented a paper entitled " The Gypsy and 
Brown-tail Moth •Situation," before the Society for the Promotion 
of Agricultural Science recently, and as the conclusions may prove 
of interest they are given, as follows: — 

The Future of the Moth Work. 

To predict the future of the moth work I realize is like delving almost 
into the unknown. 

Our people in Massachusetts are great lovers of trees, and forestry 
particularly appeals to them. Wherever I go, however, since the moth 
work has been placed under my supervision, usually the question asked 
me is, "What are the prospects for the control of the gypsy moth?" 

A few of the conditions I desire to call attention to at present are : — 

(1) Massachusetts has been the unfortunate territory in which these 
moths have first established themselves. She can in no waj^ be blamed 
for their existence, any more than Michigan can be held responsible for 
the dread hoof and mouth disease, or the south be blamed for the outbreak 
of the cotton boll weevil or the hook worm. We are to be commiserated 
rather than blamed, for it has been and is yearly a great expense to our 
people. We have had sad experience in the past by giving up the work 
once, when it might have been kept under control at relatively small 
expense, and that experience it is believed is not without value. 

(2) We in Massachusetts, I am inclined to believe, are in a better con- 
dition as regards the future than many of our sister States. We are in a 
position to cope with the situation, while New Hampshire and Maine, for 
example, have been comparatively inactive. If you will examine the map 
showing the infested territory, it is easily seen that the moth is advancing 
rapidly elsewhere than in Massachusetts. New Hampshire has fully as 
much infested territory, if not more, than we have. Massachusetts is 
getting the moth work well in hand in many of her towns and cities, and 
if her people continue to stand by the work, we shall have ere long many 
cities and towns whose liability under our State law will make them self- 
supporting. When a city or town has once reached this condition it 
should be compelled to keep the work up, as it will require but a small 
annual expenditure. 

(3) Massachusetts, even with her heavy expenditure, has been unable 
thus far to prevent the gradual spread westward. We have, however, 
greatly checked the advance, and with our present methods it wdll be 




The standard improved power sprayer, planned and built by the State Forester. 




A close view of the newly invented power-truck sprayer. Same power as the 
above, but does away with horses and driver, and the engineer becomes the 
chauffeur. Tank and pump are easily removed and the truck then is used 
the same as any truck. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



83 



several years before the Berkshires are likely to become generally infested. 
Meanwhile we shall hope to keep it confined to Worcester County. 

(4) In New Hampshire, our sister State to the north, the infestation is 
known to be very general, so that the moths are likely to flank us on the 
north, and sweep down upon our beautiful Berkshires. Already the 
gypsy moth has reached the boundaries of the Connecticut watershed in 
New Hampshire, and the brown-tails are in the valley itself. Under these 
conditions does it not stand to reason that it is only a matter of a com- 
paratively short time when they will, through natural conditions, invade 
Vermont, and follow down the Connecticut valley into Massachusetts, 
and thence into Connecticut? If once these conditions are fulfilled, how, 
may I ask, can we ever expect to keep them out of New York and the 
Adirondacks, and if once there, then throughout the country? 

(5) After studying the evidence I have placed before you I should be 
pleased to have you determine in your own minds whether we do not have 
a national issue before us rather than a State one. While the national 
government is appropriating $300,000 a year at the present, this is far less 
than Massachusetts alone is now spending. It is feared that the govern- 
ment has not comprehended the situation fully, or more vigorous measures 
would have been taken years ago. 

Massachusetts, from her long and varied experience, can give plenty of 
good advice. The work that actually shows results is the practicing of 
modern forestry combined with other well-known methods, such as spray- 
ing, as already suggested. For example, see what Colonel Sohier and the 
residents along the renowned North Shore have accomplished in co- 
operation with the State. The United States government can afford to do 
the work in this way. Many of the New England States cannot, and thus 
will not be able to cope with the problem. 

The question resolves itself down to this, whether it is expedient for 
the national government to handle the problem now, while it is com- 
paratively a simple one, or run the chances of being compelled to do so at 
a great expense later on. 

(6) We are all extremely anxious and desirous that the results from 
parasites, predaceous beetles, diseases, protozoa, climatic conditions, etc., 
may one or all prove to be the great panacea, but nothing thus far has 
shown the degree of efficiency that we desire. 

The State of Massachusetts, as I have already stated, has welcomed 
every possible assistance, and is at the present time co-operating in fur- 
thering every line of investigation that has promise in it. 

(7) In spite of all that has been written and claimed for the parasite 
work, we must realize that it is still in the experimental stage. No one 
anticipated results more than the writer, and it seems self-evident that 
if we can get the natural enemies once established in this country they 
will do the desired work. The more we study the question, however, the 
more problematic it seems. It is now conceded by our best experts, and 
Professor Kincaid in particular, that we must not look for any one insect 



84 



THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 



to do the work, but that, as in Japan and elsewhere in nature, it requires 
a natural sequence of parasites which will attack the moths in the different 
stages of transformation to keep the host under control. 

What is true of parasitism may prove equally true of the diseases. We 
have very encouraging results from both lines of investigation this year 
and the work must be continued. 

Had we depended upon native parasites, as was advocated by some in 
the earlier days, I wonder what conditions our trees and forests in Mas- 
sachusetts would be in to-day. In a few instances it was tried with sad 
experience. 

I am sure that we all will hail the time when these obnoxious pests shall 
be under control. 

Private Property Problem. 
By the provisions of the law under which the work of suppres- 
sion is now being carried on under the direction of this office in 
cities and towns, a considerable amount of work on private estates, 
where the owner or owners neglect to do the same, has to be done 
by the local oflBcials. The amounts charged for this work are col- 
lectible by the city or town, and the total amount in each town 
or city is submitted to this oflSce, to be deducted from the gross 
expenditure in the case of cities or towns which are receiving 
State reimbursement. It oftentimes occurs that there is misunder- 
standing in the submitting of the amount charged to property 
owners, and this has caused this office considerable trouble in the 
past. We have received numerous complaints from property 
owners stating that they were wrongly charged with work, and 
that the city or town employees never were on their estates, or 
that they only have two or three trees, and various other com- 
plaints. We have now issued, instead of a triplicate book for 
charging private work, a book containing four sheets, one of which 
is to be sent to this office; that is, the local superintendent is to 
make out the four sheets at one time, and send the sheet marked 
"to be returned to the State Forester" to this office. These are 
to be sent at least once a week. These sheets are all numbered, 
and the local moth superintendent, when any numbers are skipped, 
must make an explanation of the same, as the sheets will be checked 
up in this office, and all missing numbers must be accounted for. 
Also, it sometimes happens that the property owner is not charged 
as much as he should be, on account of the local superintendent 
not having a thorough knowledge of what the work is worth, and 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



85 



by having this charge sHp returned to this office we shall be able 
to make a thorough examination of all town charges, and we shall 
also be able to check the amount of private work which has been 
charged in each fiscal year. It has been a great handicap to this 
office not to know the amount which has been charged to property 
owners at a time during the year when the town is very much in 
need of such reimbursement as may be due it. 

The black record books, also, should be made up, giving the 
property owners in each city or town, with their liability under 
the law, and these should be in the custody of the foreman or 
local superintendent, so that when entering any estate he may 
know the owner's liability, and not expend too large a sum on 
estates where the liability is very small, and where it will not pay 
for but a small percentage of the work. This is necessary in the 
greater number of the cities and towns receiving reimbursement 
for the past five years, where private property should be on a self- 
supporting basis. If there are any places in any city or town 
which are not at the present self-supporting it is necessary that 
some co-operative arrangement be made to put such estates in a 
condition where the owner's liabihty will pay for all necessary 
work in the future. 

It has often been said that the expense of making up a record 
book, showing the owner's liability, is an unnecessary one, but we 
believe that the small expense which any city or town will be put 
to in having this book properly made up will be greatly offset by 
the economy which may be shown by the local superintendent, or 
foreman, in charge of any gang of men, while doing work on private 
estates. It must also be thoroughly understood by all of the local 
forces that the amount which the property owner is to pay is 
determined by a section of the law under which they are now work- 
ing, and is reckoned as one of the sources of revenue by means of 
which this work is carried on. It is therefore necessary that the 
gross amount should be charged where the work warrants it. 

Auto Truck Sprayer. 
Roadside spraying has at all times been considered an important 
feature of moth suppression work by preventing distribution, 
and the amount of this work has steadily increased from year to 
year. Taking into consideration the limited time during which 



86 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



effective spraying can be accomplished, the State Forester had 
built a power truck sprayer with which it is possible to spray 
both sides of the highway at the same time while traveling. 

One of the serious drawbacks, heretofore, with this type of 
spraying has been the time occupied in going after and returning 
with a load of water. In many cases the distance traveled is over 
5 miles, which would require, with a horse-drawn machine, over 
an hour and a half, while only nineteen minutes was occupied in 
making a round trip of 4.8 miles with this machine, and drafting 
from a brook 400 gallons of water. 

Again, the advantage of this outfit to a city or town is that when 
the spraying season is over the spraying attachment can be re- 
moved and replaced by a regular truck body, thereby converting 
the same into a 3-ton auto truck which may be used by other de- 
partments as well, thereby greatly reducing the cost of teaming. 

Supply Store. 

For the past two years we have been shipping supplies through 
our supply store to the various cities and towns, receiving re- 
imbursement from the State, and have met with very good success. 
The work can be simplified at our supply store, however, if the 
local superintendents will be more careful in submitting orders on 
all articles of hardware. That is, those supplies which are used 
during the entire year more or less should not be ordered in small 
quantities; they should be ordered in large enough quantities to 
last through the year. For instance, in ordering rivets and plugs 
for climbing irons, it is not economy to order one pair; no less than 
six pairs of such articles as these should be ordered. This will 
make oiu- shipping easier and more economical, and simplify the 
checking of accounts to a great extent. Also, during the past 
season many errors occurred when submitting orders in giving the 
wrong number of the article on the order, the result being that 
the local superintendent has received the wrong supplies. These 
orders should be very carefully made up, so that when goods are 
once shipped they will be correct. 

We should be glad at any time when the supplies are not per- 
fectly satisfactory to receive complaints at this ofiice at once, so 
that we may investigate the same without any delay, and if it is 
possible to improve our supplies, do so at once. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



87 



Supplies have been furnished to the following cities and towns : — 



List of Towns receiving Supplies and the Amounts. 



Acton, 


. $169 


40 


Lynnfield, 


. $452 33 


Andover, . 


. 1,470 


82 


Marshfield, 


209 85 


Arlington, 


. 1,096 


62 


Mashpee, . 


95 99 


Ashburnham, 


1 


88 


Maynard, 


26 23 


Ashby, 


25 


37 


Medford, . 


. 1,436 07 


Ashland, . 


38 


60 


Merrimac, 


107 84 


Avon, 


59 


63 


Methuen, . 


. 2,301 56 


Bedford, . 


. 2,028 


38 


Middleborough, 


. 2,144 57 


Belmont, . 


15 


10 


Middleton, 


104 13 


Berlin, 


152 


24 


Milton, 


. 3,921 85 


Billerica, . 


474 


53 


Natick, 


499 11 


Bolton, 


81 


44 


Needham, 


547 36 


Boston, 




61 


Newbury, . 


358 17 


Boxborough, 


114 


00 


Newton, . 


. 9,496 96 


Boxford, . 


508 


09 


North Andover, 


318 37 


Brookline, 




69 


North Reading, 


812 66 


Bridgewater, 


3 


45 


Norwell, . 


. 2,600 19 


Burlington, 


303 


51 


Pembroke, 


97 55 


Canton, 


93 


45 


Pepperell, . 


85 79 


Carlisle, 


644 


77 


Plympton, 


85 79 


Carver, 


46 


65 


Raynham, 


45 90 


Charlton, . 


1 


25 


Reading, . 


. 1,698 14 


Chelmsford, 


. 2,130 


49 


Rockport, . 


. 1,850 11 


Cohasset, . 


804 


40 


Rowley, . 


315 22 


Concord, . 


. 1,380 


75 


Salisbury, . 


226 04 


Danvers, . 


. 1,036 


95 


Sandwich, . 


17 40 


Dracut, 


146 


43 


Saugus, 


. 1,083 44 


Dunstable, 


102 


39 


Scituate, . 


618 83 


Duxbury, . 


69 


56 


Sherborn, . 


120 19 


East Bridgewater, 


146 


55 


Shirley. . 


68 42 


Essex, 


157 


46 


Southborough, . 


223 61 


Fitchburg, 


1 


62 


Sterling, . 


145 02 


Georgetown, 


358 


13 


Stoneham, 


678 20 


Gloucester, 


. 1,825 


81 


Stow, 


145 09 


Groton, 


524 


42 


Sudbury, , 


107 32 


Groveland, 


160 


08 


Tewksbury, 


292 57 


Halifax, 


14 


95 


Topsfield, . 


348 91 


Hamilton, 


. 2,176 


99 


Townsend, 


57 70 


Hanover, . 


107 


09 


Tyngsborough, . 


303 50 


Hanson, 


100 


47 


Wakefield, 


887 23 


Harvard, . 


173 


14 


Waltham, 


. 1,054 13 


Haverhill, 


2 


04 


Wa.yland, . 


952 13 


Hingham, 


10 


48 


Wenham, . 


731 72 


Hudson, . 


3 


93 


West Bridgewater, 


66 20 


Ipswich, . 


744 


99 


West Newbury, 


288 15 


Kingston, . 


59 


85 


Westford, . 


. 1,972 91 


Leominster, 


1 


80 


Weston, 


. 3,028 86 


Lexington, 


. 2,520 


52 


Wilmington, 


. 1,078 44 


Lincoln, 


. 1,722 


82 


Woburn, . 


. 3,306 59 


Littleton, . 


176 


64 


Worcester, 


35 


Lowell, 


149 


51 






Lunenburg, 


71 


47 




$71,360 10 



88 THE STATE FORESTER. [Jan. 

Experimental work, Concord, ........ $3 84 

Forest fire work, .......... 3 75 

Massachusetts Highway Commission, ...... 259 69 

North Shore work, .......... 19,224 03 

Parasite work, .......... 236 56 

Reforestation work, ......... 20 52 

Salem Cadet grounds, Boxford, ....... 30 84 

South Shore work, .......... 2,544 10 

Traveling pump, 318 76 

Traveling sprayer, Cape Cod, ........ 224 50 

Traveling sprayers, (2 and 8), . . . . . , . . 184 46 

Traveling sprayer, (4) 50 50 

Traveling sprayer, Andover, etc., ....... 23 60 

Traveling sprayer, Burlington, Pine Banks, ..... 197 28 

Traveling sprayer, Pepperell, . . . . . . . . 2 61 

Traveling sprayer, Weston, . . . . . . . . 69 21 



Total, $95,024 35 



Parasite Work. 

Report of Dr. L. 0. Howard, Chief of the Bureau of Entomology, 

Washingon, D. C. 

United States Department of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Entomology, Washington, D. C, Dec. 15, 1911. 

Prof. F. W. Rane, State Forester, Boston, Mass. 

Dear Sir: — In accordance with your request I submit the following 
brief report on the operations carried on co-operatively between the 
Bureau of Entomology, United States Department of Agriculture, and 
your office in the effort to import and acclimatize the natural enemies 
of the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth. 

Respectfully yours, 

L. 0. Howard, 
Chief of Bureau. 

Some innovations have been made during the past year in the course 
of this work, and additions have been made to the force, until during the 
last summer no less than 37 men were employed to. carry on the work at 
the laboratory and make necessary investigations in the field. The im- 
portation of the winter nests of the brown-tail moths has been discon- 
tinued, since it was found in 1910 that all of the species of parasites which 
could be secured from such nests had already been brought over and 
liberated. Observations made the past summer have indicated that this 
course was fully justified, and we have found that all of the parasites 
which were introduced in this way during previous years have established 
themselves, and have dispersed over the infested territory in a very satis- 
factory manner. 



1912.1 PUBLIC DOCmiENT — No. 73. 



89 



The present range of many of the introduced species has been followed 
and mapped, and some extraordinary instances of dispersion have been 
found. For example, Monodontomerus mreus, which attacks the gypsy 
and brown-tail moths in the pupal stage, is now to be found practically 
over the whole of eastern Massachusetts, in several towns near Providence, 
R. I., through the southern part of New Hampshire, and into eastern 
Maine to a point nearly to Bangor. Another species, the Pteromalus 
egregiuSj referred to in previous reports, and which destroys the brown- 
tail caterpillars in the winter web, has been found in small numbers over 
a widely scattered area in Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Maine. 
Two other species have greatly increased their range; these are Apanteles 
lacteicolor and Meteorus versicolor. Two of the tachinids have been re- 
covered this year for the first time. The Calosoma beetle has shown 
a notable increase, and in the whole infested section where it has been 
found abundantly during the present season, enormous imoads have 
been made on the gypsy moth caterpillars and pupae, and in some cases it 
has been difficult to collect pupae even in areas that were quite badly in- 
fested in the early summer, this result being due entirely to the good work 
done by this beetle, which will obviously become a powerful force in help- 
ing to hold the gypsy moth in check. 

A very encouraging feature of the summer's work has been the recovery 
in large numbers of the Japanese egg parasite of the gypsy moth, known as 
Schedius kuvance. This insect, reared two years ago in enormous numbers 
in confinement, was liberated in great quantity. At one time it appeared 
as though it was lost, and would not stand the New England winter. Dur- 
ing the autumn of the present year, however, field observations showed 
that it has practically become established, and that in some localities 30 
per cent, of the eggs in a given mass had been destroyed by it. Another 
egg parasite, the Anastatus, is reproducing very satisfactorily under 
natural out-of-door conditions. Its spread is slow, and it does not develop 
in large numbers rapidly as it has only one generation a year. 

Of the new importations of the year, a tachinid fiy, known as Eudoro- 
myia magnicornis, has been brought over in large numbers. Seven thou- 
sand specimens have been liberated this year. 

One of the innovations of the year was not to rely so much on foreign 
agents, but to send one of our own best men to do active field work. Mr. 
W. F. Fiske, in charge of the gypsy moth parasite laboratory at Melrose 
Highlands, Mass., was placed in southern Italy, and remained there 
until July, Mr. A. F. Burgess being left in charge of the laboratory. Mr. 
Fiske's efforts were very successful indeed, and he sent over in large num- 
bers four species parasitic on gypsy moth caterpillars, and another one 
which attacks gypsy moth pupae. Practically all of them arrived in ex- 
cellent condition, owang to the superior manner in which they were packed 
and shipped. Of one of the species, Mr. Burgess was able to liberate 
23,000 adults; of another, 10,000. 

Partly as the result of the excellence of Mr. Fiske's work in Italy and 



90 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



of the growing appreciation of the desirability of studying gypsy moth 
conditions, particularly in relation to parasitism, in the native home of 
the species, with the expectation of getting practical information of value, 
and perhaps of being able to import parasites which have not yet been re- 
ceived, and of which even existence has not been suspected, Mr. Fiske 
has been sent back to Europe and will be given two or three American 
assistants. The winter will be spent in locating places where the gypsy 
moth may reasonably be expected to be more or less abundant during the 
coming season, and other places where it may seem desirable to work 
during the early summer. It is hoped and expected that the results of 
this expedition will fully justify the expense. 

The Wilt Disease. 

Experiments have been carried on with what is known as the 
gypsy moth wilt disease for the past two years, and last season it 
was believed that some very good results had been obtained in 
several places. We have a representative from this ojBfice canvass- 
ing the cities and towns where bad infestations occur, and making 
arrangements for plantings of this disease in quantities on large 
areas the coming season. The disease work will be prosecuted on 
a much larger scale the coming season than ever before, so as to 
determine as certainly as possible what results we can hope for 
from the same. Material for plantings will be plentiful, as arrange- 
ments are now being made to have a very large amount on hand 
at the time when needed. It is hoped that the local superintend- 
ents will give as much time as they can to watching the develop- 
ments of this disease, and make a very careful report as to its 
effects, whether a success or a failure. It is very necessary that 
these reports be authentic, as much depends upon them for future 
work along this line. The diseased material will probably be 
delivered to towns through our district superintendents, or other 
representatives of this office, so that it may be in the best of con- 
dition for planting. Special instructions in the planting of this 
material can be had at this office on application. This material 
should not be planted in residential sections. It should be used 
mostly on wooded areas for the next season, until more definite 
results can be determined. 

Dr. W. M. Wheeler of the Bussey Institute of Harvard University 
and his assistant, Mr. William ReifT; have co-operated with the 
State Forester throughout this year as last. Mr. Reiff had charge 
of the greenhouse work w^hereby material was bred and dissemi- 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



91 



nated in the early season, and he supervised the work throughout 
the year. Mr. Reiff is now in Germany studying the disease, and 
will return early in the year to take up the work again on a more 
extensive scale, as indicated above. 

The bulletin on this subject written by Mr. William Reiff and 
published by this department has been of much assistance in 
educating our people as to the importance of this work in control- 
ling the gypsy moth. 

The Fungous Diseases of the Brown-tail and the Gypsy 

Moths. 

The same arrangements that were made last year with Dean 
W. C. Sabine and Dr. Roland Thaxter of Harvard University 
have been continued throughout the past season. Mr. A. T. 
Speare resigned, and Mr. R. H. Colley, an assistant to Dr. Thaxter, 
was appointed to fill the position. Mr. Colley has under preparation 
a report concerning this work up to date, which will probably 
appear in a few months. More plantings of the brown-tail fungus 
have been made than ever, with apparently excellent results. The 
fact that the brown-tail moth is disseminated by flight makes 
its control the more difficult. The fungous disease of the gypsy 
moth is still in the experimental stage. 

North Shore Work. 

The excellent work that has been carried on in recent years on 
the North Shore has continued in its effectiveness throughout the 
past season. The summer residents committees, the towns and 
the State Forester's department have co-operated as heretofore 
during the year. The State Forester is particularly under obliga- 
tion to Col. Wm. D. Sohier for his unfailing public-spirited in- 
terest in the work in this section of the State. 

The following is a reproduction of that portion of the summer 
residents committees' report that relates to the moth and forestry 
work: — 

Gypsy Moth and Road Work on the North Shore. 
General Purposes. 

For the fourth season your committees have done their best to preserve 
the forests on the North Shore, especially those directly back of the 
valuable shore property, and also a strip from 100 to 200 feet wide on the 
sides of all our beautiful wooded drives. 



92 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



What was at first a theory based upon the experience of others now seems 
to be a demonstrated fact, and that is that with comprehensive, thorough 
and scientific work the woods upon the North Shore, where such work 
can be done, can be preserved. 

Half measures are of hardly anj'- value. To secure results all of the 
woodland in a given area must be well taken care of, because if any of it 
is left in bad condition the moths will inevitably spread on to all the 
surrounding land, rendering the work done there of no value. 

Scope of the Work. 

Therefore, your committees have continued their policy of the last 
two years of concentrating their efforts in preserving the woods directly 
back of the shore for a reasonable distance, co-operating with the sub- 
scribers where thorough work was being done by them, and only small 
areas remained to be done to clear up a block, and attempting to preserve 
a strip of woodland alongside our beautiful wooded drives. Such a strip 
has been cleared upon something over 30 miles of road. 

Work has been done all the way from Beverly nearly to Gloucester 
harbor. The city of Gloucester co-operated by putting into the State 
treasury $2,500 to be used in the North Shore gypsy moth work, and the 
State, through Governor Foss, put in an equal amount and a like sum 
was raised from the summer residents at Magnolia. Almost all of the work 
there was done on the land adjoining the sea and directly back of it and 
on the sides of the State highway down beyond Fresh Water Cove. 

By another year, if the work is continued, we shall have nearly a con- 
tinuous block of woodland cleaned up. 

Parasites, 

Many parasites have been put out in various places in the back woods. 
It is too early to say how the different kinds will thrive and what they will 
accomplish, but by next season we hope to see good results. The so- 
called wilt disease was not as prevalent this year as in former years, prob- 
ably because of the dry season. It did, however, kill many caterpillars 
in some of the back colonies. 

The parasites have all been set out in woods that were not to be sprayed 
and where they could develop freely. As soon as they do develop they will 
spread on to the adjoining property, and thereby diminish the work which 
has to be done to preserve the woods. 

Nature of the Work. 
The work has been the same this year as in former years, and consisted 
of clearing out the underbrush and poorer trees in order to be able to spray 
economically and to do thorough work in creosoting. In the bad colonies 
the eggs have been creosoted, in some cases the ground has been burned, 
and then as early in the season as possible the woods have been sprayed. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



93 



Present Conditions. 

Conditions throughout the territory, as a whole, are better than they 
have ever been. The warm, dry season, however, made the caterpillars 
on some places pupate earlier than usual, and the result was that a few 
of the colonies have more nests now than they had last year, because it 
was impossible to spray them early enough in the season to kill all the 
caterpillars before they pupated. 

Over 3,300 acres were sprayed during the season. At one time there 
were over twelve spraying machines actively at work. 

We found that our new spraying machines were doing much more effi- 
cient and economical work than the older ones. They actually threw over 
the tops of the trees, and made a finer spray, and were more economical 
because, with their additional power, nearly double the territory could 
be covered in one day with the same labor cost. 

How the Money was secured. 
The same arrangement that has been made with the Commonwealth 
in former years was continued. The State Forester's department took 
charge of the entire work, and the following appropriations were secured: — 



From the city of Beverly $5,000 

From the town of Manchester, ........ 5,000 

From the city of Gloucester, ........ 2,500 

From the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, ..... 12,500 

Contributed by your committees, ....... 12,500 



$37,500 

This money was all paid into the State treasury for moth work on the 
North Shore, to be used by the State Forester's department. His Excel- 
lency Governor Foss has at all times been interested and ready to co- 
operate with the efforts of your committees. Had it not been for this co- 
operation it seems likely that the work would have had to be discontinued, 
in which case our forests would have been destroyed. 

The balance of the money necessary for the work was provided one- 
half by the Commonwealth and one-half by your committees. 

Persons in Charge of the Actual Work. 

The actual work was in charge of the State Forester's department, 
under Mr. F. W. Rane. Mr. L. H. Worthley, superintendent of the brown- 
tail and gypsy moth work, supervised and laid out the work, and he was 
most ably assisted by Mr. Saul Phillips, Mr. William A. Hatch and Mr. 
Walter F. Holmes. We certainly owe these gentlemen a debt of gratitude 
for the preservation of our woods. But for their efforts and indefatigable 
attention many of our forests would have been destroyed. 

In the spraying season, which is all too short, the work is extremely 
arduous. It was no unusual occurrence for some of the men in charge 



94 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



of the machines to work practically all night in order to repair a spraying 
machine so that it would be ready for use the next day. They realize 
much more fully than we do that a day's delay might mean the destruction 
of 10 to 20 acres of woods. They were interested in their work, and the 
territory was most efficiently covered by the inspectors, all of whom had 
motor cycles. 

The Work accomplished. 

Roughly speaking, about 1,000 acres of woodland were cleared and 
sprayed in 1908, about 2,100 acres in 1909, about 3,000 acres in 1910, 
and over 3,200 acres in 1911. The cost of the work is of interest, being 
approximately as follows : — 



1,000 acres in 1908, $60,000 

2,100 acres in 1909, 60,000 

3,000 acres in 1910 57,000 

3,200 acres in 1911, 54,500 



The acreage covered in 1911 was over three times that cared for in 1908, 
and the total expenditure somewhat smaller. 

Cost of the Work. 

According to the report of the State Superintendent, the cost of the 
work this year was as follows: — 

In Gloucester 100 acres cut and burned, 171 acres creosoted and 472 
acres sprayed, at a total cost of $6,251.40. 

In Beverly, Manchester and the adjoining woods 494 acres cut, burned 
and many of them creosoted, 1,920 acres creosoted and 2,742 acres sprayed, 
at a total cost of $35,987.20 (not including plant and some materials). 

Expenditures. 

The expenditures this year were $54,580, but we have on hand tools 
and equipment which are worth nearly $10,000, which should be deducted 
from the first amount to show the actual cost of the work. 



Expenditures from July 16, 1910, to July 22, 1911, . $35,963 96 

Cost of tools, spraying machines, etc., . . . 18,616 43 

■ $54,580 39 

Value of tools and supplies on hand, ...... 9,768 33 



Actual cost of work, not including plant, ..... $44,812 06 

Details of Cost of the Work. 

Spraying, $21,532 50 

Tanglefooting 953 62 

Road building 432 75 

Cutting and burning, 14,889 10 

Creosoting, 6,843 33 

Collecting egg clusters of gypsy moth for laboratory, . . . 31 25 



$44,682 55 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



95 



Average Cost of Work, 



Spraying 3,215 acres, 
Creosoting 2,105 acres, 
Cutting 587 acres, . 



$6 70 per acre. 

3 25 per acre. 
25 34 per acre. 



These costs do not include tools, plant, etc., merely labor and materials. 

Where work was done on private estates, which was only in the back 
woods, where it came in connection with other work which your com- 
mittees were doing, the money is being repaid by the owners when they 
are able to do so. 

Co-operation by the Commonwealth and the Cities and Towns. 
Your committees feel that the summer residents owe a great deal to 
Governor Foss and his State officials, the mayor and city government of 
Beverly, the selectmen of Manchester, and the mayor and city council of 
Gloucester, for their generous help and co-operation, which alone enabled 
your committees to do systematic, thorough and efficient work against 
the gypsy moth under one responsible head, and without regard to town 
lines. In no other way could our forests and beautiful shore have been 
preserved. 

It requires a large amount of pluck, as well as sound business judgment 
on the part of city and town officials in these days, to authorize the spend- 
ing of the money in their charge by an outside committee or commissioner, 
or by others than town and city officials. We believe, however, that the 
results obtained are ample justification of their action. 

A few photographs are printed herewith showing the work in progress. 



Our forests can be preserved if the necessary money is provided and 
the work continued on the lines on which it has been begun. 

Your committees hope that the subscribers, the Commonwealth and 
the cities and towns will co-operate in the future as they have in the past. 
They hope that every resident and summer resident on the North Shore 
who has enjoyed our woods, our trees and our dustless roads, and who has 
not yet subscribed or who has not yet given his fair share toward this 
work, will co-operate by sending a check to Wm. D. Sohier, agent, 15 
Ashburton Place, Boston, Mass. 

A list of the subscribers is pubhshed herewith. 



Our Hopes for the Future. 



Wm. D. Sohier, 
For the Committees. 



Beverly. 
Oliver Ames. 
Charles H. Tyler. 
Wm. D. Sohier. 



Manchester. 



Maj. Henry L. Higginson. 
Gardiner M. Lane. 
George Wigglesworth. 
Summer Residents Committees. 



96 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Subscriptions for Gypsy Moth Work on the North Shore, Oct. 1, 1911. 



Beverly. 



Hoiiry Cl3.y Frick, . 




F. J. and Alice Cotting, 


$iZO 


xiuu. vv III. XX. ivxuorc, 


1,UUU 


Harold J. Coolidge, ^ 


1 on 
iuu 


VV m. o. unci j . i . opauiaing, 


ouU 


The Misses Paine, 


1 on 

iUU 


VV lllldilll H/IltllCOXt, 


OUU 


The Misses Loring, 


iUU 


JLvxio. v_/Xi£t.i5. xi. u<xi\jyjii, . 


Ann 
^uu 


Augustus P. Loring, 


1 no 

IUU 


Dudley L. Pickman, ^ 


oUU 


Allen Curtis, 


1 nn 

IUU 


\yOl. V_/. IN . VV allium, . 


ouu 


i^oi. \y. 1j. X eirson. 


1 nn 
xuu 


TnTin T. Sal-f-nne+oll 1 
UUllU J_l. Odl lOIllblclll, 


zou 


Charles J. Morse, ^ 


1 nn 

IUU 


Amory A. Lawrence, 


zou 


ivirs. III. X . iviotiey. 


1 nn 

IUU 


v_yxiaiie!5 XX. xyier, . 


zou 


M^rs. Nicholas Longworth, 


1 nn 

iUU 


ijreorge o. iviancieii, 




Mrs. James F. Curtis, 


1 nn 

IUU 


ivxi&o X ctiiUlc Jr. ivxa&ou. 




Francis I. Amory, . 


1 nn 


T>r>KoT+ S Tir-Qrlloir 1 

xvoocrt o. xjiaQiey, . 


zou 


Robert H. Bancroft, 


1 nn 

IUU 


r. L. Higginson, . . 


zou 


ivxrb. Kj . XX. onaw, . 


1 nn 


XXCl Ucl I; iVX. Ocdlb, . 


ZOU 


Frederick R. Sears, ^ . 


1 nn 
xuu 


Bryce J . Allan, ^ . . 


zou 


ivirs. Jx. ivx. xviciaer, . 


1 nn 

lUU 


Alexander Coclirane, . 


zou 


S. Reed Anthony, . 


1 nn 
xuu 


Frederick Ayer, . . 


ZOyJ 


TVm. A. Gardner, . . 


1 nn 

xuu 


xvooert oaitonsuaii, 




xiiState 01 ivirs. j. jj. ousuee. 


1 nn 
xuu 


u. xierDert xiostetter, 


zov 


A. Shuman, . . . 


1 nn 

IUU 


Quincy A. Shaw Estate, 


zou 


George A. Goddard, ^ . 


100 


Francis Bartlett, 


zov 


Hon. George H. Lyman, 


1 nn 
xuu 


wmiam Jrmiiips, 




Leonard Ahl, . 


1 nn 

IUU 


Washington B. Thomas, ^ 




James L. Paine, . . 


t;n 
ou 


Hon. Wm. C. Loring, 




X . xioiianaer, . , 


ou 


Dr. Henry F. Sears, ^ 


zou 


Gordon Dexter, . . 


«JU 


v^naries u. oias, . , 


zou 


TT T~> (^ViorM'n 

XX. u. onapin. 


ou 


Charles H. Tweed, 


250 


Mrs. J. C. Phillips, 


50 


Wm. D. Sohier, i . 


250 


Oliver W. Holmes, 


50 


Thomas P. Beal, i 


200 


Mrs. F. H. Peabody, 


50 


Neal Rantoul, ^ 


200 


Charles K. Cummings, . 


25 


Mrs. R. D. Evans, 


200 


Mrs. Hall Curtis, . 


50 


Mr. and Mrs. H. P. King, 


200 


Mrs. Robert C. Heaton, ^ 


50 


Mrs. John S. Curtis, 


150 


A. C. Ratshesky, ^ 


25 


Philip S. Sears, 


150 


Amos A. Lawrence, 


50 


Miss Frances R. Morse, 


100 






W. B. P. Weeks, i 


100 


Total, . 


S14,675 




Manchester. 




L/ester Jjelana, 


$500 


W. D. Denegre, 


$ZOU 


(jrcorge K. Wnite, . 


500 


Harrison K. Caner, 


of;n 

ZOKJ 


Charles E. Cotting, 


500 


Mrs. Henrietta G. Fitz, 


250 


George N. Black, . 


500 


H. L. Higginson, . 


250 


Mrs. R. C. Winthrop, . 


250 


Gardiner M. Lane, 


250 


George Wigglesworth, 


250 


Louis Cabot, 


250 


William B. Walker, 


250 


John L. Thorndike, 


250 


Mrs. Henry S. Grew, 


250 


Miss Amy Curtis, . 


200 


Edward S. Grew, . 


250 


Mrs. J. L. Bremer, 


200 


F. M. Whitehouse, 


250 


Walter J. Mitchell, 


200 


Mrs. James McMillan, . 


250 


Mrs. S. Parkman Blake, ^ 


200 


Gordon Abbott, 


250 


T. Jefferson Coolidge, Jr., ^ 


200 



1 Available for either moth or road work. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



97 





McmchcstBT — 


— Concluded. 




R. T. Paine, 2d, . 


$150 


George Putnam, . 


$100 


Mrs. C. P. Hemenway, . 


150 


The Misses Bartlett, 


50 


Dr. R. H. Fitz, 


100 


Mrs. George D. Howe, . 


50 


William Hooper, . 


100 


The Misses Sturgis, 


50 


Ezra C. Fitch, 


100 


Richard Stone, 


50 


S. H. Fessenden, , 


100 


Wm. A. Tucker, . 


50 


Thornton K. Lothrop, . 


100 


Roland C. Lincoln, 


50 


Alex. S. Porter, Jr., 


100 


Mrs. S. V. R. Crosby, . 


50 


Samuel Carr, 


100 


Wm. L. Putnam, . 


50 


Thomas B. Gannett, 


100 


Nelson S. Bartlett, 


25 


Richard H. Dana, . 


100 


Richard J. Monks, 


25 


T. Jefferson Coolidge, . 


100 


Russell Tyson, 


26 


Estate of Myron C. Wick, 


100 


Mrs. James T. Fields, . 


25 


Amory Eliot, 


100 


John H. Storer, 


10 


Mrs. Harriet Curtis, 


100 


Arthur M. Merriam, 


10 


T. Dennie Boardman, . 


100 






Clement S. Houghton, . 


100 


Total, . 


. $9,170 




Magnolia. 




John Hays Hammond, . 


$500 


Mrs. Wm. McMillan, 


$100 


Wm. H. Coolidge, 


250 


George F. Willett, 


100 


John T. Morse, Jr., 


250 


George E. Carter, 


100 


Miss Elizabeth Houghton, 


250 


Mrs. R. McM. Colfelt, . 


100 


Miss Fannie Faulkner, . 


200 


George A. Upton, 


75 


Oceanside Hotel, . 


200 


James S. Lee, 


50 


J. Harrington Walker, . 


100 


Mrs. C. H. Bull, . 


50 


Mrs. Mary D. Turnbull, 


100 






Wm. R. Nelson, . 


100 


Total, . 


. $2,625 


Edward C. Richardson, 


100 







Work in the South Shore Woodlands. 
The infestation of the gypsy moth for the past two years has 
increased considerably in the South Shore woodlands, especially 
in those located in the town of Cohasset. During the past season 
their ravages became so severe that several of the citizens, who are 
much interested in the woodland areas, not only in those bordering 
on their own property but also in others that add inuch to the 
beauty of the town, making up a committee representing the sum- 
mer colony at Cohasset, took up the matter of making a co- 
operative arrangement with this office, and with the consent of 
His Excellency such an arrangement was made to take up the 
work under the direction of this office. The infestations being 
severe in several localities, the worst places were considered first, 
and 62 acres were thinned and brush burned, 245 acres sprayed, 
and 108 acres creosoted, with very fair results. 



98 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



The principal reason why better results were not obtained was 
that not enough money was available to carry on the work to com- 
pletion. It is conceded that a great amount of good was done 
and results were accomplished that show those interested what 
can be done if funds are available to carry on the work in a proper 
manner. In some parts of the woods there was considerable 
stripping, and a great deal more work should be done here, as the 
woodlands are appreciated by the summer residents. It is be- 
lieved that in the coming year much more work will be done along 
this line, and probably be done in a more systematic way, so as to 
give protection to those who are willing to care for their own estates 
to a reasonable extent. 

Work on State Highways. 

During the fiscal year of 1911 the work on the State highways 
has been supervised by this ofiice as in previous years, and we 
have given it our best attention. Not onl}^ has work been done 
against the gypsy and brown-tail moths, but we have also worked 
against the elm-leaf beetle in the moth-infested section of the 
State. The condition of the State highways at the present time is 
very much improved, as far as the gypsy and brown-tail moth 
infestation is concerned, and is not at all serious. A general in- 
festation of the elm-leaf beetle occurs throughout the district on 
the highways, and in most places is serious, and will necessitate 
very careful spraying during the next summer season. 

The amount expended this year is somewhat increased over the 
previous year, owing to the fact that in 1910 the government took 
care of several miles of State highways which had been turned 
over to the care of the highway department during this year. 

The necessary thinning in nearly all of the moth-infested dis- 
trict on the highways has been completed, and in some sections 
considerable spraying was done, especially in the Cape district, 
where the work was done in more towns in a much more thorough 
manner at somewhat less cost than the previous year. 

There still remains much to be done in the way of removing 
dead wood on the State highways. This would make the work 
much easier during the next summer season, and a great part of 
it could be done during the winter. There are several dead trees 
which must be removed, and this work will be supervised by this 
office. 



The power-truck sprayer in action, throw- 
ing two streams and traveling at the 
rate of 4 or 5 miles an hour. 




Gypsy moth caterpillars dying from the wilt disease, or flacherie. 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 99 



Very little of the winter work has been done as yet,, owing to 
the fact that last year's appropriations were exhausted early in 
the season. The work was done at a total cost of $7,641.44 in the 
following cities and towns: — 



Abington. 


Harvard. 


Rockland. 


Acton. 


Harwich. 


Rowley. 


Amesbury. 


Haverhill. 


Salisbury. 


Andover. 


Hudson. 


Scituate. 


Ashby. 


Kingston- 


Shrewsbury. 


Ashland. 


Lake ville. 


Somerset. 


Attleborough. 


Lancaster. 


Southborough. 


Barnstable. 


Leominster. 


Sterling. 


Bedford. 


Lincoln. 


Stoneham. 


Bellingham. 


Littleton. 


Sudbury. 


Billerica. 


Mansfield. 


Sutton. 


Boxborough. 


Marion. 


Swampscott. 


Braintree. 


Marlborough. 


Swansea. 


Brewster. 


Marshfield. 


Taunton. 


Bridgewater. 


Methuen. 


Templeton. 


Brockton. 


Middleborough. 


Tewksbury. 


Chatham. 


Millbury. 


Townsend. 


Chelmsford. 


Milton. 


Tyngsborough. 


Concord. 


Natick. 


Way land. 


Dennis. 


Needham. 


West Bridgewater. 


Dighton. 


Newbury. 


West Newbury. 


Dracut. 


North Andover. 


Westford. 


Duxbury. 


North Attleborough. 


Weston. 


Falmouth. 


Northborough. 


Weymouth. 


Foxborough. 


Norton. 


W^ilmington. 


Framingham. 


Orleans. 


Winchester. 


Franklin. 


Pepperell. 


Woburn. 


Groton. 


Randolph. 


Worcester. 


Groveland. 


Reading. 


Wrentham. 


Hamilton. 


Rehoboth. 


Yarmouth. 



Infantile Paralysis. 

In view of the fact that a feeling has been entertained by some 
people in the State that infantile paralysis has been caused in 
some instances by arsenate of lead used in spraying for the gypsy 
and brown-tail moths, the State Forester has caused a rigid in- 
vestigation to be made in order to determine if there is any foun- 
dation upon which to base such fears. As a result of his research 
he is firmly convinced that the use of arsenate of lead has in no 
way been responsible for the existence of the disease, and appre- 
hends no danger in the future from its use. His conclusions are 
grounded upon the following facts. 

The reports for the State Board of Health for the last three years . 
show that the largest number of cases have occurred in sections 



100 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



of the State where very little sprajdng was done. For instance, 
marked epidemic centers existed in Springfield and Fall River in 
1910, where no work is carried on against the gypsy and brown- 
tail moths, over 300 cases being reported there, while from the 
cities and towns along the North Shore, where very extensive 
operations were carried on, only 1 or 2 cases of the disease appeared 
during the year. 

The State Forester is informed by leading physicians of the 
State, who have given the question very careful study, that they 
have been unable to discover the slightest connection between 
the disease and the use of insecticides. 

Along the North Shore, where scores of men are employed an- 
nually during the spraxdng season, no injurious effects from the 
poison have ever been reported, although their clothing is often 
completely covered with the mixture. It is not an uncommon 
thing for them to mix the solution with their hands and arms bare. 
Thus it would seem that any anxiety concerning the danger from 
the use of arsenate of lead is entirely unwarranted. 

Moth Conditions in Cities and Towns. 
The conditions of the moth work at the present in cities and 
towns in the infested district are given herewith so that those in- 
terested may know. These reports have been carefully prepared 
by men who are familiar vdth. the same. They are arranged alpha- 
betically, as follows: — 

Ahington. — The g>T)sy moth infestation is quite general, although no 
severe colonies as yet exist. The work has been carried on in a very 
creditable manner, and good results have been obtained. The shade 
trees in the town are in very good condition. Much interest has been 
taken in general, and the town should be handled for a considerable time 
on its own liability. The brown-tail moth situation is serious. 

Acton. — The g^'psy moth infestation is severe in this town. Consider- 
able thinning is necessary along the roadsides, and also much sprajdng 
should be done next season. The work has been managed fairly well, and 
considerable interest taken by propert}^ owners. There are many orchards 
in the town, all more or less infested Vv^ith the gypsy moth. The brown-tail 
moth infestation is bad. 

Acushnet. — The gypsy moth occurred in this town during the past 
season in six places, and these colonies were sprayed, with very good re- 
sults. Burlaps were also used. A few scattering caterpillars were found 
in this way. The brown-tail moth is generally scattered over the entire 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCOIEXT — Xo. 73. 



101 



town, and sufficient attention must be given it to prevent stripping in 
some of the pear orchards. The fall work has not yet begun, but the 
work must be carried on in a very efficient manner, in order not to show 
an increase in the gj^psy moth infestation. We hope that the officials in 
charge will give it every attention necessar5\ 

Amesbury. — The town is generally infested. The highways have been 
cleaned, sprayed and bush scythe work has been done where needed, and 
trees throughout the town are in good condition. Badly infested willows 
on Middle Street, Southampton Road and Exeter Road have been cut. 
More cutting probably be needed next yea.T on the wooded roads. The 
brown-tail moth infestation is generally light, though a bad section was 
found in the oak woodlands off Fern Avenue, in which the fungous disease 
was planted with prospects of good results. No reimbursement is needed 
from the State. 

Andorer. — This town is general!}^ infested, severely in some localities. 
The residential section is in a very fair condition. Very good work was 
done in the past season, and good results obtained, although there are 
many woodland areas where the infestation is very severe, and where 
it must continue so, owing to the fact that the necessary funds to care for 
them cannot be. provided by either town or State. Good interest has 
been shown in the work in the town, especially by some of the private 
property owners, and the local officials have been glad to co-operate in 
any way which was suggested by this office. The cost of the work in this 
town for the coming season will probably be less than in the past. The 
brown-tail moth infestation is lighter than in the past seasons. 

Arlington. — The residential section of Arlington is in as good con- 
dition as regards gypsy moths as that of any town in the State. There 
are some wooded areas, however, which have not been cleared, owing to 
the fact that sufficient money could not be obtained either from the town 
or State. The super\ision of the work is excellent, and all town officials 
co-operate with the State. The street trees of this town are in such good 
condition that it will be necessary to spray with arsenate of lead but 
very little the coming season, and therefore it will be necessary for the 
town to take some action relative to its elm-leaf beetle work, as it has 
done in the past. 

Ashbumham. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is generally 
scattered, and in the past season was very light. The work was supervised 
in a very thorough and efficient manner, although the town is handicapped 
by spread from southern towns where severe infestations occur. 

Ashbjj. — The infestation in this town the past season was general but 
light, and promises to be a great deal worse this next year. The work is 
not super^-ised in a thorough maimer, and it is recommended by this office 
that some change be made in order that the work ma}' be conducted in a 
more effective and careful manner. This is very essential, OT\'ing to the 
fact that this town is so located as to be subject continually to infestation 
from the natural spread of the insects. 



102 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Ashland. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is quite general 
and has increased somewhat over last year. The brown-tail moth in- 
festation shows quite an increase. There are several orchards where gypsy 
moth infestations occurred where tin patching will be necessary the 
coming season. The past season considerable burlapping was done, and 
owing to the increased infestation it probably will be necessary to do more 
spraying and less burlapping for the year, in that way not increasing the 
cost of the work to any extent. A very close watch must be kept on the 
gypsy moth infestation, owing to the large amount of wooded areas in this 
town. 

Athol. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town was confined to 4 
colonies last season. These colonies were burlapped and carefully attended 
during the season by the local force. The super\4sion was of a very good 
qualitj^, and good results have been obtained as far as can be determined. 
This town will be taken care of this year by the government scouts. 

Attlehorough. — About three-fourths of the town has been scouted, and 
7 new infestations found, 1 of them being very bad. While the infestation 
is not really severe at the present time, a very close watch must be kept 
of the known colonies. They should be sprayed the coming season, and 
possibly some burlapping done. The work has been carried along in a 
creditable manner, although the local force has but very little experience 
in the gypsy moth work. 

Auburn. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is confined to 8 
infestations, with a total of 10 egg clusters. These colonies were burlapped 
during the last season, and a few caterpillars w^ere found. This fall scout- 
ing has been begun, and nothing as yet has been found, although the 
infestation promises to be of a serious nature, and must be watched care- 
fully. The supervision during the past season has been of good quality, 
and general interest is taken by all town officials. 

Avon. — The town has not been whoUj^ scouted as yet, but so far a 
decrease in the number of infestations has been found. Considerable tin 
patching will be necessary in infested orchards, and next season spraying 
must be done in known colonies. The supervision of the work has been 
excellent, but town officials have not co-operated with this office, and the 
work has been hampered, owing to the necessary funds not being avail- 
able. 

Ayer. — The infestation of the gypsy moth is general and severe in 
some localities. The brown-tail moth infestation is very bad. The work 
has not been carried on in an efficient manner, and everji;hing has been 
done to hinder it by local officials. During the past season the necessary 
funds were not available for the work, and necessarily the town was not 
gone over thoroughly. The supervision has been poor; there is much 
need of better supervision, and the work should be done in a much more 
efficient manner. 

Barnstable. — The gypsy moth infestation is general. There was but 
1 serious colony discovered last season. A considerable amount of work 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



103 



was necessary to suppress this colony, and the results of this work should be 
permanently felt. The brown-tail moth infestation was most serious and 
expensive to the town the past season. The super\dsion has been of very 
high quality, and good general interest has been shown by the town officials 
and property owners where colonies have been located. 

Barre. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town was confined to 3 
egg clusters last season. All colonies were burlapped and carefully at- 
tended during the season, no caterpillars being found. The scouting this 
year will be carried on by the government forces. Supervision was very 
careful. 

Bedford. — The residential sections in this cown^ the orchards in the 
village and the street trees, are in excellent condition. The woodlands, 
as in most towns, have not been cared for in the main, and show some bad 
infestations. Considerable protective work here may be necessary for 
some years to come to give relief to the neighboring estates. The super- 
vision of the work is efficient, and the expenditure economical. In some 
parts of the town spraying will be necessary only for the elm-leaf beetle 
and therefore the town should make provision for this. The brown- tail 
moth infestation is general. 

Bellingham. — The infestation of this town by the gypsy moth occurs 
in but few places. However, 1 colony occurring on a large white oak 
shows 200 egg clusters. Very thorough work was done the past season, 
and at the present time where infestations were known very little is to be 
found. This town does not require State aid, and if the work is carried on 
in a proper manner, it will not need it for some years to come. 

Belmont. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town was very severe 
several years ago, but by continued effort the infestation to-day, especially 
in the residential section, is very light, although it is necessary to look 
over the private estates each year. The interest shown by the officials 
of this town has been exceptionally good. The work has been supervised 
also in a most excellent manner, and though there are a few orchards yet 
which need treatment, such as thinning, burlapping and removing of old 
trees, on the whole the town is in very good condition. 

Berkley. — Only 2 infestations of the gypsy moth were found up to this 
fall, and these were carefully burlapped and attended during the cater- 
pillar season, and no caterpillars found. In this fall scout 1 gypsy moth 
egg cluster has been found. Very careful work should be done, and every 
possible means taken against the gypsy moth infestation, owing to the 
fact that, as a greater part of the town is wooded area, if the gypsy moth 
is allowed to spread to any extent, the expense will be great in future 
years. The brown-tail moth infestation is general but light. 

Berlin. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is general and severe 
in some places. The work in the past season consisted of creosoting egg 
clusters in the winter and burlapping in the summer, with very good re- 
sults. The supervision of the work has been very good, but the infestation 
has increased to such an extent that more thorough work will be needed 



104 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



the coming season, and better methods must be adopted. There is con- 
siderable orchard and roadside work to be done, and roadside thinning 
where infestation exists. The brown-tail moth infestation is very bad. 

Beverly. — The gJT^sy moth infestation is general. In some parts of the 
town, especially on street trees, some severe infestations occur. The work 
in general has been carried on in a very fair manner, although it is evident 
that the super^'ision is not close enough. Much more thorough work 
should be done in the residential section on private property, so that the 
care of these estates will be much easier in the future. The outside terri- 
torj^ has been somewhat neglected in the past two years, and it may be 
necessary to expend a somewhat larger amount for the coming season. 
The woodland areas have been taken care of through the North Shore fund 
to some extent. General interest by property owners owning large estates 
has been shown 

Billerica. — The gypsy moth infestation is general in this town, though 
it is severe in some localities. Considerable improvement is shown in the 
residential section over last year. The work has been done in a very 
thorough and efficient manner, and the local officials have been ready to 
help as far as possible. Owing to the fact that considerable work has 
been turned over to the town which was previously taken care of by the 
government, the cost next year may be increased over last year. The 
brown-tail moth infestation is only about one-half as bad as last j^ear. 

Blackstone. — There were 2 infestations of the gypsj^ moth found in 
this town last year. These w^ere both cleaned. The town should be 
thorouglily scouted this winter, and it will probably be done by the town. 
There are a few brown-tail moth webs in the town. 

Bolton. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is general and severe 
in some places. The work during the past season consisted of creosoting 
egg clusters in the winter and burlapping in the summer season, with very 
good 'results. The supervision of the work has been very good, but the 
infestation has increased to such an extent that more thorough work will 
be needed the coming season, and better methods must be adopted. There 
is considerable orchard and roadside work to be done, and roadside thin- 
ning where infestation exists. The brown-tail moth infestation is bad. 

Boston. — The city of Boston is a great gj^psy moth problem in itself, 
covering, as it does, such a large area. With between 800 and 900 miles 
of streets, the expense of treating the gypsy and brown-tail moth in- 
festations is very large, and there has not been a j^ear yet in which sufficient 
funds have been available to cover the entire city in a proper manner. 
But it is hoped that this may be accomplished the coming season. The 
State has been very liberal in the past two years with its reimbursement 
to the city, and the city officials in charge of the work have shown an 
excellent spirit, and have done good work as far as their funds would per- 
mit; but in the past season there were several of the districts, especially 
Brighton, which were in serious condition, and caused considerable annoy- 
ance to the property owners. However, the city at this time is provided 
with better spraying apparatus, and we hope the number will be increased 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 105 



by another season. We have every reason to beheve that the entire city 
may be covered, both in treating the gypsy moth egg clusters, removing 
the brown-tail moth webs and spraying the trees. The cost of the work in 
Boston, to put the city in good condition, might well be $100,000 annually 
for the next two or three years. 

Bourne. — The gj^sy moth has occurred in this town in several places, 
and work has been done in a very thorough manner in all colonies. At 
one time the town received assistance from the State, but for the past 
two years it has not been necessary for it to have reimbursement. The 
town is now being scouted, and nothing serious has as yet been found, al- 
though several small colonies have been located. The work in the past has 
been done for less than half the town's liability, which is very creditable to 
those in charge. The brown-tail moth is prevalent. 

Boxborough. — The gypsy moth infestation is severe in this town. Con- 
siderable thinning is necessary along the roadsides, and also much spray- 
ing will be needed for the next season. The work has been managed in a 
fairly good manner, and considerable interest taken by property owners 
in this town. The town has also many orchards, all being more or less 
infested with the gypsy moth. The brown-tail moth infestation is bad. 

Boxford. — The town is generally infested by the gypsy moth. Nearly 
all highway trees have been kept in fair or good condition with the exception 
of the Lake Shore, Bradford and Groveland roads. Spraying, cleaning and 
bush scythe work have been done on all traveled roads. At the present 
writing the Lake Shore and Bradford roads are being cut out. As the 
government has taken up the care of nearly all the traveled wooded roads, 
the help from the State for next year can be greatly reduced. Private 
property with few exceptions is self-supporting. The brown-tail moth 
infestation is very light. 

Boylston. — The infestation in this town is conj&ned to twenty-seven 
estates, with a total of 270 egg clusters. While these infestations were 
found by local forces, it is very evident that the scouting was not as care- 
ful as might have been, as many caterpillars were found during the past 
season. Probably the inexperience of the local men accounted for the 
fact that so many egg clusters were skipped. While they tried to do good 
work, the results of turning the burlaps showed a large number of cater- 
pillars. 

Braintree. — The gypsy and brown-tail moth infestation of this town 
is general but not severe as yet in many places. The work for some years 
past has been handled in a very inefficient manner, and suggestions 
from this office have not been carried out, but during the past season the 
work has been undertaken by a man thoroughly acquainted with the 
problem, and the town has been cared for as far as funds would permit. 
It is hoped that in the coming season the superintendent in charge of the 
work may have the necessary funds to cover the town in a more thorough 
manner, as the infestation at this time is in such a condition that it can be 
watched very easily with a reasonable amount of money. 



106 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Brewster. — There are no gypsy moths here so far as known, but the 
brown- tail moth is prevalent. The work is being carried on in a very effi- 
cient manner. 

Bridgewater. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town, as far as scout- 
ing has been done this year, is found to be worse than the past season, the 
moths having been found scattered all over the town. Brown-tail moth 
conditions are also worse. For the coming year it will be necessary to 
do considerable tin patching in infested orchards. The work has not been 
carried on in a manner satisfactory to this office in the past. The private 
property charges returned were somewhat smaller than they should have 
been, owing to the fact that they were not made in a careful manner. 
The best interest is not shown by the local officials in the work, and there 
must be a closer co-operation with this office in the future. The charges 
to property owners should also be looked after much more carefully. 

Brockton. — The condition of this city in regard to g5T)sy moth infes- 
tation is very bad. The chief point to be insisted on, to insure the 
prosecuting of the work in a thorough manner, is the appropriation of 
sufficient funds by the city government. There is much work necessary. 
The supervision for the past season has been good, and if the necessary 
funds are available for next year's work excellent results can be obtained; 
but if not enough money is expended in the coming season's work, a consid- 
erable increase of the gypsy moth will be shown. This city is very badly 
in need of a large power sprayer to do the gypsy and brown-tail moth 
spraying. 

Brookfield. — As far as known, there is no gypsy moth infestation in 
this town. The brown-tail moth is generally scattered over the town. 

Brookline. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town for some years 
past has been one of a very serious nature. Until within two years ago 
the work was not managed properly, and was done in a very half-hearted 
manner. Since that time, especially for the past two years, excellent 
work has been done, the entire town being covered with the necessary 
methods, such as treating the gypsy moth egg clusters, removing brown- 
tail webs, carrying on spraying operations on a very large scale, etc. This 
town, being one of considerable wealth, has expended very large sums of 
money, and has not, as yet, applied to the State for financial aid. The 
interest taken in the work here by those in charge is very gratifying, as 
every possible means known to them are taken to suppress the pest, 
and at the present time the town may be considered to be in excellent 
condition, with the exception of the woodland, where the work will be 
undertaken with the same earnest efforts that have been directed against 
the pests in the residential section. 

Burlington. — The situation is serious here, owing to the fact that the 
town consists mostly of woodland, of which only a small part has been 
cleared. The woodland work has been almost entirely confined to road- 
sides and protective belts around orchards. Good work has been done 
here, but the severe infestations in the surrounding woods make reinfesta- 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



107 



tion almost certain. The supervision of the work has been good, much 
interest has been taken by the townspeople, and good results from the 
amount of money available have been obtained. 

Cambridge. — While the gypsy moth infestation of this city is general, 
it is not known to be severe in any part. Although Cambridge has suffered 
the loss of a great many street trees, it cannot be laid to the gypsy and 
brown-tail moths. Several years ago the infestation promised to be very 
serious, but through the continued efforts of the local officers it has been 
brought to a very good condition. The work is carried on in a very careful 
and thorough manner, and general interest is taken. 

Canton. — The gypsy moth infestation is quite general in this town, 
but a slight improvement is shown over last year. There are many 
orchards which need caring for and several woodland colonies which should 
be cleaned, that is, those bordering on the residential section. The 
supervision of the work has been very good, and considerable interest is 
shown by town officials and private property owners where colonies occur. 
The town needs a power spraying equipment. 

Carlisle. — The gypsy moth occurs in all parts of this town, and as it 
is almost entirely comprised of woodland, the problem is very serious and 
very difficult to handle. The work has been confined mostly to wooded 
roadsides and residential sections. Good results have been accomplished 
as far as possible under the existing conditions, and the supervision has 
been of good quality. 

There has been some work done also in what is known as "Carlisle 
Pines," under the direction of the town, and it is the intention of this 
office to continue doing a small part of the work there each year, to try 
to preserve these beautiful pines if possible. The brown-tail moth infes- 
tation is general. 

Carver. — The gypsy moth is generally scattered throughout the town, 
but is not a serious problem as yet. Considerable work will be necessary 
for the coming year in the orchards. Bad colonies in this town have been 
cared for, and have not grown to any large proportions. The super- 
vision has been of an excellent quality, and good interest shown by the 
town officials. The brown-tail moth infestation is very light. 

Charlton. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is confined to 1 
colony, which promises to be quite serious, between 400 and 500 egg 
clusters being found. All the necessary work was done in a very careful 
manner the past season, and during the burlap season many caterpillars 
were found. It will be necessary to watch these colonies very closely the 
coming season to prevent the town from becoming generally infested. 
Work was supervised in a very careful manner, and generaj interest is 
taken in the work. The town will be cared for this year by the govern- 
ment scouts. 

Chatham. — There is no gypsy moth infestation here as yet. The 
brown-tail moth is very scarce. All necessary work being carried on in 
a very practical way. 



108 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Chelmsford. — The gypsy moth infestation is severe all over this town. 
The residential sections being very small and the greater part of the town 
wooded area, it is very hard to make a gain against the gypsy moth. 
Very efficient work has been done as far as possible, and local officials 
have co-operated well with this office. The greater part of the private 
property in the residential sections is self-supporting. The government 
has assisted very materially in this town, but there are a great many 
streets now bordering on wooded areas which the town has not been 
obliged to spray in the past that will have to be cared for and sprayed by 
the town the coming season. The brown-tail moth infestation is con- 
siderably less this season. 

Chelsea. — The gypsy moth infestation of this city is very light. The 
city being entirely residential, the moth situation is very easily handled. 
Good interest is taken in the work, and it is also supervised in a very 
excellent manner. 

Clinton. — The gypsy moth infestation is general, and severe in some 
localities. The moth work has been taken up the past season in a very 
thorough manner, and considerable improvement made in the condition 
of the town; good interest has been shown by all. The brown-tail moth 
infestation is general. 

Cohasset. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is one of a serious 
nature, both in the residential and wooded areas, for although the resi- 
dential work has been carried on for the past four or five years in a very 
good manner, it is greatly handicapped by the surrounding woodlands, 
where serious infestations occur at the present time. In the orchards of 
the town there is considerable tin patching necessary, and removing of 
dead trees; in the wooded section last season, where this work was done 
with fairly good results, there was a special fund provided. In the coming 
season it is expected that a very much larger sum wiH be forthcoming, 
and such woodland work will be done as is necessary to protect the resi- 
dential section, especially along Jerusalem Road, and the wooded road- 
sides in the Turkey Hill district. Excellent co-operation has been given 
by the local officials and by those in charge of the South Shore fund. 
The spirit in general shown by the people has been good, and they are 
deeply interested in the work and willing to co-operate in every possible 
manner. 

Concord. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town has been very 
serious, and is, at the present time, in the wooded areas. The residential 
section now is in good condition, and the work has been managed in a 
most efficient manner. The interest shown by the local officials has been 
great, and it is hoped that the large woodland property owTiers may be 
willing to co-operate in the work in the coming season. Every possible 
means which might be adopted to suppress the moths have been used along 
economic lines. The people of the town have taken interest in the work. 

Danvers. — The gypsy moth conditions are somewhat better than last 



1912.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73, 109 



year. The residential section in general shows an improved condition. 
There still remains considerable tin patching to be done on private prop- 
erty. Wooded areas are very severely infested. The supervision has 
been efficient, and good results have been obtained. The spirit shown by 
the local officials is good. 

Dedham. — The condition of this town in regard to the gypsy moth 
infestation is very bad, owing to the fact that not a sufficient amount of 
work has been done in the past. The supervision has been very poor, and 
but little interest has been shown by the local officials in charge until 
recently, when a change was made in the officials, and we believe these new 
officers will prove to be much more efficient. Considerable spraying will 
be necessary for the coming season, and the town should purchase a large 
power outfit, and have the work done in a more thorough manner than in 
the past. This town can easily be seK- supporting if the work is managed 
properly, but if conditions are allowed to continue as they have been in 
the past season, serious infestations will occur in the coming year which 
will necessarily be very expensive to handle. 

Dennis. — No gypsy moth occurred in this town so far as known. The 
brown-tail moth is quite plentiful. Work has been done very carefully 
and thoroughly. Good interest is shown by the town officials. 

Dighton. — The fall scout has not yet been made in this town. The 
brown-tail moths are generally scattered throughout the town, and more 
inteiest must be taken by the town officials both in the brown-tail and 
gypsy moth work than has been previously. They must acquaint them- 
selves with the best methods, and follow instructions more closely, as 
more thorough work must be done. 

Douglas. — This town was found to be infested two years ago, but the 
infestation consisted of 1 female pupa case. No signs of the gypsy moth 
have been found since. 

Dover. — This town has shown a great improvement in the past year. 
There were many woodland colonies which received treatment, and much 
improvement was thus made. There were very few burlaps and little 
tanglefoot used, and spraying was done in all places possible. The private 
property is only about half self-supporting, but it is our opinion that all 
work is charged for as far as possible. This town should have help from 
the State for the coming year. All woodland colonies will be cleaned 
where owners will bear the expense, and where they will not, a protective 
belt will be established. There is also a great deal of tin patching neces- 
sary. The town has a Church power sprayer. 

Dracut. — The gypsy moth is found scattered over this town, but the 
infestation is very severe in some sections. The residential sections and 
street trees show the results of good care. The supervision has been of 
a very excellent quality, and good feeling is shown by the town officials. 
The work can probably be handled the coming season for less money than 
in the past. The brown- tail moth infestation is considerably less this year. 



110 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



Dudley. — This town was discovered to be infested two years ago by 
the government scouts, only 3 pupa cases being found. Nothing has 
been found here since. 

Dunstable. — The infestation of this town by the gypsy moth is gen- 
eral, and it is becoming quite severe in some places. The work has been 
managed in a very efficient manner the past year, and good results ob- 
tained, especially in the residential section. There are some woodland 
infestations which will need attention the coming season, the worst of 
them being in the part of the town near East Groton, and along the Nashua 
& Tyngsborough railroad line. The town officials have been ready to 
co-operate with this office, but more spraying apparatus should be avail- 
able in this town for the coming season. 

Duxhury. — The gypsy moth infestation is scattered over the entire 
town, although no very serious colonies as yet are known. This fall's 
scout in the residential section has shown no noticeable increase, and the 
greater part of the infestation can be handled by creosoting alone; there 
are a very large number of estates on a self-supporting basis. Several 
woodland colonies are being handled by the town where practically creo- 
soting alone will care for them in a very satisfactory manner. Super- 
vision of the work has been very good and general interest taken by the 
townspeople. 

East Bridgewater. — The infestation in this town is found to be more 
scattered than last year, but by doing away with burlap and sprajdng all 
places possible, the cost of the work for the coming year will not be in- 
creased. The work on private property will be covered by about one- 
half the cost of the work. There will be some tin patching necessarj^ for 
the coming year, but by changing methods from burlapping to sprajdng, 
this town should be able to do the necessary work this next j^ear without 
any allotment from the State. The town used burlap on all infestations 
the past year. They have a hand-spraying outfit. 

Eastham. — No gypsy moth infestation as yet has been found here. 
The brown-tail moth is quite plentiful. Work is being done in a very 
efficient manner. 

Easton. — The scouting of this town has been nearly finished and a 
large increase in number of infestations found that will require a great 
amount of zinc patching. This town has in the past used burlap on all 
of the infestations, but we have recommended the use of spray in next 
' season's work, and in order to do necessary spraying they should have a 
large power sprayer. They have a hand outfit here at present. The 
liability of the town is sufficient to do necessary work. 

Essex. — The gypsy moth occurs generally in this town, but the resi- 
dential section, only a small part of the town, is in somewhat better con- 
dition than last year. Considerable more tin patching and removing of 
dead trees in orchards is still to be done. The wooded areas are not severely 
infested, and some of them have been cared for from the North Shore 
fund. The supervision has been good, and local officials have shown an 
excellent interest. 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



Ill 



Everett. — The gypsy moth infestation in this city is general, but only 
in a few localities can it be considered of a serious nature. It is very 
easily handled with a small number of men, as the entire city is residential, 
and there are no wooded areas to give trouble. Conditions therefore are 
excellent, and no damage need occur if work is continued along the same 
lines and with the good supervision of the past. The brown-tail moth 
occurs generally. 

Fairhaven. — The fall scouting is being conducted at the present time 
through the town for the gypsy moth, three new infestations having been 
found at the present time. The brown-tail moth infestation is general, and 
quite heavy in the village, so much so in some sections that stripping will 
occur if webs are not removed. However, we are assured that this will be 
done all over the town, and feel fairly sure that work will be conducted in 
a thorough manner, so as to prevent further spread. 

Falmouth. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town this year prom- 
ises to be somewhat lighter than in the past season. There are a few 
brown-tail webs noticeable. In the vicinity of old colonies, two small new 
colonies have been located by the State inspector. The general interest 
in the work here has not been good, and possibly those in charge of the 
work do not realize the danger of not providing for work on a larger scale. 
It would be very helpful in handling the moth situation, as well as the elm- 
leaf beetle, if the town could be provided with a power sprayer. 

Fitchburg. — The city is generally infested with the gypsy moth, al- 
though the infestation was not very severe in the past. The work this 
year so far has shown conditions to be much worse than heretofore. The 
work in the past season was very poorly managed, but at the present time 
it is under new management, and it is hoped that much better results 
may be obtained the coming season. 

Foxborough. — The gypsy moth occurs in but few localities in this 
town, and the results of last year's work have been found to be very good, 
although the town has not been fully scouted at this time. The supervision 
has been of good quahty, and considerable interest taken in the work as a 
whole. 

Framingham. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is quite se- 
vere, although in the residential sections it has been held in check very 
well. The woodland is continually getting worse, and considerable 
more spraying will be necessary for the coming season. The super- 
vision has been of a very good quality, but owing to the use of the 
burlap methods not as large a gain has been made against the moth as if 
more spraying had been done. It would be a very good policy for the 
town to buy a large power sprayer for the coming season. The interest 
taken in the work in general has been very good, and co-operation of the 
officials has been excellent. The full liability of this town should be made 
available at an early date, so that the necessary work can be carried on 
without hindrance from lack of funds. The brown-tail moth infestation 
of this town is very severe, owing to the fact that the whole area was not 
covered in brown-tail moth work last year. 



112 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



Franklin. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is scattering. 
The town is being scouted at the present time, and more infestations are 
being found than last year. The interest shown in the work by the local 
officials has not been of the best. For the coming season more interest 
must be taken in the work, and closer co-operation with this office will be 
necessary. More thorough work should be done in the way of tin patch- 
ing and removing the dead trees in orchards where infestations occur. 

Gardner. — Although the scouting done a year ago only discovered 124 
egg clusters, this fall's scout has shown about 900 egg clusters, generally 
scattered all over the town. It is very evident that this town is being re- 
infested by the natural spread, for we believe that the work has been done 
very carefully and conscientiously by the local forces. In fact, the general 
interest in the work in the town is excellent. 

Georgetown. — The town is generally infested. The highways are gen- 
erally in good condition where thinning operations have been carried on. 
Nelson Street, which has been cut out this fall, was quite badly infested. 
Cleaning, spraying and bush scythe work have been done where needed. 
The work done by the government has greatly reduced expenses, and the 
town should get along next year with less help from the State. Private 
property, with a few exceptions, should pay for itself. The brown-tail 
moth infestation is light. 

Gloucester. — The infestation is scattering, but very severe in some 
parts, especially in the wooded areas, although considerable of the wood- 
land in the West Gloucester district was cared for from the North Shore 
fund. The residential section and street trees are in very good condition. 
Work has been managed well and carried along on economic lines. Officials 
in general have shown a wiUingness to co-operate with the State in the 
work. 

Grafton. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town last season was con- . 
fined to a few colonies, but so far this year's scout has developed about 
twice as many infestations, although the town is only haK finished at the 
present time. General conditions in regard to gypsy moth infestation 
promise to be quite severe, and thorough work must be done in the coming 
season. While the supervision of the work was of a good quahty, it is very 
evident that much more care must be taken to prevent a general scattering 
mfestation throughout the town. 

Great Barrington. — As the gypsy moth was discovered in Lenox and 
Stockbridge this faU, it was thought necessary by the United States De- 
partment of Agriculture that a thorough scouting be given the toTvus 
surrounding the infested ones, and during this scouting this town was 
found to be infested in one locahty. The infestation promises to be quite 
serious, and hard to clean up in a proper manner. It is located in the 
section where many old buildings and old trees occur, and very thorough 
and conscientious work will be necessary to stamp out this colony. The 
local officials have taken an extremely good interest in the work, and we 
beheve that everything will be done that can be done to wipe out the 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



113 



pest. They have also arranged with this office to have experienced men do 
the work at the town's expense. 

Greenfield. — The infestation which was found here in 1907 and 1908 
apparently has been stamped out. The brown-tail moth occurs in this 
tow^n. 

Groton. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town promises to be very 
serious the coming season unless a large amount of work is done. In 
the past, the co-operation and interest on the part of the town officials 
have been lacking, therefore the gj^sy moth has increased in numbers to 
a very large extent. The town should be thoroughlj^ gone over this 
winter in the way of cleaning, treating the gypsy moth egg clusters, and 
removing brown-tail webs, both on street trees and private property, and 
then this work should be followed up by spraying with arsenate of lead in 
the early summer. It is hoped that the officials in charge of the moth 
work, and those in charge of funds, will appreciate the importance of the 
problem now, and see that such funds as may be necessary are forthcoming 
for the year 1912. If the town will do its part, the State will gladly co- 
operate in this work. A power sprayer should be available for next season's 
work. 

Groveland. — The town is generally infested. All highway trees were 
cleaned and sprayed, and are generally in good condition. Badly infested 
willows on Washington Street and Uptack Road near the pond have 
been thinned out, and bush scythe work done where needed. Roadside 
cutting will be needed next year on Seven Star and Bear Hill roads. 
Private property, with fev/ exceptions, will pay for itself. A small amount 
of help from the State will be sufficient, about the same as in 1911. The 
brown-tail moth infestation is light. 

Halifax. — The infestation by the gypsy moth is general throughout 
the town, although the residential section is only scatteringly infested, 
there being nothing serious. In these sections but very little work will be 
necessary this year. The woodlands, however, are generally infested, 
and much hard work will be necessary to prevent a bad outbreak the 
coming season. There is much pine w^oodland in this section, and the 
scouting of the woodland seems to be necessary while the infestations 
continue to be of a slight nature. 

Hamilton. — The infestation of the gypsy moth at the present time is 
mostly in the woodland, the residential section being in a very fair condi- 
tion, although there is considerable tin patching and removing of dead 
trees in some of the orchards to be done. The work has been supervised in 
a very good manner, and generally good results obtained. The co-opera- 
tion of local officials has been good. 

Hanover. — The infestation is quite general throughout the town, al- 
though conditions are considerably better this year than in the past. This 
is due mostly to the careful creosoting and work in the orchards, par- 
ticularly in the creosoting of old dead trees. There remain, however, 
many more orchards to be cared for. The w^ork has been very carefully 



114 



THE STATE FORESTEE. 



[Jan. 



managed and done in a thorough manner. There are some small known 
infestations in the woods which have been cared for in the past. The 
careful work must be continued in order to bring a greater part of the 
residential property to a self-supporting basis. Very good interest is 
shown by the local officials. 

Hanson. — The gypsy moth infestation in the residential section is 
about the same as last year. No bad colonies as yet exist. The town 
contains many orchards, which necessitate a large amount of orchard 
work, such as tin patching and removing of dead trees. The street trees 
are in very good condition. The supervision of the work has been very 
good, and a general interest has been shown. The woodland infestations 
are being cared for at a very small expense, and no increase shown over 
last year as far as the scout has been carried this fall. In the worst col- 
onies which we had in the woods last year the moths have been greatly 
reduced in number. 

Harvard. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is general, and 
severe in some places. The work in the past season consisted of creosoting 
egg clusters in the winter and burlapping in the summer, with very fair 
results. Supervision was of a good quality, but the infestation has in- 
creased to such an extent that more thorough work will be needed the 
coming season, and better methods must be adopted. There is considerable 
orchard and roadside work to be done, and roadside thinning where in- 
festations exist. The brown-tail moth infestation is bad. 

Harwich. — ■ This town is not yet infested with the gj^sy moth, and 
has but few brown-tail moths. All necessary work is being done. 

Haverhill. — The gypsy moth infestation of this city is general, and 
quite severe in some locaUties. The work has been handicapped to some 
extent, owing to the fact that sufficient funds have not been available to 
do such work as should have been done. There are a number of places 
in the outlying districts of the city that were not cared for this past year 
where thinning and spraying should be done next j^ear. This office has 
tried to impress upon the local officials the necessity of the city ha^dng a 
power sprayer, but has not as yet succeeded. Considerable contract 
spraying has been done in the city, but with the amount of money that 
this work has cost a good power outfit might be owned by the city at the 
present time, and the same amount of spraying done. The conditions on 
private property are a httle better than last year, although the gain 
against the moths was not what it should have been. More funds should 
be available, and more thorough work done on private estates throughout 
the city. The brown-tail moth situation generally throughout the city 
is somewhat better than last year. 

Hingham. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is very severe, 
especially in the woodlands, and the residential section is not in as good 
condition as it should be for the length of time the w^ork has been carried 
on. Considerable tin patching and cementing has been done in the past, 
and the same work must be done in the future, but owing to inefficiency 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



115 



on the part of the local men the town was allowed to become quite seriously- 
infested throughout the residential section. At the present time the work 
is being carried on in a very efficient manner, and it is hoped that in the 
coming season better results will be accomplished, and that conditions 
may be much better from a gypsy-moth standpoint next year. 

Holbrook. — While the infestation of this town is quite general, although 
very light, not much gain has been made against the moth, if any, and 
conditions are somewhat worse than the past year. The supervision has 
not been done in a thorough manner, and there is no co-operation w^ith this 
office. For the coining season there should be better supervision of the 
work; if not, the gypsy moth infestation promises to be very severe. 

Holden. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town was confined to ten 
estates last year, with a total of about 5 egg clusters, but this year's scout 
has shown about sixty places infested with about 400 egg clusters. The 
town, we believe, is being infested by the natural spread from other places, 
as the work was supervised in a thorough manner, and good interest shown 
in the work by the townspeople. 

Holliston. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is quite general, 
and has been found this year to be somewhat worse than last year. Con- 
siderable patching and removing of dead trees will be necessary in the 
orchards where the colonies exist, and the use of arsenate of lead in spray- 
ing instead of burlap for the next season we feel will prove to be more 
effective. The supervision has been very fair and considerable interest 
has been taken in the work. 

Hopedale. — The gypsy moth occurred in but few places in this town, 
and the work has been supervised in a very excellent manner. Everything 
has been done that was necessary to combat the gypsy moth in the best 
manner. 

Hopkinton. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is not severe all 
over the town, but is quite serious in some localities. There was no work 
done the past year, owing to the fact that no appropriations were made 
in the town, and naturally the conditions are somewhat worse than last 
year. The interest shown by the people in general has not been good, 
although if the appropriations had been available we feel that good results 
could have been obtained. The local superintendent was very willing to 
co-operate with this office, and funds should be made available at an early 
date, the full liability being necessary to continue the work against the 
moths for the coming season. 

Hubbardston. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town was confined 
to 1 egg cluster the past season, and the locality was burlapped and care- 
fully attended, and no caterpillars were found. The work will be done this 
year by the government scouts. 

Hudson. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is much less than 
last season. Much tinning work of a good permanent nature has been done 
in the orchards, but there is much more still to be done. Work has been 
managed in a very efficient and thorough manner, and good interest 



116 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



shown by the local officials. The brown-tail moth infestation is severe in 
some localities, though not really bad. 

Hull. — The infestation of the gypsy moth in this town is general, but 
not severe. The work has been carried along in a very careful manner, 
and very good interest shown. Hardly any woodland occurs in this town, 
and it is a very easy matter to handle the gyp^Y moth problem. 

Hyde Park. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town was very severe 
last season. The work has been considerably handicapped by the fact 
that the proper amount of funds has not been available for the work. 
Many of the local officials have attempted to interest themselves in the 
work, but as they were inexperienced, and did not have a thorough knowl- 
edge of methods of work, not much improvement hasbeenmade. The appro- 
priations which were asked for in town meeting were cut so much that the 
proper amount of work could not be done. During the past season con- 
siderable work was done in the residential section, which is becoming very 
badly infested, and so far this year very good results have been obtained, 
but the infestation is one of a very serious nature, and must be taken up 
along more careful and efficient lines. Next season this town will be 
a part of the city of Boston, and the work will not be handicapped 
further by the mismanagement of those who are ignorant of the first prin- 
ciples of efficient moth suppression. 

Ipswich. — The town is generally infested. Cleaning and spraying 
have put all the traveled roads in excellent condition. Considerable bush 
scythe work and cutting have been done this fall, which, taken with the 
work done by the government, should greatly reduce the amount of 
help needed from the State the coming year. The brown-tail moth in- 
festation is fight, though in some sections the oaks and pear trees seem 
to be well covered with nests. 

Kingston. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is very general. 
The residential section is in vepy good condition. The greater part of the 
orchards have been cared for, and put in a condition where moth work 
can be efficiently done and a greater part of the expense charged to the 
property owners. The woodland colonies in this town have been cared 
for in the past season, and exceUent results obtained. The summer before 
last considerable spraying was done in the woodland, with such good 
results that in the past season only creosoting was necessary. It is be- 
lieved that these woodland colonies can also be handled this season by 
creosoting alone. The interest taken by individuals in the town is very 
good, and has been helpful to this office. 

Lakeville. — The gypsy moth was discovered in this town in 1905. 
There was no further evidence of its presence until this fafi, when a colony 
consisting of 8 egg clusters on apple trees, was found at King Philip's 
Tavern. This was found by one of the representatives of this office. The 
town force has not yet begun the fall scout, but there is every reason to 
believe that another infestation will be found. The officials in charge of 
the work should qualify themselves to do efficient work, and take advice 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



117 



from those who are trained. The brown-tail moths are very numer- 
ous in orchards, and we feel that it is due to lack of interest and 
efficiency, as a great many places were not covered thoroughly last spring, 
and as a result the infestation is much more severe this fall. More interest 
must be taken, and better work done by the local officials. 

Lancaster. — The gypsy moth infestation is general, and severe in some 
localities. The moth work has been taken up the past season in a very 
thorough manner, and considerable improvement made in the condition 
of the town; good interest has been shown by all. The brown-tail moth 
infestation is general. 

Lawrence. — The gypsy moth infestation of this city is very general, 
and severe in some localities. The work for the past season has been 
efficient and done in a creditable manner, much more work being done 
the past year than any year since this city became infested with the gypsy 
moth. A very thorough campaign was made on private property through- 
out the city, with excellent results. With the exception of some locaUties, 
where corporations were allowed to do their own work, the city is in 
much better condition than the past season. The brown-tail moth in- 
festation is also considerably less than in the past season. More funds 
should be available for the coming year. Private property work should 
be done to a greater extent still, and then in the future nearly all of the 
private property in the city will be on a seK-supporting basis. 

Leicester. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town in 1908 was 
sHght, only a few caterpillars being found; nothing was seen from that 
time until this fall's scout, when 10 egg clusters were found on one estate. 
The town is being watched very carefully, and a good attempt is being 
made to prevent a general scattering infestation. 

Lenox. — The gypsy moth was found in this town the past season 
some time in the early part of August, and immediately a representative 
was sent from this office to determine the extent of the infestation. Later 
the town provided sufficient funds, experienced men from this department 
were employed, and the town was scouted, with the result that about 300 
gypsy moth egg clusters were found, nearly all located in one section; also, 
several single nest infestations have been located in other sections of the 
town. Good interest has been shown by property owners and town 
officials, and it is believed that everything will be done to stamp out the 
gypsy moth if possible. 

Leominster. — The gypsy moth infestation is general, and severe in 
some locahties. The moth work has been taken up the past season in a 
very thorough manner, and considerable improvement made in the con- 
dition of the town, good interest being shown by all. The brown-tail moth 
infestation is general. 

Lexington. — The condition of this town in regard to the gypsy moth 
infestation -is considerably improved over past years in the residential 
section. The woodland infestation is still of a very serious and trouble- 
some nature, as its tendencies are to reinfest some properties where good 



118 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



thorough work has been done. The work in general has been carried on 
in a very careful and efficient manner, and much interest has been taken 
by public-spirited men in the town, as they have realized the importance 
and necessity of handling the work in an economical manner. A large 
amount of credit is due the officials in charge of the work for the stand 
which they have taken relative to the elm-leaf beetle work. The town 
has made liberal appropriation for the care of the same, in that way re- 
lieving the gypsy moth work to some extent. Considerable interest has 
been taken also by owners of large estates, who have paid the full cost of 
the work on their property. With one or two exceptions the town has the 
co-operation of the property owners. The brown-tail moth infestation is 
general. 

Lincoln. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is very serious, 
especially in the wooded areas. The residential section is in a verj^ good 
condition but this comprises but a small part of the town. There are several 
woodland owners in the town who are showing excellent co-operative 
spirit, and have spent large sums of money on their property. The super- 
vision of the work is of an excellent quality, and good results were obtained 
here in the past season. 

Littleton. — The gypsy moth infestation is severe in this town. Con- 
siderable thinning is necessary along the roadsides, and spraying will be 
necessary the next season. The work has been managed in a fairly good 
manner, and considerable interest taken by property owners in the town. 
This town has also many orchards, all being more or less infested with 
the gypsy moth. The brown-tail moth infestation is bad. 

Lowell. — The gypsy moth infestation is general and severe throughout 
the city. There has not been any work done in this city since the middle 
of May, 1911, as the city government did not make provision for the sup- 
pression of the moths. This matter was taken up with His Excellency the 
Governor, but he did not wish to take any action in the matter in regard 
to carrying out that section of the law which allows this office to take up 
the work in a town or city when it refuses to make provision for the work. 
When the winter work was in operation, the supervision was not thorough, 
and the work was of a very poor quality. It will be necessary in the com- 
ing season to have a considerably larger sum of money appropriated by 
the city, and the work should be supervised by some one with a thorough 
knowledge of the work in general. If the work is not taken up at the proper 
time the coming season,_ the gypsy moth infestation of this city promises 
to be as bad as any in the metropolitan district. The brown-tail moth 
infestation is somewhat less than last year. 

Lunenburg. — The gypsy moth is generally scattered throughout the 
town, and the infestation is becoming very serious in some locahties. The 
work was very well supervised in the past season, although conditions 
promise to be worse for the coming season. This town is so located as to 
be subject to natural spread from severe infestations south of it, and 



1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



119 



drastic measures must be taken in order to bring about good conditions 
in the residential section. 

Lynn. — The gypsy moth infestation of this city is very general, and 
though not very serious in the residential section, it is extremely so in the 
wooded areas, especially in that part known as the Lynn Woods Reserva- 
tion. This city has been greatly handicapped in the past season by not 
appropriating a sufficient amount of money to carry on the necessary 
work in the residential section alone, and especially the last season. As 
the cleaning operations were carried on throughout the city, both on 
street trees and on estates in the residential sections, no money was avail- 
able to do spraying to any extent, thus much worse conditions exist this 
year than should be expected. The Lynn Woods problem is one of a very 
serious nature, and it has been very difficult for this office to obtain the 
necessary co-operation from the city in order to make any start or gain 
against the moth in this section. Considerable work has been done, but 
not what might be termed of a permanent nature. 

Lynn field. — In this town the same conditions prevail that we find in 
many small country towns. Small residential sections are surrounded 
by wooded areas, which reinfest the orchards, roadsides and gardens 
after they are thoroughly cleared once. In spite of all efforts this reinfes- 
tation will occur until the woodland has been thoroughly cleaned. The 
supervision in the town has been good, and the town officials have willingly 
co-operated with this office. The brown-tail moth infestation is general. 

Maiden. — A few years ago the infestation of this city by the gypsy 
moth was very serious, but at the present time it occurs only in a very 
general way throughout the residential section. Some of the wooded 
areas, principally those bordering on the Medford line, near the Maiden 
hospital, and those near the poor farm, are quite seriously infested still, 
although the work in general has been handled very well, and the moths 
have been kept from increasing in the residential section. More work might 
have been done if more spraying apparatus had been available, and it 
would be in the city's interest to purchase one or two power sprayers the 
coming season for both gypsy and brown-tail moth work. This would also 
assist them materially in their elm-leaf beetle work. It is very gratifying 
to note that for several years the city has not received reimbursement 
from the State, the situation being handled entirely from the city funds. 
The brown-tail moth infestation is general. 

Manchester. — The infestation is general and very severe in some 
parts. Some of the wooded areas are being taken care of from the North 
Shore fund, and the residential section, street trees and private property 
are in much better condition than last year. Supervision has been very 
good, and an excellent spirit in general has been shown in the work. 

Mansfield. — The gypsy moth infestation of this town is quite general, 
much worse than last year. The work has been managed in a very poor 
manner, and the proper interest has not been taken in suppressing the 



120 



THE STATE FORESTER. 



[Jan. 



moths. The use of burlap has been the prmcipal method used against the 
caterpillars after the -uinter work was done, and the necessary patching 
of holes and removing of dead trees have not been done. This work should 
be done the coming season. The town, should pro^-ide itself with a power 
sprayer, and adopt the use of arsenate of lead in spra^^ng instead of using 
burlap, and should see that the supervision is of a much better quahty 
for the coming season. 

Marblehead. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town throughout 
the residential section is ver}^ hght, but in some of the woodlands there are 
some quite severe colonies. The work has been handled in a most excellent 
manner, and good results have been obtained. The interest sho\NTi by the 
people and pubhc officials in general has been very good, and if the work 
is carried on in the same careful manner as in the past, the gj^ps}^ moth 
infestation will not be of noticeable character in the future. 

Marion. — The g}T)sy moth infestation appearing in this town two 
years ago has been apparently stamped out; at the present time only one 
colony is now known. Work has been done efficient!}" and in a thorough 
manner. 

Marlborough. — The infestation of this town is general and severe in 
some locahties, especially in the wooded areas. Work has been carried 
on exceptionally well for the past season, but the gj^sy moth infestation 
was fast becoming a serious problem, owing to the fact that the work had 
not been done in a thorough manner the previous season. There has 
been in general good interest shown in the work, and the residential section 
is fast getting into good condition. The brown-tail moth infestation is 
general. 

Marshfield. — The gj^psy moth infestation of this town is general 
throughout the residential section, although not as yet severe. Con- 
siderable increase has been sho^-n over last year, but the total of egg 
clusters treated this year has not exceeded 3,000. A greater part of the 
residential section can be handled by creosoting alone for the coming 
season. The town, however, should be complimented on the conditions 
of the orchards, as they are probabh^ in better condition here than in 
an}^ town in this section. About 75 per cent, of the residential property 
of this tovra is on a self-supporting basis. There are many large wood- 
land colonies which are being cared for by the owners. Considerable 
interest has been shown by woodland owners co-operating in a financial 
way. The supervision of the work has been excellent, and very good in- 
terest is being showTi by all local officers. 

Mashyee. — The infestation of this town by the gypsy moth is becoming 
quite general. Fourteen new colonies have been located in the woodlands 
this year, two of them serious. The old colonies, where work was done 
last season, with one exception, showed considerable improvement. The 
town as a whole is apparently in worse condition than a yqbi ago, but this 
may be due to the fact that much more thorough scouting was done this 
year; also, the local force is gaining experience each season. Officials are 



Back forest where no work was done. Trees 
stripped of their leaves in July, as though 
it were winter. 




1912.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 73. 



121 



somewhat handicapped in bringing about results owing to the fact that 
nearly the whole town is woodland. All the work done against the gypsy 
moth is hampered in this way, although the property owners, where 
gypsy moth colonies have been located, have been very hberal in their 
expenditure of money in making the fight against the moths, and town 
officials have shown excellent interest. 

Mattapoisett. — The gypsy moth having been found in this town for 
the first time only a year ago, the infestation as far as apparent is very 
light. During the caterpillar season only 2 caterpillars were found, al- 
though burlaps were applied near the original infestation. During the 
fall scout 2 small gypsy moth infestations have also been located. The 
brown-tail moth infestation is much more serious, and considerable damage 
will be done if the vv^ork is not prosecuted in a very thorough manner 
this winter. Considerable work has been done by the Village Improve- 
ment Society on the shade-tree pests in general, as it has contributed 
towards paying for the ehn-leaf beetle work, and this work has been 
beneficial to some extent against the brown-tail moth also. Although the 
gypsy taoth infestation of this town is very light, the officials in charge of 
the work should interest themselves to the fullest extent, and take every 
possible means to keep it in check, as, if the infestation is allowed to in- 
crease, the future cost will be very large, and considerable damage done. 

Maynard. — The gypsy moth infestation in this town is less than last 
season. Much tinning has been done in the orchards, but there is much 
more